Introducing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)


Published on

Introducing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introducing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  1. 1. Sustainable Urban Development Piter Biswas
  2. 2. A PROCESS for decision-making, not a formula for preparing a document. What is the purpose of EIA? Here are a few answers—for example: 1. “To encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation.” 2. “To implement a strategy of sustainable development, prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects, and promote coordinated development of the economy, society, and environment.” 3. “To allow government officials, business leaders, and all concerned citizens to understand the likely environmental consequences of proposed actions, and to cooperate in making wise decisions that restore and maintain the quality of our shared environment for future generations.” 4. “To LOOK before you LEAP!”
  3. 3. The effects of actions that are not accounted for in the normal market transactions need to be considered explicitly in the decision-making processes on projects. These effects are to be identified, assessed, and evaluated against the economic advantages arising out of the given action. In this context, the EIA studies are considered to be the first step in this process because they give an opportunity to man to consider the effects of his actions on the environment. Introduction The Goal of EIA is to harmonise developmental activities with the environmental concerns.
  4. 4. The EIA process allows for the communication of potential environmental problems to: (a) the project proponent (b) the regulatory agencies (c) all stakeholders and interest groups To foresee the potential environmental problems that would arise out of a proposed development and address them in the planning and design stage of the Project. Objectives of EIA
  5. 5. 1- What will happen as a result of the project? 2- What will be the extent of the changes? 3- Do the changes matter? 4- What can be done about them? 5- How can decision makers be informed of what needs to be done? The EIA becomes a cyclic process of asking and further asking the first four questions until decision makers can be offered workable solutions.
  6. 6. Evolution & History of EIA Development of EIA Pre-1970 Limited consideration given to environmental consequences Early/ Mid 1970’s EIA introduced by NEPA in 1970 in US Standard methodologies for impact analysis developed During 1973-1974 Canada, Australia and New Zealand too adopted EIA Australia legislated whereas Canada and New Zealand followed administrative procedures Late 1970 & Early 1980’s Other Industrial and Developing countries introduced formal EIA requirements France in 1976, Philippines in 1977, Netherlands in 1978 introduced EIA Use of EA by developing countries( Brazil, China & Indonesia) Coordination of EA with land use planning process Mid 1980’s to end of decade European council directive on EIA establishes procedural requirements must for all its member states Spread of EIA in Asia World Bank and other leading aid agencies establishes EIA requirements 1990’s Increase use of GIS and other information technologies India adopted EIA formally Formulation EA legislation by many developing countries
  7. 7. 1. Human health and safety 2. Flora, fauna, ecosystems and biodiversity 3. Soil, water, air, climate and landscape 4. Use of land, natural resources and raw materials 5. Protected areas and sites of special significance 6. Heritage, recreation and amenity assets 7. Livelihood, lifestyle and well being of affected communities Environment refers to the surroundings in which a project is planned, implemented and operates The Term environment includes Environmental Attributes Land & Soil Archeological Assets Religious & Cultural Properties Forests or other Eco-sensitive Areas Water Bodies Hydrology & Drainage Air Quality
  8. 8. 1. EIA must be undertaken EARLY in the development of proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be completed BEFORE a decision to proceed is made. 2. EIA must be an OBJECTIVE, IMPARTIAL analytical process, not a way of promoting or “selling” a proposal to decision-makers—it must use accepted scientific principles and methods. 3. EIA must analyze all REASONABLY FORESEEABLE environmental impacts or effects of a proposed action— effects may be short-term, long-term, direct, or indirect. 4. The process of EIA must be OPEN – to government officials at all levels, to potential stakeholders (those with direct interests in the proposed action), and to the PUBLIC. 5. There must be an early, public SCOPING stage in EIA to consider ALTERNATIVES and to help focus subsequent analysis on the MORE SIGNIFICANT potential impacts – rather than studying all possible environmental effects—the GOAL is to reach a decision. 6. Government officials responsible for implementing EIA must ENCOURAGE (not just tolerate) PUBLIC PARTICIPATION in the process from the scoping stage forward. 7. In all EIA processes, effective MITIGATION MEASURES must be identified and included—to avoid, minimize, or reduce the adverse effects of all potentially significant impacts. 8. EIA reports must include an ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) or Action Plan to MONITOR the implementation phase of the project, plan, or program and provide for CORRECTIVE actions—such action plans must have assured FUNDING and be legally enforceable.
  9. 9. 1. Start with a COOPERATIVE attitude: your goal is to HELP the persons responsible to use the EIA process to benefit BOTH environment and development. 2. LEARN as much as possible about the proposal before forming your opinions; IDENTIFY the responsible persons and agencies; ASK them for all available information so that you are well-informed. 3. IDENTIFY yourself and your organization; tell officials that you want to participate in the EIA process as soon as it begins—also tell them WHY you want to participate and HOW you can contribute to making the process USEFUL for them. 4. Be polite, but also be persistent—the new EIA law gives you both the RIGHT and the RESPONSIBILITY to be a participant. 5. Do not claim to be an expert on complex issues if you are not—try to CONSULT OTHERS who have special knowledge and skills. 6. Whenever you raise an environmental PROBLEM, offer a possible SOLUTION —an alternative strategy, or location, or design, etc. 7. Provide officials with specific COMMENTS and RECOMMENDATIONS from your NGO in writing, as EARLY in the decision process as possible. 8. STAY INVOLVED in the process, even if your position and your recommendations are not initially accepted. Continue to make your concerns known to all in a RESPECTFUL but PERSUASIVE manner.
