German troops invade Poland Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler
Peace treaty that ended World War I Germany given total blame for World War I Germany was forced to do four things: 1) Dismantle most of its military 2) Pay for most of the damages done during the war (reparations) 3) Withdraw its military along border between F rance and Germany4) Give up territory used to create countries of Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Europe after World War IGreat Warleft allof Europe inshamblesGreat Depressionhit Europe as well Instability of Europe led to the
Totalitarian state: Government which attempts to control every aspect of the lives its people; people give blind loyalty to their leaders European dictators of the 1930s Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Soviet Russia Fascist Italy Nazi Germany
Nazi rally in Nuremberg Fascist rally in Italy outlawed other political parties
A Great World Leader? The world had a different view of H itler in 1937 In the four years after H itler took power, unemployment had dropped dramatically, Germany was in industrial powerhouse, and they even hosted the Olympics H itler was even chosen Time the Year in 1938
Neutrality Act of 1935 Made it illegal for U.S. businesses to sell arms to foreign countries Neutrality Act of 1937 Required foreign countries to pay for U.S. goods with cash instead of credit and ship goods themselvesLeaders in Congress felt it was big business that drew the U.S. into World War I
H itler ignores theTreaty of Versaillesand reoccupies theRhineland in 1937 H itler and the Germans occupy Rhineland Poland Austria in 1938 In 1938, H itler Czechoslovakiawants Sudetenland, Austriathreatens to invade Czechoslovakia Leaders of France and Great Britain call for a meeting with
H itler meets with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin and F rench diplomat Edouard Daladier in Munich, Germany H itler says the Sudetenland is his last desire to completeNeville Chamberlin , Adolf Hitler and Edouard Daladier
Giving in to someone in order to avoid conflictThe British and the F rench were willing to give H itler and the Nazis whatever he wanted in order to keep from having to go to warChamberlain returns to Londonand declares that he has secured Within a year, Hitler claims the rest of Czechoslovakia
Germany Invades Poland on September 1, 1939World War II Begins!!!
BLITZKRIEGFocused on hitting enemy quickly using airplanes, fast- moving tanks and moving troops by mobile transport
THE ALLIES Great Britain FranceSoviet Russia United States
The Fall of FranceIn 1940, Hitler turns to the West and conquers France
Germany conquers FranceEngland was the only thing left standing tokeep Hitler from conquering all of Europe
The Battle of Britain After conquering Poland and France, Hitler attempted to conquer the England The Battle of Britain was four-month air battlebetween the British RAF and the German Luftwaffe The British won the battle and Hitler and theGermans gave up on their plan to invade England
Roosevelt revises the Neutrality ActsNeutrality Act of 1939 U.S. sells Great Britain warships in exchange for military bases Some Americans are assistance to Allies Americans who want the U.S. to remain Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Staunchly believed in isolationism Firmly opposed any Americanintervention or aid to the Allies Famous members of AFCHerbert Hoover Charles Lindbergh
1940 Presidential Election Electoral VotesRoosevelt becomes FIRST (and ONLY) U.S. President to be elected more than twice (he is later elected to a fourth term)
Lend-Lease Act passed in 1941 Allowed the U.S to lend or lease arms to any country that was considered vital to the defense of the United States U.S could send weapons to Great Britain if Britain promised to return or pay rent for them after the war
Governmentgoes from a government controlled by the military
Japan needed more natural resources Japan takes over part of Manchuria in Treaty of VersaillesMilitary conquers rest of Manchuria in 1933
Japan takes control of Indo- China, in 1941 Japan wanted Indochina for its abundance ofnatural resources U.S. places an oilembargo on Japan until it withdraws from Indochina
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor is the U.S. naval base in Hawaii for its Pacific Fleet 21 ships damaged or sunk 188 planes destroyed Over 2,400 killed or injuredUSS Arizona on fire and sinking after Japanese attack
War ends the Depression America mobilizes for war Mobilizing: building a military, building war materials in factories, etc. Mobilizing the economy created almost 19 million new jobs and nearly doubled the
Mobilizing for War War Production Board Government agency that set priorities and production goals. It also had the authority to control the distribution of raw materials.Reconstruction Finance Corporation Government agency that had thepower to make loans to companies to help them cover the cost of converting to war production
