Made by:
Reena
Singh
B.Ed
 A natural resource is anything that people can use
, which comes from nature.
 People don’t make natural resources, the...
 There are primarily two types of natural resources. These are:
1. Renewable resources : It is a natural resources which ...
2. Non renewable resources- it is a resource that does
not renew itself at a sufficient rate for extraction
, i.e, their s...
 A forest, popularly referred to as a
wood or the woods, is an area with a
high density of trees.
 It usually is an area...
Forest resources may be used for the following :
 Fuel wood: They may be used as source of fuel wood by the local
populat...
 Timber: More than 1500 species of trees are commercially exploited for
timber in different parts of India. It is used in...
It is a known fact that 97% of the
earth’s water is salt water and the rest
3% is fresh water. However it must be
known t...
 Residential , commercial and industrial use:
Residential use includes drinking, cleaning, personal hygiene etc. in
comme...
 The term Mineral Resource is used to refer to any of a
class of naturally occurring solid inorganic substances
with a ch...
 Minerals are most commonly used in the gem industry.
Such minerals are usually hard.
 Minerals are also used to extract...
 What is pollution?
 Pollution is basically the introduction of contaminants
into the natural environment, which results...
 Following are they various types of pollution which are
known to plagiarize mankind:
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution...
 It is defined as the introduction of chemicals, particulates
,biological material or other harmful substances into the
E...
 Sources of air pollution are as follows:
1. Man made sources:
 Stationary sources: includes the
smoke stacks of power p...
2. Natural sources:
 Dust from natural sources , usually large areas of land with little
or no vegetation.
 Methane emit...
 The consequences of air pollution are as follows:
 Acidification: Chemical reactions involving air pollutants can
creat...
 It is the contamination of water
bodies (e. g- lakes, rivers , oceans
etc )
 It occurs when pollutants are
directly or ...
 Sewage from domestic households, factories and
commercial buildings: Sewage that is treated in water treatment
plants is...
 Groundwater contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage
within wildlife in ecosystems.
 Swimming in and dr...
 Noise pollution is the disturbance or excessive noise
that may harm the activity or balance of human or
animal life.
 S...
 Indoor noise may be caused by machines, building
activities and music performances, especially in some
workplaces.
 Ozone layer refers to a region in the
earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most
of the sun’s UV radiation . it contains
high ...
 The effects of ozone layer depletion are as follows:
 The UV rays which would enter the earth’s atmosphere
would cause ...
 Commute to nearby places by walking or cycling rather
than driving.
 When many people are travelling to the same
destin...
Environment and Pollution
Environment and Pollution
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Environment and Pollution

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Environment and Pollution

  1. 1. Made by: Reena Singh B.Ed
  2. 2.  A natural resource is anything that people can use , which comes from nature.  People don’t make natural resources, they gather them from the earth.  For example- air, water, wood ,iron, coal , hydro- electric energy etc.  However it must be noted that refined oil is not a natural resource as humans can make it.
  3. 3.  There are primarily two types of natural resources. These are: 1. Renewable resources : It is a natural resources which can be replenished with the passage of time, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. For example- Air, Water , Sunlight etc.
  4. 4. 2. Non renewable resources- it is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for extraction , i.e, their supply is limited and are replenished over millions of years. For example- fossil fuels (like coal, natural gas and petroleum.)
  5. 5.  A forest, popularly referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees.  It usually is an area filled with trees but any tall densely packed area of vegetation may be considered a forest, even underwater vegetation such as kelp forests or non vegetation fungi and bacteria.  Tree forests cover approximately 9.4% of the earth’s surface ( 30% of the total land area), though they once covered 50% of the total land area.  They function as habitats for organisms and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere.
