H1 N1 Powerpoint


Published on

An overview of the virus and how sports officials can protect themselves.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • [Presenters: This slide set was developed by the International Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Content is current as of the dates on individual slides. To update the global numbers of cases, deaths, countries affected and to access the latest maps, consult the following weblinks. Slides : Cases, countries, deaths: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html Daily situation updates: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/updates/en/index.html
  • Influenza A viruses are further subtyped by two proteins on the viral surface, called hemagglutinin (or HA) and neuraminidase (or NA). Hemagglutinin allows the virus to attach to host cells, while neuraminidase allows the virus to escape infected cells, and then go on to infect more cells. There are 16 known hemagglutinin and 9 known neuraminidase subtypes for Influenza A. Each hemagglutinin subtype is named using an “H” plus a number, such as type H1, H2, and so on. In the same way, each neruaminidase subtype is named with an “N” plus a number, such as type N1, N2, and so on. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible.
  • This figure illustrates the range of species that Influenza A sub-types can infect. The species that specific HA subtypes can infect are listed on the left, and the species that specific N1 subtypes can infect are listed on the right. Note that wild migratory waterfowl can be infected with all subtypes. Within the H5 and H7 subtypes, certain strains can be severe.
  • Add human-human arrow and emphasize humans.
  • For the most current numbers visit the CDC H1N1flu website. Numbers are updated every at 11:00 AM EDT.
  • Source: Wools D. Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. Associated Press. April 27, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5g-G1kSAM9yaH00eBrXD2S5s-3ZhgD97QSUMO1 . Accessed April 27, 2009. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Swine influenza (H1N1). April 27, 2009. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/health_content/Articles/article_20090427.aspx . Accessed April 27, 2009. WHO raises pandemic alert level; more swine flu cases feared. CNN. April 27, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/04/27/swine.flu/index.html . Accessed April 27, 2009. Officials unleash drug arsenal as flu toll rises. Agence France Press. April 27, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gGSyeznluvlTTO6A31IITVNX52FA . Accessed April 27, 2009. Italy finds first suspected swine flu case. crienglish.com April 27, 2009. http://english.cri.cn/6966/2009/04/27/168s479315.htm . Accessed April 27, 2009.
  • Overview of WHO’s Pandemic Alert Levels Phase 3 of the pandemic alert period is when there are human infections with a new sub-type, but there is no human-to-human spread (or at least very rare instances of spread to a close contact). At this point, the new virus subtype must be characterized rapidly to ensure early detection, notification and response of additional cases. Phase 4 may occur when there are small clusters (e.g., <25 human cases lasting <2 weeks) with limited human-to-human transmission, but spread is highly localized (which suggests the virus does not adapt well to humans). During this phase, WHO describes a variety of measures (such as targeted use of antiviral medications) aimed at containing the virus within a limited area or to delay spread to buy time to implement preparedness measures, such as vaccine development. Phase 5 may occur when there are large clusters (e.g., 25-50 cases lasting 2 to 4 weeks), but human-to-human spread is still localized. The virus may not yet be fully transmissible. At this point, it is imperative to continue efforts to contain or delay spread of the virus, to both avert a pandemic and to implement pandemic response measures. Phase 6 is when transmission to the general population has increased and is sustained, meaning there is a pandemic. All efforts to minimize the impacts of the pandemic are necessary at this time.
  • The World Health Organization has raised the pandemic flu level to 6 on June 11, 2009. The 1918 pandemic flu event was the most severe to date (>50 million deaths worldwide). Milder pandemics occurred in 1957 (about 70,000 deaths in the U.S.) and 1968 (about 34,000 deaths in the U.S.)
  • In the United States each year, illness from influenza has a major impact on the people’s health and the nation’s economy.
  • Parents & Caregivers, Child Care Providers, K-12 Schools, Colleges & Universities, Travelers & Travel Industry, Community mitigation guidelines Use of antiviral medications, masks
  • We do have medical tools in our arsenal to combat flu.
