International Perspectives On Biodiversity & Mining Rehabilitation In Arid Areas

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  • Good morning and thank you for the opportunity to speak to you. As many of you will know I used to work for De Beers Namaqualand Mines, before moving to Sadiola Gold Mine in Mali, and then AngloGold Ashanti’s corporate office in Johannesburg. I now have the opportunity of visiting operations right around the world, and it is these insights which I want to share with you today.  
  • International Perspectives On Biodiversity & Mining Rehabilitation In Arid Areas

    1. 1. International Perspectives on Biodiversity & Rehabilitation in Arid Areas De Beers Environmental Conference Kimberley, 25 August 2004 Andrew Mackenzie Manager: Corporate Environmental Affairs
    2. 2. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICMM IUCN Dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NGO Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Dirty Gold Campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De Beers “Achilles' Heel”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Succulent karoo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where in the world are we? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other arid areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International rehabilitation technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argentina, US & Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil, Ghana & Western Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Biodiversity - an International Focus <ul><li>Controversies about mining in sensitive areas - Amman Resolution 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>World Summit – IUCN/ICMM Dialogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognise the positive contribution of mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish clear & equitable rules for land access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce conflict over areas at project level - costly and unproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Good Practice Guidelines to integrate biodiversity concerns into all phases of mine planning, operation and closure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IUCN Guidelines on Mining in Arid Zones </li></ul><ul><li>Still controversial! </li></ul><ul><li>SA Dialogue </li></ul>
    4. 4. NGO Perspectives “ No Dirty Gold” Campaign
    5. 5. “ No Dirty Gold” Campaign
    6. 6. “ No Dirty Gold” Campaign
    7. 7. “ No Dirty Gold” Campaign
    8. 8. NGO Strategies <ul><li>Traditional tactics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful media campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobbying on legislative and regulatory matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges of license conditions & license compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify high visibility target (an operation at risk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They review permits, laws, and financial records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then approach: Banks, Stock / Securities exchanges, Insurance companies, Industry analysts and Investors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They then urge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks not to lend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securities exchanges to inquire and require disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance companies not to insure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry analysts to recommend sale of shares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors to sell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition to the lending, stock sale and insurance “pitches” they will allege non-disclosure of information and urge fraud and other lawful claims be brought against the company </li></ul>
    9. 9. De Beers “Achilles' Heel”? Mining Area 1, Namdeb, Namibia Mining Area 1, Namibia
    10. 10. De Beers Namaqualand Mines, Buffels Marine Complex (BMC) Buffels Marine Complex (BMC), Namaqualand
    11. 11. Why is the West Coast an “Achilles' Heel”? <ul><li>Only arid ecosystem recognised as a global biodiversity hotspot </li></ul><ul><li>6356 plants species, 40% endemic </li></ul><ul><li>116 000 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>less than 3% protected </li></ul><ul><li>30 Red data species & many more endemic </li></ul>Succulent Karoo
    12. 12. Managing the Liabilities <ul><li>Where are there other arid areas in the world? </li></ul><ul><li>With established mining industry? </li></ul><ul><li>What are they doing i.t.o. rehabilitation? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Landscapes similar to those of SA Patagonia, Argentina
    14. 14. Where in the world are we? Nevada, USA
    15. 15. Landscapes similar to those of SA Margaret River, Western Australia
    16. 16. Where in the world are we? Pilbara, Western Australia
    17. 17. Similarities between the mining environment in Patagonia and Namaqualand Patagonia, Argentina No, it’s not the BMC (Namaqualand), but Cerro Vanguardia (Argentina)
    18. 18. Rehabilitation Challenges 10cm topsoil Guanaco Hard, rocky overburden Dumps ± 5 years old No vegetation 26 visually intrusive open pits & waste dumps Patagonia, Argentina
    19. 19. International Rehabilitation Technology Profiled overburden dumps with topsoil Placer Dome’s Cortex Pipeline Mine Nevada, USA
    20. 20. International Rehabilitation Technology Establish natural topographical contours Contoured Rock-drains Nevada, USA Goldstrike Mine
    21. 21. Ripping on the contour Winged Ripper Moon-scaping dumps for enhanced water retention International Rehabilitation Technology Pilbara, Western Australia Northern Territory
    22. 22. International Rehabilitation Technology Ripping on the contours Profiled dumps with terraces & rock drains Sunrise Dam, Western Australia
    23. 23. International Rehabilitation Technology Profiled dumps with terraces & rock drains Sunrise Dam, Western Australia
    24. 24. International Rehabilitation Technology Simulated rainfall infiltration & erosion monitoring Pilbara, Western Australia Northern Territory
    25. 25. International Rehabilitation Technology Landform Evolution Modeling (Siberia model) Simulates run-off and erosion from a landform 3-dimensional topographic evolution model predicts long-term evolution of channels and hillslopes in a catchment Pilbara, Western Australia Northern Territory
    26. 26. Newcastle, NSW International Rehabilitation Technology Fauna habitat Re-establish natural contours Hand-planting & wind protection Silica gel for moisture supply
    27. 27. Public Expectations? <ul><li>In rehabilitation terms, what can be done? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Innovative revegetation of steep pit walls Highwall Rehabilitation, Brazil Morro Velho, Brazil
    29. 29. Innovative revegetation of steep pit walls Highwall Rehabilitation, Brazil Morro Velho, Brazil
    30. 30. Ashanti, Ghana Waste Dump Rehabilitation, Ghana Waste rock covered with topsoil & replanted
    31. 31. Ashanti, Ghana Waste Dump Rehabilitation, Ghana 5 year old
    32. 32. Ashanti, Ghana Waste Dump Rehabilitation, Ghana 3 year old
    33. 33. Investing in Rehabilitation Nurseries in Brazil & Ghana
    34. 34. Nursery in Western Australia Tissue culture lab Experimental nursery Alcoa, Huntley Mine Western Australia
    35. 35. Investing in Rehabilitation Technology Bauxite Grazing protection Planting of recalcitrant species Alcoa, Huntley Mine Western Australia
    36. 36. Investing in Rehabilitation Technology 20 year old forest Alcoa, Huntley Mine Western Australia
    37. 37. Arid land rehabilitation <ul><li>Have we adequately investigated Australian Mining Environmental Research? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there opportunities to improve research partnerships with Cape-based universities and other research organisations? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Where in the world are we? The Eden Project, UK <ul><li>Futuristic world emphasising “sustainability” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Global Centre for Post-Mining Regeneration” - showcase of global mining rehabilitation practice </li></ul><ul><li>The ability for the mining industry to influence the perceptions of millions of visitors </li></ul>
    39. 39. Conclusions <ul><li>Opportunities for De Beers Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect its reputation & the desirability of diamonds through rehabilitation of large areas of disturbed lands on the West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Lead the way in developing improved methods of rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish improved research partnerships with Cape-based universities & other research organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Increase its contribution to the understanding of biodiversity in Southern Africa, incl. rare & unique species thought to be threatened by mining </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance its reputation among conservation & environmental organisations </li></ul>

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