  6. 6. Forest resources may be used for the following :  Fuel wood: They may be used as source of fuel wood by the local population , and hence is an important source for meeting their energy requirements.  Soil erosion check :Tree roots bind the soil and prevent erosion caused by wind or water. Leaf fall also provides a soil cover that further protects the soil.  Soil improvement :Some species of trees have the ability to return nitrogen to the soil through root decomposition or fallen leaves. Such trees are planted to increase the nitrogen content of the soil.  Fodder :Fodder from the forest forms an important source for cattle and other grazing animals in the hilly and the arid regions and during a drought. There are many varieties of grasses, trees, and shrubs that are nutritious for the livestock. Care is taken to see that trees poisonous to cattle are not grown. Trees that produce a large crown above the reach of cattle are preferred.
  7. 7.  Timber: More than 1500 species of trees are commercially exploited for timber in different parts of India. It is used in timber-based industries such as plywood, saw milling, paper and pulp, and particle boards.  Bamboo: These are common in the north-eastern and the south-western parts of India, growing along with deciduous or evergreen forest. The main commercial uses of bamboo are as timber substitutes, fodder, and raw material for basket, paper and pulp, and other small-scale industries.  Cane : Cane or rattan are the stems of a climber plant and are used for a large number of household items. It is used to make walking sticks, polo sticks, baskets, picture frames, screens, and mats.  Medicinal use: Since time immemorial humans have been depending on the forest to cure them of various ailments. Even today man is dependent on the forest for herbs and plants to fight against disease. Of all the medicinal trees found in India, the Neem is the most important. Leaves, bark, and other parts of many other trees also have medicinal value and are used to make various Ayurvedic medicines.
  8. 8. It is a known fact that 97% of the earth’s water is salt water and the rest 3% is fresh water. However it must be known that this 3% of fresh water is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as ground water , with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. Even though fresh water is a renewable resource , however yet the world’s supple of ground water is steadily decreasing and hence the need has arisen to create a framework for allocating water resources to water users , which is known a water rights.
  9. 9.  Residential , commercial and industrial use: Residential use includes drinking, cleaning, personal hygiene etc. in commercial and industrial sector water is most commonly used for processing products and cooling.  Hydro power: Hydroelectric facilities use the power of flowing water to turn turbines that produce electricity.  Irrigation : Water for irrigation comes from either groundwater or surface water, raising concerns that heavy use could deplete water supplies in a region to the extent that nonagricultural users are negatively affected. Irrigation has also been linked to increased soil salinity and contamination of groundwater with fertilizers and chemicals through runoff.  Navigation : Navigable waterways are defined as watercourses that have been or may be used for transport of interstate or foreign commerce.
  10. 10.  The term Mineral Resource is used to refer to any of a class of naturally occurring solid inorganic substances with a characteristic crystalline form and a homogeneous chemical composition. It can also be simply defined as natural resources in the form of minerals.  These are the natural resources which cannot be renewed. They are present in the organisms as an organic and inorganic molecule and ions.
  11. 11.  Minerals are most commonly used in the gem industry. Such minerals are usually hard.  Minerals are also used to extract useful products. An ore is a rock containing a concentrated percentage of minerals, which are extracted and the useful element is removed.  Minerals, especially feldspar , are used in making porcelain and pottery.  Optical and scientific apparatus use minerals like fluorite, mica and gypsum for their optical properties.
  12. 12.  What is pollution?  Pollution is basically the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment, which results in an adverse effect on the planet.  Pollution may take the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise , heat or light. Pollutants, which are the components of pollution, can either be foreign substances/energies or can also be naturally occurring substances.
  13. 13.  Following are they various types of pollution which are known to plagiarize mankind: 1. Air pollution 2. Water pollution 3. Noise pollution 4. Radiation pollution
  14. 14.  It is defined as the introduction of chemicals, particulates ,biological material or other harmful substances into the Earth’s atmosphere.  Common pollutants include: 1. Sulphur oxides( the most common being sulfur dioxide) 2. Nitrogen oxides. 3. Carbon monoxide 4. Volatile organic compounds (they are catagorized into methane and non – methane.) 5. Particulates 6. Chlorofluorocarbons
  15. 15.  Sources of air pollution are as follows: 1. Man made sources:  Stationary sources: includes the smoke stacks of power plants, the furnaces and other types of fuel – burning heating devices.  Mobile sources include motor vehicles, marine vessels and aircrafts  Fumes from paint , hair spray, varnish and aerosol sprays.  Military sources such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry.