  10. 10. Environmental clearance from the Central Government is required for 32 categories of developmental projects broadly categorized under the following industrial sectors EIA Scenario in India 1. Mining 2. Thermal power plants 3. River valley 4. Infrastructure (road, highway, ports, harbours and airports) 5. Industries including very small electroplating or foundry units Certain activities permissible under the Coastal Regulation Zone Act, 1991 also require similar clearance. Donor agencies operating in India like the World Bank and the ADB have a different set of requirements for giving environmental clearance to projects that are funded by them.
  11. 11. Physical components:  Land  Air  Water  Energy Bio-Cultural components: Nature Culture People Access
  12. 12. List of projects requiring environmental clearance 1. Nuclear power and related projects such as heavy water plants, nuclear fuel complex, rare earths. 2. River valley projects including hydro power, major irrigation and their combination including flood control (even if investment is less than 100 cr but command area is more than 10,000 ha). 3. Ports, harbours and airports (except minor ports and harbours). 4. Petroleum refineries including crude and product pipelines. 5. Chemical fertilizers (nitrogenous and phosphatic other than single super phosphate). 6. Pesticides (technical) and intermediates. 7. Petrochemical complexes (both Olefinic and Aromatic) and petro-chemical intermediates such as DMT, Caprolactam, LAB, etc., and production of basic plastics such as LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PVC. 8. Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals and intermediates. 9. Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage. 10. Synthetic rubber. 11. Asbestos and asbestos products. 12. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives. 13. (a) Primary metallurgical industries (such as production of Iron and Steel, Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys), (b) Electric arc furnaces (Mini steel plants). 14. Chloral alkali industry. 15. Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of paints. 16. Viscose staple fibred and filament yarn.
  13. 13. 17. Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of Lead and Lead Antimony alloys. 18. All tourism projects between 200 m and 500 m of high water line and at locations with an elevation of more than 1000 m with investment of more than Rs. 5 cr. 19. Thermal power plants. 20. Mining projects (major minerals) with leases more than 5 ha. 21. Highway projects (except projects relating to improvement work including widening and strengthening of roads with marginal land acquisition along the existing alignments provided it does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as national parks, sanctuaries, tiger reserves and reserve forests). 23. Distilleries. 24. Raw skins and hides 25. Pulp, paper and newsprint. 26. Dyes and intermediates. 27. Cement. 28. Foundries (individual). 29. Electroplating. 30. Meta amino phenol (added in 2000). 31. New townships, industrial townships, settlement colonies, commercial complexes, hotel complexes, hospitals, office complexes for 1000 persons and above or discharging sewage of 50,000 l/day and above or with an investment of Rs. 50 cr and above (added in 2004). 32. New industrial estates having an area of 50 ha and above and the industrial estates irrespective of area if their pollution potential is high (added in 2004).2. Tarred roads in the Himalayas and or forest areas. Continued..
  14. 14. 1. Screening 2. Scoping and consideration of alternatives 3. Baseline data collection 4. Impact prediction 5. Assessment of alternatives, delineation of mitigation measures and environmental impact statement 6. Public hearing 7. Environment Management Plan 8. Decision making 9. Monitoring the clearance conditions EIA Process in India
  15. 15. Schedule III of EIA Notification, 1994 Composition of the expert committees for EIA 1. The committee will consist of experts in the following fields: i. Eco-system management ii. Air/water pollution control iii. Water resource management iv. Flora/fauna conservation and management v. Land use planning vi. Social sciences/rehabilitation vii. Project appraisal viii. Ecology ix. Environmental health x. Subject area specialist xi. Representatives of NGOs/persons concerned with environmental issues 2. The chairman will be an outstanding and experienced ecologist or environmentalist or technical professional with wide managerial experience in relevant development sector. 3. The representative of IA will act as a member secretary. 4. Chairman and members will serve in their individual capacities except those specifically nominated as representative. 5. The membership of the committee shall not exceed.
  16. 16. EIA Process
  17. 17. References Suggested Reading Centre for Science and Environment, 2006, Introduction to Environment Impact Assessment, Industry & Environment Unit report, New Delhi, India Jay, S, Jones, C, Slinn, P & Wood, C, 2007, ‘Environmental impact assessment :retrospect and prospect’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 27, pp 287-300 Murthy, A & Patra, HS, 2005, Environment impact assessment process in India and the drawbacks, Environment conservation team report, Bhubaneshwar, India Sinha,S,1998, ‘Environmental impact assessment: an effective management tool’, TERI Information Monitor on Environmental Science, vol 3, pp 1-7 George, C,1999, ‘Testing for sustainable development through environmental assessment’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 19, pp 175-200 Lawrence,DP, 2007, ‘Impact significance determination—Back to basics, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 27, pp 755-769 McCaig, K,2005, ‘Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 25, pp 737-746 Paliwal,R,2006, ‘EIA practice in India and its evaluation using precaution and efficiency?’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 26, pp 359-376 Snell, T & Cowell, R,2006, ‘Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing SWOT analysis’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol 26, pp 492-510
  18. 18. Thank You…