Envirnmental and Sustainable Development


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Envirnmental and Sustainable Development

  1. 1. Piteq Bissas piteqbissas1
  2. 2. Ancient Philosophy – Respect for Environment In ‘Rig Veda’, it is stated: Sky is like a father Earth is like a mother Space is as their children It reflects that environment is to be valued like parents and loved like children 2
  3. 3. Environmental Challenges • • • • • • • • • India’s economic development propelled by rapid industrial growth and urbanization is causing severe environmental problems that have local, regional and global significance. Deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution and land degradation continue to be areas of major concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India’s metropolises are straining the limits of municipal services and causing serious environmental problems. Assuming continued economic liberalization and increased urbanization, the damage to environment and health could be enormous if precautionary measures are not taken. The challenge, therefore, is to maintain the quality of air, water and land and protect the environment by reconciling environmental, social and economic imperatives. To address these environmental challenges in coordination with the state governments, the central government has identified and targeted 17 highly polluting industries. The chemical and engineering industries are at the top of the government’s list, since they are the major contributors to air, water, and waste pollution. These industries include integrated iron and steel plants, non ferrous metallurgical units, pharmaceutical and petrochemical complexes, fertilizers and pesticide plants, thermal power plants, textiles, pulp and paper, tanneries and chloralkali units. Government of India has established an environmental legal and institutional system to meet these challenges within the overall framework of India’s development agenda and international principles and norms.
  4. 4. Environmental Legislations Stockholm Conference on Human Environment in 1972 Ever since the ‘Stockholm Conference’ in June,1972, there has been a great proliferation of legislations and regulations in India for protection and improvement of environment in response to the challenge of Sustainable Development. In India, protection of Environment and Sustainable use of natural resources received due attention after Stockholm Conference in 1972. The Rio Earth Summit, 1992 • From 3-14 June 1992, Rio de Janeiro hosted the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). • The focus of this conference was the state of the global environment and the relationship between economics, science and the environment in a political context. • The conference concluded with the Earth Summit, at which leaders of 105 nations gathered to demonstrate their commitment to sustainable development. Why Environmental Legislations ? • Threat to sustainable economic development due to stretching use of natural resources beyond their replenishing capacity . • Environmental law play a very crucial preventive as well as remedial role. • Organisation demonstrate sound environmental performance on account of growing stringent compulsion.
  5. 5. Environmental Legislations Various Legislations and Regulations in India, dealing with protection of environment • • • • • Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act,1977 Forest Conservation Act, 1980 Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986          Hazardous Wastes (Management, Handling & Transboundary Movement) Rules 2008 Manufacture, Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules,2000 Battery (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 Bio-medical Wastes, Municipal Wastes, 1998 Noise (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000 Ozone Depleting Substance Rules, 2000 Notification on Fly-ash, 2009 E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011 Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011
  6. 6. National Environment Policy-2006 • National Environment Policy is a response to our commitment to ‘Clean Environment’ , mandate in constitution of India in Article 48A and 51A (g), under Article 21. • NEP recognized that maintenance of Environment is not only the responsibility of State alone, it is the responsibility of every citizen. Objective of National Environment Policy • Conservation of critical environmental resources • Integration of environmental concerns in economic and social development • Efficiency in resource use • Enhancement of resources for environmental conservation
  7. 7. National Action Plan on Climate Change • NAPCC document released on 30th June, 2008, relates to sustainable development, co-benefits to society at large, focus on adaptation, mitigation, and scientific research. • Identified 8 National Missions to achieve Sustainable Development − − − − − − − − National National National National National National National National Solar Missions Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency Mission on Sustainable Habitats Water Mission Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem Mission for a Green India Mission for Sustainable Agriculture Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change