War Production ramps up President Roosevelt declared a national emergency and ordered that U.S. factories build 50,000 warplanes a year Automobile companies began to make trucks, jeeps, and tanks. They also made rifles, mines, helmets and other pieces of military equipmentHenry Ford created an assembly line to build B-24 bombers
A segregated U.S. military African Americans had separate barracks, mess halls, and recreational facilities Blacks were organized into their own military units Numerous military leaders did not want blacks fighting in combat because they did not trust them
Blacks make contributions Numerous African Americans made important contributions tothe war effort during World War I I Benjamin O. Davis F irst black to reach the rank of General Tuskegee Airmen F irst all black fighter pilot squadron in U.S. history
Navajo Code TalkersNative Americans also made contributions to the war effort A group known as the Navajo Code Talkers were U.S. Marines of Native American descent who used their native language as code during the war
Bracero Program Government introduced program to help farmers in the Southwest overcome the labor shortage Over 200,000 Mexicanscame to the United Statesto help harvest fruits and vegetables
Contributions of women F irst women other than nurses to serve in the U.S. Army
WOMEN in the WORKPLACE Because of wartime labor shortages, factories are forced to hire women to do industrial jobs traditionally reserved for men Great symbol of the campaign to hire women Appeared on posters and in newspaper ads Eventually 2.5 million women went to work in shipyards, aircraft factories, and other manufacturing plants
Women Ordinance Workers (WOW) Their work permanently changed Americanattitudes about women in the workplace
BLACKS in the WORKPLACE A. Philip Randolph F ounder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters a major union for African American railroad workers Led first organized African American labor movement FDR issues Executive Order 8802 Outlawed discrimination in the hiring of workers in defense industries Fair Employment Practices Commission First civil rights agency set up by the federal government since the 1870s
Shift to the SunbeltSun Belt is a region of the United States generallyconsidered to stretch across the South and West Many Americans moved to the South and West during the war The region led the way in manufacturing and urbanization in the U.S.
Japanese Internment Following Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Americandistrust of anyone of Japanese decent grew massively U.S. military rounded up 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry 77,000 of which were U.S. citizens and put them in places called internment camps to keep watch on them
Japanese Internment Japanese were not allowed to live on the west coast, including all of California Executive Order 9066 President Roosevelt authorized the internmentLaw allowed local military to designate " military areas " as " exclusion zones " , from which " any or all persons may be excluded. "
Japanese Internment Korematsu v. United States Fred Korematsu U.S. Supreme Court case concerning the legality of internment of Japanese American citizens Supreme Court ruled Japanese American that internment wasF red Korematsu sued legal because it was saying his rights based on military were being violated urgency, not race
Rationing begins in AmericaGovernment rationed goodssuch as sugar, butter, milk,cheese, eggs, coffee, meat ,gasoline and canned goods Ticket for rations of gasoline Households were given a book of ration coupons each month. When they used all their coupons, they could buy no more items that month.
Victory Gardens Americans volunteered to plant gardens to produce more food People grew their own food so the troops would have more
Natural resources in short supply Government organized scrap drives for the war effort. These materials included old tires, metal, paper and old rags.
Invest in America: Buy War Bonds To help the war effort financially, the government asked citizens to buy war bonds When Americans bought bonds, they were loaning money to the government Americans bought nearly $50 billion worth of war bonds.F inancial institutions bought back about $100 billion dollars worth in the years following the war.
Propaganda during the war Propaganda tried to sway public opinion to support the war effortPropaganda portrayedthe enemy as someonewho was a threat to you and your famil y
Propaganda during the warThese posters addressed the religious differences between the Nazis and many Americans
Propaganda during the warThis poster reminded Americans of the atrocities that the Japanese had committed against the U.S.