  • For updates to this guidance, go to: http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm
  • Influenza primarily infects the respiratory tract (nose, throat, and lungs). The disease can cause severe illness and lead to life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia, in many people. ***Diarrhea and vomiting not common symptom of seasonal flu*** ---added runny nose since it is in case definition
  • It is thought that the main way influenza viruses are spread from person to person is through transmission of respiratory droplets during coughing and sneezing. Close contact (about 6 feet or less) usually is necessary for this type of spread. Influenza viruses also can spread by touching respiratory droplets on yourself, others, or an object, then touching mucus membranes, such as the mouth, nose, or eyes, without washing contaminated hands.
  • It is very important for anyone with symptoms to avoid contact with others, but seek medical care if any of the symptoms listed in this slide are present. Go to this website for updates: http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidance_homecare.htm
  • H1 N1 Powerpoint

    1. 1. Update on Novel H1N1 Influenza September 2009
    2. 2. Take-home messages <ul><li>Simple measures can reduce the impact of flu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash your hands, cover your cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to avoid close contact with sick people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are sick, stay home, and avoid close contact with others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds, social distancing </li></ul><ul><li>Inform yourself, and be prepared: www.cdc.gov/H1N1flu </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Background on influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Global situation </li></ul><ul><li>US Government response </li></ul><ul><li>What you can do </li></ul>
    4. 4. Influenza Virus <ul><li>Three types: A, B, C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A, B seasonal flu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A epidemic flu, severe disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface proteins determine subtype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H (hemagglutinin) H1 – H16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N (neuraminidase) N1 – N9 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influenza A viruses infect multiple species depending on subtype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds (wild birds, domestic poultry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other mammals: horses, dogs, seals, whales, ferrets, tigers </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Species Infected by Influenza A H and N Subtypes H15,16 H14 H13 H12 H11 H10 H3 H2 H1 H9 H8 H7 H6 H5 H4 N9 N8 N7 N6 N5 N3 N4 N2 N1
    6. 6. Influenza Transmission Across Species: Reassortment in Pigs Human-to-Human Transmission Avian Virus Human Virus Swine Virus Swine/Avian/ Human Reassorted Virus
    7. 7. Emergence of Novel H1N1 Influenza <ul><li>March – April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Human infections with a novel H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin reported in California and Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients had no contact with pigs, indicating human-to-human transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H1N1 virus closely related to isolates from ongoing Mexico epidemic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe illness and deaths reported in Mexico </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Novel H1N1 Flu: Current Global Situation <ul><li>On June 11, 2009, WHO raised pandemic alert level to Phase 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus causing outbreaks in multiple countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As of August 23 , WHO reports close to 209,483 confirmed cases with at least 2,185 deaths. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Novel H1N1 Flu: United States <ul><li>As of August 27, 2009, CDC reported 8,843 hospitalized cases in all 52 states and territories, including District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. To date, there have been 556 deaths.* </li></ul><ul><li>Virus is novel “quadruple reassortant” with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swine influenza virus of North American lineage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North American avian influenza virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One segment of human influenza virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swine influenza virus normally found in Asia and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Novel virus not previously detected in swine or humans </li></ul><ul><li>Virus isolates from Mexico closely related to US influenza isolates </li></ul><ul><li>*Source: CDC </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/update.htm </li></ul>
    10. 10. Novel H1N1 Flu: Current Epidemiologic Situation <ul><li>Median age of US confirmed cases: 15 years (range: 1 months – 86 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62% cases under 18 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike seasonal influenza, which typically affects the very young and very old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most US cases have no history of travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation period estimated 1-7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-to-human transmission of H1N1 occurring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No contact with pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of human transmission beyond 2 generations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Severity so far similar to seasonal flu </li></ul>Source: WHO, CDC & ProMED
    11. 11. 2009 Influenza Pandemic <ul><li>WHO Director-General Margaret Chan declared the pandemic on June 11, 2009. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza pandemics, whether moderate or severe, are remarkable events because of the almost universal susceptibility of the world’s population to infection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The virus is spreading under a close and careful watch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO continues to recommend no restrictions on travel and no border closures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are all in this together, and we will all get through this, together. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Seasonal Influenza Illness in the United States <ul><li>During a regular flu season in the United States, we anticipate: </li></ul><ul><li>>200,000 hospitalizations / year </li></ul><ul><li>36,000 deaths / year </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial economic impact ~$37.5 billion </li></ul>