  8. 8. Charter on CREP Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP) • Government and Industry have united and come to an understanding through CREP in March, 2003 • Action points formulated under CREP for 17 categories of polluting industries • A step beyond compliance with the regulatory norms • Target is set in the Charter are ahead of existing standards Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP) Target is set for the following:  Rebuilding of Coke Oven Batteries         Solid Waste Utilization Inventorisation and Management of Hazardous Wastes Water Consumption Introduction of CDI/CTI facilities Installation of Secondary emission control system in SMS Adoption of Cleaner Technology Implementation of recommendation of LCA Keeping records for efficient running of pollution control equipment and reporting
  9. 9. Environment Policy of SAIL We, the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), manufacture various products of iron and steel. The company owns and operates five integrated steel plants at Bhilai, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Burnpur and three special steels plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravati along with captive mines for iron ore, limestone, dolomite and coal and has a Ferro-alloys Plant at Chandrapur. We also have an extensive marketing network spread across the length and breadth of the country. SAIL reaffirms its commitment to contributing towards a clean and sustainable environment and continually enhancing its environmental performance as an integral part of its business philosophy and values. Towards this commitment, we shall : • • • • • • • • Integrate sound environmental management practices in all our activities. Conduct our operations in an environmentally responsible manner to comply with applicable legal and other requirements related to its environmental aspects and strive to go beyond. Progressively adopt cleaner and energy efficient technologies. Minimise waste generation and promote recovery, recycle and reuse. Increase greenery in and around our plants and mines. Strive for continual improvement in our environmental performance by setting challenging targets, measuring progress, taking corrective action and communicating environmental information to all concerned. Enhance environmental awareness amongst employees working for and on behalf of us and the general populace around the plants and mines. Encourage our business associates to adopt similar approach for environmental protection.
  10. 10. Initiatives taken at SAIL r • r The environment policy of SAIL, adopted in the year 1996, governs the environment management of all operations at its facilities. It ensures environmental sustainability at its plants and mines by setting challenging targets, committing to judicious use of resources and making its processes cleaner and energy efficient through : Phasing out of old technologies and production process, contributed significantly to the improvement in the environment and pollution scenario in SAIL Steel works like : − Pollution load could be drastically brought down with the gradual replacement of the open hearth furnaces by BOFs. − Adoption of continuous casting in place of continuous ingot casting contributed to energy saving. Improvement in the environmental front has also been brought about through the following: − Gradual rebuilding of Coke Oven Batteries with state-of-the art Pollution Control facilities − Installation of Computerised Combustion Control System at Coke Oven Batteries − Installation of multi-slit burners in Sinter Plant − Installation of Dry Fog Dust Suppression System − Replacement of Scrubbers by ESPs/Bag Filters − Injection of Direct reducing agents in BFs − Installation of Cast House de-dusting system at BFs − Reverse Osmosis process for the treatment of effluent − Recycling Water from Sewage Treatment Plant
  11. 11. Improvement in Environmental Indices Particulate Matter Emission Load (Kg/tcs) 2.5 2.2 2 1.6 1.55 1.5 1.11 1.01 0.89 1 0.5 0 07-'08 08-'09 09-'10 10-'11 11-'12 Apr-Feb.'13 Specific Water Consumption has reduced from 4.0 m3/tcs (tonnes of crude steel) in 07-08 to 3.86 m3/tcs in 2011-12, a reduction of more than 3.5 % during the last 5 years. During April–Feb. 2013, average Specific Water Consumption further reduced to 3.74 m3/tcs. Particulate Matter (PM) Emission Load has reduced from 2.2 kg/tcs (tonnes of crude steel) in 07-08 to 1.01 kg/tcs in 2011-12, a reduction of more than 54% during the last 5 years. During April– Feb. 2013, average PM emission load further reduced to 0.89 kg/tcs.
  12. 12. Improvement in Environmental Indices Specific Effluent Discharge from SAIL Plants has reduced to 2.26 m3/tfs (tonnes of finished steel) in 2011-12; a reduction of more than 13% over the last 5 years. During April – Feb. 2013, average Specific Effluent Discharge further reduced to 2.22 m3/tfs. Specific Effluent Load was 0.13 Kg/tcs in 2011-12 ; a reduction of around 28% during the last 4 years. During April–Feb. 2013, average Specific Effluent Load further reduced to 0.10 kg/tcs.
