Improving library services with semantic web technology in the realm of repositories

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Improving library services with semantic web technology in the realm of repositories

  1. 1. Improving Library Services withSemantic Web Technology - in the realm of Repository SystemsDr. Timo BorstHead of IT DevelopmentGerman National Library for Economics /Leibniz-Information Centre EconomicsKiel/Hamburg, GermanyICDK 201114th – 16th February, Gurgaon/India Die ZBW ist Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft
  2. 2. Overview1. Current situation: Distributed (meta-)data management in library applications2. Popular approaches towards aggregation and homogeneity of metadata3. Our approach: Integration and aggregation of authority values with Semantic Web technology a) General idea b) Use case: Indexing c) Use case: Retrieving4. “Lightweight” integration into existing repository systems and service providers5. Conclusion Seite 2
  3. 3. Current situation• The rise of repository systems for academic publishing…• …has led to a landscape of distributed systems, each of them holding its own metadata…• …which is harvested and aggregated by service providers Seite 3
  4. 4. Popular approaches towards aggregation andhomogeneity of metadata• Normalization in advance (before harvesting) requires • a mandatory metadata scheme to be applied by the local repositories • a set of controlled vocabularies (e.g. for publication types) • an automatic validation of the harvested metadata• Normalization afterwards (after harvesting) requires • the definition of a minimum set of metadata fields • the definition of a basic intermediate metadata scheme for normalizing the heterogeneous metadata records, • optionally data cleansing strategies like name disambiguation and automatic indexing on the basis of thesauriBoth approaches are problematic and reveal ambiguities on the aggregation level ! Seite 4
  5. 5. Current situation• …sounds easy and straight, but implies severe problems esp. with regard to ambiguity of • author names • subject headings Seite 5
  6. 6. Current situation„The major difficulty we have found is with DSpace’s handling ofmetadata. While we feel that the number of fields in Dublin Core isadequate for most if not all uses (DCMI Usage Board 2006), we aretroubled by the lack of authority control when completing its fields.Without some control over uniform titles, authors and subjectsaccessing the items in the future will very problematic.“S. Chabot (http://subjectobject.net/2006/11/09/the-dspace-digital-repository-a-project-analysis/) „Neither the standards nor the software unterlying institutional repositories anticipated performing naming authority control on widely disparate metadata from highly unreliable sources.“ D. Salo (http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/31735) Seite 6
  7. 7. Our approach: Integration of authority values withSemantic Web technology• General idea: “Provide a framework for integrating authority data, which is both normative and flexible enough to tolerate local idiosyncrasies on a string level.”• Approach: Concept modelling based on Semantic Web / SKOS standards Seite 7
  8. 8. Our approach: Integration of authority values withSemantic Web technology Seite 8
  9. 9. Our approach: Integration of authority values withSemantic Web technology – Web serviceExample queries (for concepts):http://zbw.eu/beta/stw-ws/suggest?query=finanzkr…delivers all terms beginning with “finanzkr”http://zbw.eu/beta/stw-ws/stw-ws-wrapper.php?service=labels&concept=http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/19664-4&lang=en…delivers all english synonyms of the german “Finanzkrise” Seite 9
  10. 10. Use case: (Self-)Indexing• One of the most prominent use cases especially for librarians, but also for scientists and active users not familiar with subject specific vocabularies• Main goals: • Support the process of indexing in order to achieve a classification of documents which is both coherent and flexible in the sense that it permits local idiosyncrasies related to authority terms • Align different vocabularies in the sense that indexing in one vocabulary is automatically linked to another vocabulary• Implementation: Extension of the submission interface of our repository by integrating the terminology web service as an autosuggest function Seite 10
  11. 11. Use case: (Self-)IndexingSubmission form https://econstor.eu Seite 11
