Disaster Management


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A PPT on Disaster Management

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Disaster Management

  1. 1.  
  2. 2. “ A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area” . W orld H ealth Organization (W O) H “ A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance” . American Red Cross (ARC)
  3. 3. U rg en cy Speed ed i ct ab ili m fa Un ity ar Th re ili at U np r Uncertainty ty
  4. 4. Disaster Major natural disasters:    • Flood • Cyclone • Drought • Earthquake Major manmade disaster:  • Setting of  fires • Epidemic • Deforestation • Pollution due  to prawn  cultivation • Chemical  pollution. • Wars Minor natural disasters:  • Cold wave • Thunderstorms • Heat waves • Mud slides • Storm Minor manmade disaster: • Road / train  accidents, riots • Food poisoning  • Industrial  disaster/ crisis • Environmental  pollution 
  5. 5. Risk:  Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event . The level of risk depends on: Nature of the Hazard Vulnerability of the elements which are affected Economic value of those elements Vulnerability:  Predisposition of a community, structure, service, and/or geographic area to damage on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrain or a disaster prone area” Hazards:  “Phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures, or economic assets and which may cause a disaster.
  6. 6.  Goal  “Sustainable Reduction in Natural Disaster Risk”  Objectives 1. Awareness , 2. capacity building at all levels, 3. Preparedness, 4. Creation of knowledge Recovery Response Mitigation Preparedness
  7. 7.  Preparedness  Response  Mitigation  Recovery  Prepare action plans  Mobilization of  Prevention of  Restore affected hazards  Communication  Emergency area to previous       developing into disasters Reduce effects of disasters Focuses on long term measures Is part of recovery process Actions  structural – use technology  Non structural – legislation Most cost effective Necessitates identification of risk plans  Emergency response teams  Emergency warning methods  Shelters, evacuation plans  Resources inventory building  Develop trained volunteers  Casualty predictionhelps in evacuation teams  Core emergency services  Specialist teams  First responders in area  Search and rescue efforts  Runs on  principle of unified command  Mutual aid  Immediate needs are addressed state  Rebuild , employ and repair  “window of opportunity” for implementing harsh measures of mitigation
  8. 8. Armed Forces-Ministry of Defence Central Para Military Forces- Ministry of Home Affairs International Response- Ministry of External Affairs Ministries/Departments:        Rural Development, Drinking Water Supply Power, Telecom , Health, Urban Development Food & Public Distribution, Shipping Surface Transport, Railways, Civil Aviation Women & Child Development Water Resources, Animal Husbandry India Meteorological Department(IMD)
  9. 9. Moving away from the Great Bengal famine of 1769- 1770 in which a third of the population perished. The Chalisa famine of 1783, the Doji Bara or Skull famine of 1790 to 1792, the North West Provinces famine of 1838, the North West India Famine of 1861, the Bengal and Orissa famine of 1866, the Rajputana famine of 1869, the famine of 1899 to 1901, the Bengal famine of 1943… The drought years of 1965, 1972, 1979, 1987, 2002
  10. 10. 57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severe earthquakes. 68% land is vulnerable to drought. 12% land is vulnerable to floods. 8% land is vulnerable to cyclones. Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical and industrial disasters and man-made disasters.
  11. 11.  Activating an Early Warning System network and its close monitoring.  Mechanisms for integrating the scientific, technological and administrative agencies for             effective disaster management. Terrestrial communication links which collapse in the event of a rapid onset disaster. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures (power supply, communication, water supply, transport, etc.) to disaster events. Funding : Primacy of relief as disaster response. Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored. Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compile data, information and local knowledge on disaster history and traditional response patterns. Need for standardised efforts in compiling and interpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imagery and early warning signals. Weak areas continue to be forecasting, modelling, risk prediction, simulation and scenario analysis, etc. Absence of a national level, state level, and district level directory of experts and inventory of resources. Absence of a National Disaster Management Plan, and State level and district level disaster management plans. Sustainability of efforts. Effective Inter Agency Co-ordination and Standard Operating Procedures for stakeholder groups, especially critical first responder agencies. Emergency medicine, critical care medicine, triage, first aid.
  12. 12.             Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
  13. 13. There is a high probability of a low probability event happening somewhere sometime soon… The unpredictability of disaster events and the high risk and vulnerability profiles make it imperative to strengthen disaster preparedness, mitigation and enforcement of guidelines, building codes and restrictions on construction of buildings in flood-prone areas and storm surge prone coastal areas.