    13. 13. US Government Response to H1N1 Flu <ul><li>Public health emergency declared in the United States (April 26) </li></ul><ul><li>CDC’s response goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce transmission and illness severity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide information to help health care providers, public health officials, and the public address challenges posed by new virus infection </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. US Government Response to H1N1 Flu <ul><li>Released Strategic National Stockpile of medications and materials to 50 states and territories </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify surveillance and investigation of influenza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate virus, describe illness severity, monitor geographic spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordinate and inform across states, USG, WHO </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and regularly update guidelines for the public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents & Caregivers, Child Care Providers, K-12 Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinicians, Laboratory Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assisting countries with surveillance and investigation </li></ul>
    15. 15. Antiviral Treatment for Novel H1N1 Influenza Amantadine Rimantadine Zanamivir Oseltamivir Target M2 M2 Virus/cell entry Virus/cell entry H1N1 Virus susceptible? Resistant Resistant Susceptible Susceptible
    16. 16. Current CDC Recommendations on Antiviral Treatment <ul><li>Oseltamivir treatment recommended for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All hospitalized patients with suspected, probable, or confirmed novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outpatients with high-risk conditions (young children, pregnant women, persons with chronic conditions - chronic lung disease, diabetes, etc.) with suspected, probable, or confirmed novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. What can you do? <ul><li>Educate yourself and your families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the symptoms of influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to avoid spreading influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cough hygiene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handwashing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social distancing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If you are sick, stay home from work </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared </li></ul>
    18. 18. What are the symptoms of H1N1 influenza? <ul><li>Similar to seasonal human flu: </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Runny or stuffy nose** </li></ul><ul><li>Body aches </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea and vomiting </li></ul>
    19. 19. How Influenza Viruses Spread <ul><li>Primarily through respiratory droplets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching respiratory droplets on self, another person, or an object, then touching mucus membranes (e.g., mouth, nose, eyes) without washing hands </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. What can you do to protect yourself and others? <ul><li>Wash your hands with soap & water </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to touch surfaces that may be contaminated with the flu virus </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching your nose, eyes, and mouth </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re coughing, cover your mouth with a tissue, dispose after use </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid close contact with sick people </li></ul><ul><li>Defer unnecessary travel to affected areas </li></ul>
    21. 21. What should you do if you get sick? <ul><li>If you are sick with flu, stay home until you have been free of fever for 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid contact with other people as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs to seek medical care: </li></ul><ul><li>In children: </li></ul><ul><li>Fast breathing or trouble breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Bluish skin color </li></ul><ul><li>Not drinking enough fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Not waking up or not interacting </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable, the child does not want to be held </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms improve but then return </li></ul><ul><li>with fever and worse cough </li></ul><ul><li>Fever with a rash </li></ul><ul><li>In adults: </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Severe or persistent vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms improve but then return </li></ul><ul><li>with fever and worse cough ** </li></ul>
    22. 22. Can you get novel H1N1 Influenza (formerly referred to as swine flu) by eating pork? <ul><li>No. The novel H1N1 Influenza (formerly referred to as swine flu) is not spread by food. You cannot get H1N1 influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Be prepared – have a family emergency plan. <ul><li>Store a 1-week supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>Store at least a 1-week supply of non-perishable food for each family member and pet </li></ul><ul><li>Include medications and health supplies (both prescription and non-prescription) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain an emergency contact list </li></ul><ul><li>Plan now for school and workplace closings </li></ul>
    24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Illness and death from the H1N1 influenza pandemic will continue to occur around the world—be prepared </li></ul><ul><li>We can act individually and collectively to limit and control the transmission of H1N1 influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Follow public health recommendations for preventing the spread of influenza </li></ul><ul><li>CDC, WHO and public health officials worldwide are closely monitoring the situation </li></ul>
    25. 25. Resources <ul><li>http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pandemicflu.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html </li></ul>