  12. 12. Use case: Retrieving• To be considered as the most important use case• Often leading into the classical dilemma of precision and recall• Main goal: • Support the process of retrieving, so users can find the relevant set of documents• Implementation: Automatic expansion of the original query with synonyms, narrower and related terms Seite 12
  13. 13. Use case: RetrievingExpanded search for „financial crisis“ http://econstor.eu Seite 13
  14. 14. Use case: RetrievingExpanded search for „financial crisis“ http://econstor.eu Seite 14
  15. 15. Use case: RetrievingExpanded search for „financial crisis“ http://econstor.eu Seite 15
  16. 16. Anwendungsfall_2: Suche Seite 16
  17. 17. Anwendungsfall_2: Suche Seite 17
  18. 18. “Lightweight” integration into existing repository systemsand service providers Seite 18
  19. 19. “Lightweight” integration into existing repository systemsand service providersBenefits• „Lightweight“ extension of legacy systems• Strategy of „least intrusion“: No update or migration needed• No changes to the core system, only some changes to the data model may be required: • Additional column for storing the URI of the authority key • Export resp. harvesting of the authority as a resource must be able (->OAI-ORE)• Other types of library applications suitable for these adaptations: • catalogues • portals (e.g. to generate publication lists from an identified author or thematic issues) • Any collaborative system with annotation system Seite 19
  20. 20. Zusammenfassung und Fazit• Bibliotheksanwendungen erzeugen und verwalten jeweils eigene idiosynkratische Datenbestände.• Dies erschwert die Pflege, den Austausch, die Aggregation und die Homogenisierung der (Meta-)Daten für erweiterte Dienste.• Vorgelagerte Webservices als Teil einer übergreifenden Normdaten- Infrastruktur können frühzeitig zur Homogenisierung der Metadaten beitragen (bei gleichzeitiger Lokalisierung).• Wenn diese Webservices verbreitet entstehen und genutzt werden, besteht die Chance zu einer weitergehenden Vernetzung lokal gepflegter Metadaten bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der datenbasierten Services.• Die Möglichkeit zur „leichtgewichtigen Integration“ ist ein Angebot an Betreiber von Bibliotheksanwendungen, diese Webservices mit möglichst minimalem Aufwand in ihre Anwendungen zu integrieren. Seite 20
  21. 21. Vielen Dank!Dr. Timo BorstDeutsche Zentralbibliothek fürWirtschaftswissenschaften /Leibniz-InformationszentrumWirtschaft (ZBW)t.borst@zbw.eu Seite 21
  22. 22. Anwendungsfall_3: Erfassung von Autoren •Der Normalfall in Katalogen - in anderen Erfassungssystemen bisher der Ausnahmefall •Nutzergruppen: BibliothekarInnen + WissenschaftlerInnen (?) + BibliotheksnutzerInnen (?) •Vorgang: Eingabe von AutorInnen-Namen •Zielstellung: Den Vorgang der Autorenerfassung mit Hilfe von Normdaten zu verbessern, die durch Webservices bereit gestellt werden Seite 22
  23. 23. Anwendungsfall_3: Erfassung von Autoren•Erfassungsmaske unter http://87.106.250.18/beta/econstor/ Seite 23
  24. 24. Bisherige Lösungsansätze zur Aggregierung &Homogenisierung •Metadatensuche durch Aggregatoren • Parallele Abfrage entfernt-verteilter Systeme • Rückgabe und Aufbereitung des Suchergebnisses als zusammengesetzte Trefferliste •Harvesting • Regelmäßiges Einsammeln von entfernt-verteilten Metadaten • Homogenisierung ex ante oder ex post •Föderierte Suche •… Seite 24
  25. 25. •[1] http://wiki.dspace.org/index.php/Authority_Control_of_Metadata_ValuesLiteratur •[2] http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/31735 •[3] http://dsug09.ub.gu.se/index.php/dsug/dsug09/paper/view/22/3 •[4] http://subjectobject.net/2006/11/09/the-dspace-digital-repository-a-project-analysis/ •[5] http://code.google.com/p/dspace-agrisap/wiki/ThesaurusAddOn •[6] http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/conferences/dc-2008/subirats-imma-199/PDF/subirats.pdf •[7] http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/sharedservices/na mes-phase-one-final-report,.pdf •[8] http://idea.library.drexel.edu/bitstream/1860/3173/1/20070051011.pdf •[9] http://ptsefton.com/blog/2006/06/06/the_affiliation_issue_in _institutional_repository_software/ •[10] http://library.ust.hk/info/nac/nac-technical.html •[11] http://www.seco.tkk.fi/publications/2009/kurki-hyvonen-onki-people-2009.pdf •[12] http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/download/11883/12836 •[13] http://www.dini.de/fileadmin/workshops/oa-netzwerk- juni2009/vernetzungstage_2009_malitz.pdf Seite 25

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