  16. 16. 2. Natural sources:  Dust from natural sources , usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation.  Methane emitted by the digestion of food by animals , for example cattle.  Radon gas from the radioactive decay buried within the Earth’s crust.  Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires  Volcanic activity which results in the release of large amounts of ash, smoke , sulfur etc.
  17. 17.  The consequences of air pollution are as follows:  Acidification: Chemical reactions involving air pollutants can create acidic compounds which can cause harm to vegetation and buildings.  Particulate matter: Air pollutants can be in the form of particulate matter which can be very harmful to our health.  Short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions.  Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys.
  18. 18.  It is the contamination of water bodies (e. g- lakes, rivers , oceans etc )  It occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to harmful compounds.  It affects plants and organisms living in water bodies.
  19. 19.  Sewage from domestic households, factories and commercial buildings: Sewage that is treated in water treatment plants is often disposed into the sea. Sewage can be more problematic when people flush chemicals and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet.  Dumping solid wastes and Litter: in rivers, lakes and oceans. Littering items include cardboard, Styrofoam, aluminum, plastic and glass.  Industrial waste :from factories, which use freshwater to carry waste from the plant into rivers, contaminates waters with pollutants such as asbestos, lead, mercury and petrochemicals.  Oil Pollution caused by oil spills from tankers and oil from ship travel. Oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge.  Burning fossil fuels into the air causes the formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere. When these particles mix with water vapor, the result is acid rain.
  20. 20.  Groundwater contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems.  Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problems like cancer, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in humans.  Industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides that end up in aquatic environments can accumulate in fish that are later eaten by humans. Fish are easily poisoned with metals that are also later consumed by humans.  Ecosystems are destroyed by the rising temperature in the water, as coral reefs are affected by the bleaching effect due to warmer temperatures. Additionally, the warm water forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water in other areas, causing an ecological damaging shift of the affected area.  Human-produced litter of items such as plastic bags and 6-pack rings can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation.  Water pollution causes flooding due to the accumulation of solid waste and soil erosion in streams and rivers.  Oil spills in the water causes animal to die when they ingest it or encounter it. Oil does not dissolve in water so it causes suffocation in fish and birds.
  21. 21.  Noise pollution is the disturbance or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life.  Sources of noise pollution  Most of the outdoor noise is caused due to machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircrafts and trains.  Also poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution since side by side industrial and residential building can result in excessive noise.
  22. 22.  Indoor noise may be caused by machines, building activities and music performances, especially in some workplaces.
  23. 23.  Ozone layer refers to a region in the earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the sun’s UV radiation . it contains high concentration of ozone in comparison to other layers of the earth’s atmosphere.  Ozone layer depletion basically describes two major phenomena that have been observed since the 1970s :first being the steady decline of 4% in the volume of ozone in the earth’s stratosphere and the second being the larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Above: Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded (September 2006), over the Southern pole
  24. 24.  The effects of ozone layer depletion are as follows:  The UV rays which would enter the earth’s atmosphere would cause various types of skin cancer. Also it would cause more cataracts and blindness.  Several of the world's major crop species are particularly vulnerable to increased UV, resulting in reduced growth, photosynthesis and flowering.  In particular, plankton (tiny organisms in the surface layer of oceans) are threatened by increased UV radiation. Plankton are the first vital step in aquatic food chains.  Decreases in plankton could disrupt the fresh and saltwater food chains, and would eventually lead to a species shift and ultimately result in the loss of ocean biodiversity.
  25. 25.  Commute to nearby places by walking or cycling rather than driving.  When many people are travelling to the same destination, one can always car pool.  Save energy by switching off the lights and all electronics when leaving a room.  Use paper bags rather than plastic ones.  Industries can control the emission of particles by making machinery more efficient or updating the same.  Industries can also treat their waste before releasing the same into rivers and streams.

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