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Ecology

Ecology

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  • It is form of energy a renewable source. HP comes from flowing of water. water when flowing by the force of gravity can be used to turn turbines and generators that produce electricity.
  • The hydrological cycle is the movement of water in the environment by Evaporation, condensation and precipitation..
  • As we all know that Energy can neither be created nor can be destroyed, only can be transformed from one form to another.

Transcript

  • 1. Submitted by: Piter Biswas SPA Bhopal 1
  • 2.  Renewable • Hydro Power • Wind Energy • Oceanic Energy • Solar Power • Geothermal • Biomass  Sustainable • Hydrogen & Fuel Cells • Nuclear • Fossil Fuel Innovation • Exotic Technologies • Integration  Distributed Generation 2
  • 3. Hydroelectric Power is an environmentally friendly way to generate electricity.
  • 4. 4http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_how.html
  • 5. 5
  • 6.  Head • Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy. • The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the fore bay and the tail bay) is called head  Dams: three categories • high-head (800 or more feet) • medium-head (100 to 800 feet) • low-head (less than 100 feet)  Power is proportional to the product of head x flow 6
  • 7. 7Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003
  • 8. A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Water is allowed to flow through tunnels into the dam to turn turbines and thus drive generators. Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top, because the pressure of the water increases with depth.
  • 9. 9 Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy Electricity
  • 10. 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. Hydro-electric power is renewable.The Sun provides the water by evaporation from the sea,and will keep on doing so The Sun evaporates water from the sea and lakes, which forms clouds and falls as rain in the mountains, keeping the dam supplied with water.
  • 13.  Loss of forests, wildlife habitat, species  Degradation of upstream catchment areas due to inundation of reservoir area  Rotting vegetation also emits greenhouse gases  Loss of aquatic biodiversity, fisheries, other downstream services  Cumulative impacts on water quality, natural flooding  Disrupt transfer of energy, sediment, nutrients  Sedimentation reduces reservoir life, erodes turbines • Creation of new wetland habitat • Fishing and recreational opportunities provided by new reservoirs 13
  • 14.  Land use – inundation and displacement of people  Impacts on natural hydrology • Increase evaporative losses • Altering river flows and natural flooding cycles • Sedimentation/silting  Impacts on biodiversity • Aquatic ecology, fish, plants, mammals  Water chemistry changes • Mercury, nitrates, oxygen • Bacterial and viral infections  Tropics  Seismic Risks  Structural dam failure risks 14
  • 15. 15 Positive Negative Emissions-free, with virtually no CO2, NOX, SOX, hydrocarbons, or particulates. Frequently involves impoundment of large amounts of water with loss of habitat due to land inundation Renewable resource with high conversion efficiency to electricity (80+%) Variable output – dependent on rainfall and snowfall Dispatchable with storage capacity Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology, including fish migration and oxygen depletion Usable for base load, peaking and pumped storage applications Social impacts of displacing indigenous people Scalable from 10 KW to 20,000 MW Health impacts in developing countries Low operating and maintenance costs High initial capital costs Long lifetimes Long lead time in construction of large projects
  • 16. Positive Negative Once the dam is built,the energy is virtually free Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand The dams are very expensive to build, however many dams are also used for flood control or irrigation,so building costs can be shared No waste or pollution produced much more reliable than wind,solar or wave power Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there Electricity can be generated constantly Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable. Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly unlike other power stations Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life.
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company, http://www.wvic.com/hydro-facts.htm
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 22“Itaipu,” Wikipedia.org
  • 22. 23http://www.infodestinations.com/venezuela/espanol/puerto_ordaz/index.shtml