Supreme President of the Commander of United States for the Allied forces most of World War in E urope; I I; was elected to planned Allied a third and fourth invasion of term of office E urope during the warDwight D. Eisenhower Franklin D. Roosevelt Commander of U.S. general during the U.S. Army in World War I I who E urope; led the played a large part in American forces the U.S. victories inin the Battle of the Italy and North Bulge; later Africa; nicknamedChairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Omar Bradley George S. Patton
U.S. builds up its military Selective Service and Training Act passed U.S. governmentstarts the draftRecruits sent to basic trainingfor eight weeksto prepare them for how to fight in war They learned how to handle weapons, read maps and dig ditches
Battle of the Atlantic Battle of the Atlantic duringWWII pitted German U-boats against Allied convoys By August of 1942, German submarines had sunk 360 American cargo ships Because of the heavy losses, the U.S. set up a convoy system for its trade ships Cargo ships traveled in groups and were escorted by navy warships
Hitler conquers most of Europe World War II starts in 1939 when Hitler invades Poland Russia Hitler conquers F rance England and the Low Countries Germany by the Spring of 1940 France Hitler attempts to Italy invade England but loses Battle of Britain Hitler turns his attention to the East and wants to conquer Soviet Russia The Axis powers of Germany and Italy controlled much of Europe by 1941Before taking Poland in 1939, Hitler signs a non-
Germany invades RussiaOperation Barbarossa Hitler and the Nazis break their peaceagreement with Russia and invade in 1941 Germans move to the outskirts of Moscow and Stalingrad by the end of 1941 When the harsh Russian winter hits, the German offensive stalled and the Germans were stopped outside of Moscow and Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad First major defeat for the Germans in World War IIThe Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of the war on the Eastern Front
Casablanca Conference Meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President F ranklin D. Roosevelt in1943 in North Africa Churchill and Roosevelt met to discuss plans for an Allied invasion of E urope Leaders agreed that the first step would be an invasion of ItalyWinston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt at Casablanca
Allies invaded ItalyU.S. General Dwight D.Eisenhower, called Italy Europe.The invasion began in July of 1943.The defeat of the Germansto arrest Benito Mussoliniand begin negotiating for
Operation Overlord The Allied Invasion of Europe General Dwight D.Eisenhower was thechosen to command the invasion forceFree Europe from German controlMake the Germans have to fight thewar on two fronts
D-Day June 6, 1944 The Alliedinvasion of EuropeLandings occurred on the beaches ofNormandy, France Allies land at five beaches, nicknamed: Normandy FRANCE UTAH OMAHA GOLD JUNO SWORD
D-Day June 6, 1944 The Allied invasion of EuropeAllies sent in hundreds of ships and thousands of men in first three days of the attack The invasion was successful and the Western Front was born
Battle of the Bulge Last major offensive of World War I I by H itler and the Germans in the Ardennes F orest in 1944H itler uses his best forces to attack theAllies in an effort to reach a stalemateAllied lines in an attempt to break through, but were turned back
Fall of the Third Reich F ollowing the Battle of the Bulge,American forces Germany had were pouring nothing left to stop the Allied forcesWestern border Russian troops from the E ast were entering Berlin in April, 1945 In April, 1945, Adolf Hitler and his top commanders committed suicide
V-E DayVictory in Europe Day On May 7, 1945, the Germans surrenderedWorld War I I inE urope was over U.S. focus shifted to Japan in the Pacific Theater
The Holocaust After the war, the world discovered that during thewar the Germans had massmurdered millions of Jews This attempted genocide of the Jewish race when over 6 millions Jews were killed became known as the Holocaust
Gen. Douglas MacArthur Adm. Chester Nimitz Harry S. TrumanCommander of the Commander-in- U.S. President at U.S. Army in the Chief of the the conclusion of Pacific Theater; United States the war; made the Naval F leet in the decision to drop surrender on Pacific during the atomic bombSeptember 1, 1945 World War I I on Japan
Japanese Co-Prosperity Sphere Great Asia under the slogan colonizers were to be expelled and Japan become Japan conquered China and Indo- Extent of the Japanese Empire (1942) Japanese Rising Sun flag
Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941 USS Arizona on fire during attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941
American air raid on Japanesecapital of Tokyo in April of 1942Raid was planned and led by Lt. Col. James "Jimmy" Doolittle B-25 bombers were launched from a U.S. aircraft carrier Impact of Doolittle Raid Gave a massive boost to the American morale It showed the Japanese that the U.S. had the capability to attack their James Doolittle (second from left) and his crew mainland at anytime
Philippines falls to Japan Four months after its attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese complete the conquest of the Philippines Before evacuating his command center in the Philippines, American commander Douglas
The Bataan Death March The Japanese captured 75,000 Allied soldiers afterits victory in the Philippines The Japanese marched those that surrendered 60 miles with no food or water. Over 6,000 died or were executed on the march.