  13. 13. Improvement in Environmental Indices Solid Fill : BF Slag Gradient Fill : BOF Slag Specific CO2 Emission reduced from 2.99 kg/tcs (tonnes of crude steel) in 0708 to 2.81 T/tcs in 2011-12; a reduction of 6% over the last 5 years. During April-Feb. 2013, the Specific CO2 emission further reduced to 2.77 T/tcs. With continuing thrust on Solid Waste Utilization at the integrated steel plants, an improvement of over 18% for Blast Furnace (BF) Slag and 18% for Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag has been achieved in the last 5 years. During April - Feb. 2013, the BF & BOF Slag utilisation were 95% and 70% respectively.
  14. 14. Initiatives taken at SAIL • • Environment management is an integral part of the modernization and expansion projects undertaken at different SAIL units. Various state-of-the-art cleaner technologies are being installed as a part of the on-going expansion cum modernisation project: − − − − − − − − Beneficiation to use lean ore and to recover iron ore fines from slime Pelletisation of iron ore fines Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Top Pressure Recovery Turbine system (TRT) Stock House Dust Suppression system Cast House De-fuming system Secondary emission control system at BOF Gas based (using by-product gas) Power Plant
  15. 15. 17 Categories of Highly Polluting Industries Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. CATEGORY Fertilizer ( Nitrogen Phosphate ) Sugar Cement Fermentation & Distillery Aluminium Petro Chemicals Thermal Power Oil Refinery Sulphuric Acid Tanneries Copper Smelter Zinc Smelter Iron and Steel Pulp and Paper Dye and Dye Intermediates Pesticides Manufacturing and Formulation Basic Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
  16. 16. “ The natural resources are not inexhaustible and the development process should be aimed to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.” ----Brundtland Commission of UN Report 1987. “Economic development, social development and environmental protections are inter-dependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development.” ----UN World Summit, 2005
  17. 17. Issues       Climate change Water availability/quality Sustainable consumption Consumer preferences Human rights Worker’s rights “Sustainability is not simply about green economy, it is about the whole economy.” Goals Triple Bottom Line Approach    People Planet Profit
  18. 18. People Fair and beneficial business practices towards: Labour Community Region Human Capital Planet Sustainable environmental policies Reduction of ecological footprint Conducting life cycle assessment No ecologically destructive practices Natural Capital Profit Economic value created by the organisation after deducting the cost of all inputs including the cost of the capital tied up. Real economic impact the organisation has on its economic environment. Economic Capital
  19. 19.  Finding of Survey “ The Sustainability Survey Poll on Climate Change”   Tremendous growth opportunities in the areas of renewable energy and low carbon products and services. Ideal opportunity for businesses to carve out new sources of competitive advantage and market leadership.
  20. 20. Definition for sustainable development : “ Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”    The resource base is not inexhaustible sustainable development is economic development Without environmental sustainability it is impossible to achieve sustainable development.
  21. 21. An indicator is needed  for comparing the relative progress made by different countries towards sustainable development at a given time.  for measuring progress made by a given country or region over time.  operational definition must be based on the reduction in consumption of goods and services by the affluent within and between nations.  the production and consumption must be curbed to achieve even a modest degree of sustainable development and determined efforts must be made to reduce consumption through formal education.
  22. 22.         All major natural resources in the country are in grave danger of irreparable damage. A society cannot survive if its natural resources are rendered unfit for use by its people. The only hope of salvaging this grave situation is by making the young aware that they need to proactively begin to protect the environment they will inherit. Science and Technology can help in a limited way but cannot deliver it. The moral and ethical education for changing people’s attitude To protect children living in polluted regions, environmental education represents a relevant means of prevention It is need for the hour to propose the environmental education with the essential elements of moral philosophy. For conceptual change
  23. 23. THANK YOU