Knowledge is what people use to make decisions, such as whether to approve a grant application, or which action to take next.
Knowledge may reside in people’s heads (expertise), information systems (data) or documents (information).
Knowledge can be created (innovation), moved (shared) and destroyed.
Knowledge can be managed directly and indirectly
Knowledge Management is, simply, the management of knowledge as a valuable resource in its own right.
The management can be direct, e.g. by embedding knowledge tools and techniques (such as training courses and post project reviews) into working procedures, or it can be indirect, e.g. by fostering an environment where the required knowledge activities (creation or sharing) are encouraged.
Most tasks involve a combination of expertise , information and data How to handle unusual situations Regulations and policies that apply The procedure to follow Customer’s details Amount of the benefit Closing date Expertise Information Data
The human element grows as knowledge becomes more complex We are more likely to see IT systems managing low-level knowledge, e.g. information about our customers, such as the books they have borrowed from the library, and more likely to see humans managing high-level knowledge, e.g. the needs of an individual child. Expertise Information Data Increasing human element
Knowledge solutions often use a mix of IT systems and human processes Expertise Information Data Human processes IT systems Where to draw this line?
A simple framework is used to show where knowledge can be held Explicit Tacit Individual Community Many people One/few people Many objects One/few objects
These examples show that knowledge is held in different places for a reason Explicit Tacit Individual Community How to ride a bike New chess move Safety Checks Manual Recipe for digestive biscuits
Knowledge originates in the brain of one person; this is “discovery” or “invention”
Familiar tools move knowledge to where it is needed, often in multiple steps Explicit Tacit Individual Community Publish Read Teach Write Research Many people Many objects One/few objects
Knowledge Management builds on Information Management
Information is one element of knowledge and Information Management is one of the tools within Knowledge Management.
Information Management is limited to Information Systems (IT and physical) but Knowledge Management also includes knowledge in people’s heads.
Information Management is necessary but it is not enough by itself.
There are several reasons for adopting Knowledge Management
The knowledge tools used currently are not always the most appropriate ones:
Information Overload (inefficient)
“Why didn’t I know that?” (ineffective)
Missing or inaccurate knowledge leads to poor decision-making.
Opportunities to innovate are missed.
A parable helps to make the point (this is using a KM tool to promote KM)
“ A farmer went out to sow. As he sowed, some seeds fell by the roadside, and the birds came and devoured them. Others fell on rocky ground, where they didn't have much soil, and immediately they sprang up, because they had no depth of earth. When the sun had risen, they were scorched. Because they had no root, they withered away. Others fell among thorns. The thorns grew up and choked them. Others fell on good soil, and yielded fruit: some one hundred times as much, some sixty, and some thirty.”
Knowledge Management projects have delivered real benefits
The Local Government e-Organisation is a framework for eGovernment Understanding the e-Organisation To help your council understand the whole picture, analyse your current position and build future strategies, we have developed a model of the ‘building blocks’ that comprise a successful e-enabled organisation. These blocks can be organised into six themes – people, enablers, trust & connections, core systems, access channels and interactions. These blocks cover not only the key technologies necessary, but also the ways in which you and your citizens or customers interact and the issues to consider if you are to lead and manage the changes your council will have to make to exploit e-government to the full. http://www.localegov.gov.uk/
Knowledge Management is one of the e-Organisation enablers Enablers Enablers refers to the computer systems, or ‘middle-ware’, used to support access channel policy and provide the link to core business and information systems. For example, systems for dealing with the customer and improving the knowledge management and workflow of corporate information can support better intelligence-led decision making on services and policies.
The Knowledge Management National Project has 7 distinct workstreams
Workstream one being the KM Road Map , which create a road map for the guidance of all other organisations and partnerships embarking on the knowledge management activity.
Workstream two being the Information asset register and single information database , which is the development of a toolkit which will support local authorities to create their own information asset register and single information database including an appropriate GIS.
Workstream three being a Comprehensive Performance Analysis (CPA) Improvement planning activity that will create a process to use data and information sources in order to assist local authorities and partnerships to raise their standards of performance and register a high level of achievement within the various assessment and audit processes including CPA.
Workstream four being a Customer Facing programme that will raise the service standards and develop effective links between data and information stores within our organisations and partnerships as well as access by the community in facilitated service environments.
Workstream five being a Tacit Knowledge exploitation activity, which will develop tools to exploit otherwise undeclared knowledge held by staff and groups of staff within organisations.
Workstream six being a proof of concept activity focusing on strengthening communities in rural areas , which will develop a toolkit to assist organisations to share and analyse information, so that they have the knowledge to support and strengthen rural communities.
Workstream seven being a programme to link community engagement with Policy development through the creation of processes for linking citizens to policy development at a very early stage in this development within stand alone authorities, multi agency partnerships and community based working environments.
The KM National Project website is http://www.knowledgemanagement.org.uk
Lambeth has adopted a pragmatic approach to Knowledge Management
Raising awareness of Knowledge Management (e.g. through this presentation).
Piloting Knowledge Management tools and techniques on specific projects.
Integrating Knowledge Management into other transformation processes, e.g. BPR and CM.
Working with other Local Authorities through the Knowledge Management National Project.
Producing toolkits that address specific business needs.
The toolkits guide practitioners to the appropriate tools for a given situation There are several hundred Knowledge Management tools and techniques available. A series of simple models reduces this list to just a few tools that are appropriate for a specific situation.
We use a framework derived from the degree of service and process change Degree of process change Degree of service change Process Improvement (efficiency) Business As Usual Innovation Service Improvement (effectiveness)
The four quadrants in the framework have distinct business characteristics
Innovation , where the objective is to deliver a step-change in services and the way that they are delivered.
Business As Usual , where the objective is to deliver a consistent service while other factors, such as staffing, are changing.
Process Improvement , where the objective is to deliver the same service more efficiently.
Service Improvement , where the objective is to deliver improved services without changing the way that the services are delivered.
KM toolkits are being developed to address these different business needs Degree of process change Degree of service change Knowledge Sharing Consulting with Customers Information Management Communication & Collaboration Skills Location Process Improvement (efficiency) Business As Usual Innovation Service Improvement (effectiveness)
For example, these are some of the tools in the Knowledge Sharing toolkit