Following its attack on Pearl Harbor,Japan was planning an invasion of the U.S.; needed islandof Midway for a base U.S. broke Japanesecode and knew about the plan to attackMidway; U.S. leaders set a trap
Battle of MidwayBattle was theturning point of the War in the Pacific Japan was on the defensive for the remainder of the war
F ollowing the U.S. victory at the Battle of Midway, the tide of the War in the Pacific turned U.S. went on the offensive and began taking back islands thatJapan had conquered before 1942 Chang Kai-Shek, FDR, Winston Churchill U.S. re-captured strategic islands and by-passed others, leaving Japanese troops cut off This strategy was called
MacArthur returns to the Philippines One of the key U.S.retaking the Philippines To take back the Philippines, the United States put together a huge invasion force In March of 1945, American troops finally recaptured the capital city of Manila As he had promised nearly three years before, U.S. Commander Douglas Macarthur had returned
Japanese use kamikazesF ollowing the Battle of Midway, Japan was on the defensive The Japanese began using an attack tactic known as A Japanese kamikaze about to hit the USS Missouri Kamikaze was the Japanese was a suicide attack. In a kamikaze attack, a Japanese pilot would crash A kamikaze attack hits the USS Essex in 1944 his plane into a U.S. ship
War in Pacific intensifiesAs Americans move closer to Japanese mainland, each island becomes tougher to take U.S. Marines raise flag atop Mt. Suribachi on Iwo JimaJapanese soldiers fightto the death and refuse to surrender Thousands of U.S. soldiers die taking islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Manhattan Project Albert Einstein Albert E instein wrote a letter to F DR warning him of the type of destruction splitting the atom could haveRobert Oppenheimer, left, was the director of the Manhattan Project Research convinced The project to develop the first F DR to begin a program nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) to build an atomic bomb
Decision to drop the bombPerson making the decision to use the atomic bomb is U.S. President Harry Truman Truman became president after F DR dies of a brain hemorrhage in early 1945 Harry S. Truman Reasons Truman decides to use A- bomb: 1) Japanese soldiers were fighting to the death 2) Japan would not surrender Truman talks over plan to drop atomic bomb with his Secretary of War
Atomic bomb dropped on Japan F irst atomic bomb was dropped on H iroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Japanese city of Nagasaki (left) A mushroom cloud rises above Hiroshima after the bomb exploded (below) the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima (right) Enola Gay and its pilot Paul Tibbits.
V-J Day: Victory over Japan The dropping of the atomic bombs on H iroshima and Nagasaki led to the unconditional surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945 The war is over!!
The war is over!! World War II officially came to and end on September 2, 1945Gen. Macarthur oversees the Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri
Aftermath of World War IIThere were four main results of World War II on the world An estimated 60-80 million people were killed during the war, over half of which were civilians The United States and Soviet Russia E urope was split in half between the Democratic West and the Communist E ast
Creation of United Nations A last result of World War II was the creation of a new world peace- keeping organization the United Nations The UN was founded to stop wars betweennations, and to provide a platform for nations to discuss differences
Coming up in Unit 8TheCold Democracy vs. CommunismWar