  14. 14.  The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been set up as the apex body for Disaster Management in India, with the Prime Minister as its Chairman.  Disaster Management Authorities will be set up at the State and District Levels to be headed by the Chief Ministers and Collectors/Zilla Parishad Chairmen respectively.  A National Disaster Mitigation Fund will be administerd by NDMA. States and districts will administer mitigation funds.  A National Disaster Response Fund will be administerd by NDMA through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund respectively.  8 Battalions of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are being trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eight strategic locations.  A National Disaster Management Policy and National
  15. 15. Be Prepared : Preparedness and Mitigation is bound to yield more effective returns than distributing relief after a disaster. Create a Culture of Preparedness and Prevention. Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holders
  16. 16.  Encourage and consolidate knowledge networks.  Mobilise and train disaster volunteers for more effective preparedness, mitigation and response (NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides, NYK, Civil Defence, Homeguards).  Increased capacity building leads to faster vulnerability reduction.  Learn from best practices in disaster preparedness, mitigation and disaster response.  Mobilising stakeholder participation of Self Help Groups, Women’s Groups, Youth Groups, Panchayati Raj Institutions.  Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises, Mock drills and Scenario Analysis.  Indigenous knowledge systems and coping practices.  Living with Risk: Community Based Disaster Risk Management.  Inclusive, participatory, gender sensitive, child friendly, eco-friendly and disabled friendly disaster management.  Technology driven but people owned.  Knowledge Management: Documentation and dissemination of good practices.  Public Private Partnership.
  17. 17. Investments in Preparedness and Prevention (Mitigation) will yield sustainable results, rather than spending money on relief after a disaster. Most disasters are predictable, especially in their seasonality and the disaster-prone areas which are vulnerable. Communities must be involved in disaster preparedness.
  18. 18. On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt of Bangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to nine meters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people. Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991 cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000 people even though the coastal population had doubled by that time. In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250 km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives. In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only 111 people lost their lives.
  19. 19. National Urban Renewal Mission for 70 cities: recent experience of “unprecedented” extreme weather conditions in a few major metros and megacities 100,000 Rural Knowledge Centres ( IT Kiosks): Need for Spatial e-Governance for informed decision making in disaster-prone areas: before, during and after disasters
  20. 20. BMTPC SOI NBSSLUP GoI Ministries NRSA NIC Census of India NDMA PSUs IMD Dept. of Space NATMO CWC CGWB ISRO FSI NSDI Spatial Information Electronic Clearing House GSI CPCB URBAN BODIES Private Sector BSI NRDMS PRIs NNRMS NGOs Knowledge Networking Academic & Research Institutions
  21. 21. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It is possible to reduce loss of life and property through preparedness. Preparedness is necessary at every level – national, provincial, local and community. Preparedness is necessary in every sector. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning to ensure better coordination among various sectors in different levels. Such planning needs to be formalized in the shape of manuals and Standard Operating Procedures so that there is no confusion during and after disasters.
  22. 22. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Holistic - cover housing, infrastructure, education, livelihood, health, psycho-social care etc. Long term - provide livelihood support including development of skill, provisioning of credit and marketing support etc ‘Build back better’ - ensure that the houses and infrastructure constructed after disasters withstand the hazards and risks of nature and the hazards do not become disasters again Sustainable - integrate environmental issues, such regeneration of mangroves, conservation of water, Inclusive -care for poor and vulnerable - women, children, aged, physically and mentally challenged people
  23. 23. Recovery Pre- Disaster Recovery Planning Sort Term (0 -30 days) • Search and rescue • Emergency health • Temporary shelter • Food, clothes • Damage assessment • Restoration of critical infrastructure (power, telephone, drinking water etc) Intermediate (1 to 6 months) • Intermediate shelter • Health Care • Continuation of support for food, clothes etc • Psycho-social care • School and day care • Preparation of long term recovery plan • Arranging resources Long Term (6 m to 3 years) • Permanent housing • Livelihood support • Restoration of physical Infrastructure • Restoration of social infrastructure • Psycho-social recovery • Documentation • Memorials