Searching for the Evidence:
Susan Fowler, MLIS
• Free resource developed and maintained by the
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI),
at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), located
at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
• 20 million citations for biomedical literature from
MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books.
– 5,400 worldwide journals in 60 languages
• Covers 1947 to the present with some older material.
Be sure to access PubMed from becker.wustl.edu to take advantage of
library links to full text.
Create a My NCBI Account
Create a My NCBI Account, cont…
MeSH = Medical Subject Headings
Pull Down Menu
MeSH in PubMed
Enter your search terms one at a time…
Choose the most
You have not searched the literature yet. Searching MeSH is akin to
searching a thesaurus for the best term.
Send to Search Box
Once you click “Search PubMed” you will have searched that term in all the
citations in the Medline database.
Click “Search PubMed”
Once you have searched each term separately, go to advanced search to
Advanced Search, cont…
For the most clinically applicable articles, limit to “Humans,” “English,” and
“Type of Article”
Type of Article Suggestions
Tier 1 Tier 2
• Clinical Trial
• Meta‐Analysis • Clinical Trial, Phase I
• Practice Guideline • Clinical Trial, Phase II
• Clinical Trial, Phase III
• Randomized Controlled • Clinical Trial, Phase IV
Trial • Comparative Study
• Controlled Clinical Trial
• Review • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
• Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
• Guideline • Research Support, Non‐U.S. Gov't
• Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non‐P.H.S.
• Multicenter Study • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Accessing Full‐Text Articles
Avoid clicking on publisher icons unless they explicitly state that they are free or
unless you are willing to pay $ 35.00 ‐65.00 dollars per article.
Accessing Full‐Text Articles, cont…
It is likely that your institution’s library has facilitated link‐out in PubMed to link you
directly to articles from journals to which they subscribe to.
It is also likely that your institution’s library has an Inter‐Library Loan service that will
“borrow” the article you want from another library for you for a small charge (certainly
less then $35.00!) or for free.
Contact your librarian and find out what services are available and how to use them.
Send To From “Send to” drop
down menu, choose
You can email your results to yourself and your colleagues.
PubMed advantages PubMed disadvantages
– Free to search – Still have to appraise articles
– Searches same content as once located
Ovid MedLine – Adjacency searching is not
More PubMed Tutorials
PubMed has tutorials available from their site…
If 20 minutes have passed and you still have not found what you
are looking for, stop and ask for help.
• 660 S. Euclid • St. Louis Children’s Hospital
314‐362‐7085 Lauren Yaeger, 314‐454‐2768
Susan Fowler, 314‐362‐8092 email@example.com
• BJ North, Rothschild
Reka Kozak, 314‐454‐7208