NAs well as the concepts for collaboration via
team working noted above, a key aspect of this
ontology has been to make explicit the
concepts needed to represent the collaboration
of problem solving across different levels and
functional units. The ontology addresses this by
having two fundamental
• goals, representing problems to be solved
• plans (and tasks) representing the solutions to
Collaborative Planning Workshop
WHAT DID I LEARN?
The purposes of this workshop
Look at your questions
Did we meet the purpose of the
Did we answer your questions?
What did you learn well enough to
teach someone else?
What are your “new” questions?
WORKThe work reported is the initial ontology and
reasoning model of the Collaborative Planning
Model, undertaken during the IPP task. Further
work is required including:
• the general refining and filling out of details in the
ontology, based upon feedback, and hopefully
usage of the ontology on different ITA tasks,
• the specific working out of more team working
logic and the corresponding ontology definitions,
based upon a deeper understanding of the logic of
belief and team maintenance propositions, and the
experience of other tasks working on team working
….• the analysis of more realistic military examples,
and military doctrines, with a view to
characterizing the differences in doctrines, the
motivations for such differences, and the further
defining of the Doctrine entities,
• the input of cognitive factors to the plan
• the standardization of the reasoning across
different plan entities to permit assumption based
reasoning and replanning,
• the better use of OWL reasoning tools,
• the further develop of ontology tools, including
the validation, input and diagramming of
onIn this power point presentation, we have
developed a computational model for recognizing
the intentional structure of a discourse and using
that structure in discourse processing. Shared-
Plans are used both to represent the components
of intentional structure segment purposes and
their interrelationships, and to reason about the
use of intentional structure in utterance
POLITICS IN ECONOMICS
Terms POLITICS and ECONOMICS cannot be
separated from each other.
As a discipline, economics viewed that political
factors are crucial in influencing and determining
Modern economic analysis is a conceptual
approach viewing political phenomena in terms of
incentives and constraints.
According to Alt and Shepsle,
“ Political economy is defined as the study of
rational decisions in context of political and
Political economy is basically about the
political nature of decision making and is
concerned with affect of politics on economic
choices in a society.
IMPORTANCE IN PLANNING
Political economy observes that „actual policies‟
are often different from „optimal policies‟ due to
certain political constraints in the planning process.
The political constraints refer to the constraints
due to conflict of interests among economic actors
in a society.
Political economy helps in making collective
choices in the face of these interests.
Types of Political Economy
POSITIVE POLITICAL ECONOMY –
It explains how political constraints affect the choice of
policies and hence the economic outcomes differ from the
NORMATIVE POLITICAL ECONOMY –
It explains how with the existing political constraints,
societies can be led to best achieve specific economic
This includes how to overcome the political constraints and
design the political institutions to better achieve economic
Political economy plays an important role of
explaining the relation between politics and
economics in the planning process.
It observes and explains the effect of political
constraints on actual policies which often differ from
economic and optimal policies.
Overall, political economy is considered in a
negative sense as it shifts away from the objective
of optimal policies and also slows down the planning
process due to the constraints occurring.