Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About “Government” Introduction and  Chapter 1, Section 1 … well, almost.
Just what exactly is a “government”? <ul><li>A group that exercises  authority  over a particular group of people in a par...
How Are Governments Able to Exercise Their  Authority ? <ul><li>Use either  legitimacy  or  force  (or both) to compel peo...
Why Do We Have Governments? <ul><li>As we saw when we took away the handbook, the teachers and the administrators, human b...
Another way of looking at it… <ul><li>Imagine a 9 year-old’s birthday party… </li></ul>Now imagine that there are no paren...
What might happen?
So We Know We Need Them… But Where Do Governments Come From? <ul><li>**We really cannot be certain… </li></ul><ul><li>Ther...
Evolutionary Theory  <ul><li>This is the theory that governments evolved from the family unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family...
Force Theory <ul><li>This theory states that governments formed when one person or group used force to bring a group of pe...
Divine Right Theory  <ul><li>This theory states that a government’s (or leader’s) authority comes from God or gods. </li><...
Social Contract Theory <ul><li>The idea that governments are created when free people  agree  (consent) to give up their  ...
What do governments do for their citizens? <ul><li>Every government attempts to accomplish four main purposes or goals. </...
Maintain Social Order <ul><li>The ability to make and enforce laws to maintain social order makes the other functions of g...
Provide Public Services <ul><li>Particularly those things that people cannot do on their own, individually… </li></ul><ul>...
Provide National Security/Common Defense <ul><li>This seems pretty straightforward… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the gov...
Provide For/Influence the Economy <ul><li>As we will learn, every country has an economic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thi...
So, to Review… <ul><li>What is “government”? </li></ul><ul><li>What two methods enable governments to exercise their autho...
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Introduction to Government

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Introduction to Government

  1. 1. Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About “Government” Introduction and Chapter 1, Section 1 … well, almost.
  2. 2. Just what exactly is a “government”? <ul><li>A group that exercises authority over a particular group of people in a particular area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority is the power to make decisions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And also the power to make and enforce laws that people must obey </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How Are Governments Able to Exercise Their Authority ? <ul><li>Use either legitimacy or force (or both) to compel people to follow the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimacy means the belief among citizens that their government has the right to rule them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Democratic governments derive most of their ability to rule from this source… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments which do not have consent from the people to rule must use force to control their people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictatorships, for example </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Do We Have Governments? <ul><li>As we saw when we took away the handbook, the teachers and the administrators, human beings want/need someone to make and enforce rules so that a group or society can accomplish its goals (peace, stability, life, liberty, happiness, property, progress, etc…) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Without government, there can be no progress, no art, no music, no writing, no architecture, no literature…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a stable environment where people can feel relatively safe and secure in their everyday lives and society can progress </li></ul>
  5. 5. Another way of looking at it… <ul><li>Imagine a 9 year-old’s birthday party… </li></ul>Now imagine that there are no parents there…
  6. 6. What might happen?
  7. 7. So We Know We Need Them… But Where Do Governments Come From? <ul><li>**We really cannot be certain… </li></ul><ul><li>There are several theories that have been developed to explain the origin of governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divine Right theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Contract theory </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Evolutionary Theory <ul><li>This is the theory that governments evolved from the family unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family to tribe, tribe to clan, clan to society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father/Mother becomes tribal leader, and so forth… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The right to rule is based on the position of the father/mother as head of the family… </li></ul>This is perhaps the cause/reason for the earliest, smallest and simplest governments in history.
  9. 9. Force Theory <ul><li>This theory states that governments formed when one person or group used force to bring a group of people under their control. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to rule is based on the person or group’s ability to use force to compel others to follow their rules </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Divine Right Theory <ul><li>This theory states that a government’s (or leader’s) authority comes from God or gods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ruler believes that God has appointed them to rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to the ruler is considered opposition to God </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This theory was used to justify the rule of the kings of Europe, Central and South America, Asia and the Middle East </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Contract Theory <ul><li>The idea that governments are created when free people agree (consent) to give up their total freedom and be bound by rules which are enforced by a government they create and choose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**Why would people agree to be bound by these rules? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The government gets its authority from the consent of the governed…the “ people ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound familiar? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First devised by philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke in the 1600s… </li></ul>
  12. 12. What do governments do for their citizens? <ul><li>Every government attempts to accomplish four main purposes or goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**Maintain social order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide public services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for national security/common defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for/influence the economic system </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Maintain Social Order <ul><li>The ability to make and enforce laws to maintain social order makes the other functions of government possible </li></ul><ul><li>**What are the ways in which governments maintain social order? </li></ul><ul><li>This is the most important function of a government </li></ul>
  14. 14. Provide Public Services <ul><li>Particularly those things that people cannot do on their own, individually… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>**Can you think of any public services the government provides for us? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build roads, sewage systems, provide utilities, monitor food safety, air quality, regulate businesses (airlines, automakers, mining, etc.) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Provide National Security/Common Defense <ul><li>This seems pretty straightforward… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the government accomplish this goal? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Provide For/Influence the Economy <ul><li>As we will learn, every country has an economic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This system controls how we get what we want and need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments attempt to influence economic systems in order to benefit the people of their nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They pass laws to increase trade, create currency, lower taxes, or may even try to control what you buy or sell and for how much </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. So, to Review… <ul><li>What is “government”? </li></ul><ul><li>What two methods enable governments to exercise their authority over people? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is legitimacy ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an example of how a government uses force to exercise authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do we have governments? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe one theory about how governments originate. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and give one example of the purposes of government. </li></ul>
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