A Museum Guide to Digital
Rights Management
David Green
Knowledge Culture
www.knowledgeculture.com
Museum Computer Network...
Review of Current Practice
+
Guide to Good Practice
Summary Recommendations
Guide to Digital Rights Management
2
2
Survey (Canadian)Survey (Canadian)
Anonymous
Art Gallery of Ontario
Canadian Centre for Architecture
Canadian Museum of Na...
Structure
1. Definition of Terms (DRM;Workflow)
2. Brief History & Taxonomy of Technologies
3. Findings & Recommendations fo...
6,241 Artists and 33,175 Works Online
From a selection... ...to Everything
5
5
DRM
Digital Rights Management
Rights-In - Rights-Out
End-to-End Rights Workflow
Asset Protection
Rights Enforcement
Technol...
Rights In Digitization Rights Out
Object Rights Image Rights Images/Digital Assets
1. Accession/IP Audit
Public Domain or ...
DUPLICATION DUPLICAT
8
Registrar
Collections
Database Donors File
Loans File
Exhibits File
Acquisitions
File
Development
D...
1980 Lenore Sarasen founds Willoughby Systems
(MIMSY)
1981 Jay Hoffman founds Gallery Systems (TMS)
1982 Cuadra Associates...
10
Collection Management SystemsHISTORY
TMS Modules:
Objects
Constituents
Media
Exhibitions
Loans
Shipping
Bibliography
Ev...
1988
First commercial digital camera (Fuji DS-1P )
1990
Adobe Photoshop
1990
Kodak PhotoCD System
1993
Mosaic Web Browser ...
12
Digital Asset Management Systems (DAMS)HISTORY
Image Rights Metadata on MediaBin screen.
Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum ...
1992 Canto Cumulus
1996 Extensis Portfolio (Adobe’s Fetch)
1999 Artesia TEAMS
1999 MediaBin
2001 NetXposure
13
Introductio...
14
Rights Protection: WatermarkingHISTORY
https://www.digimarc.com/solutions/images/
14
RightsLine
http://www.rightsline.com/html/products.aspx
Library
Manages contacts
& rights
information and
metadata
structu...
16
HISTORY
✔
16
17
17
1999 RightsLine
2000 Rightslink
2003 ImageSpan
18
Introduction Dates of Select Rights
Management Systems
HISTORY
18
Structure
1. Definition of Terms (DRM;Workflow)
2. Brief History & Taxonomy of Technologies
3. Findings & Recommendations fo...
A. IP Audit
“...an inventory of the IP assets held by an institution,
whether by creation, acquisition or license.”
Author...
Partial Audit with Interns
Yes
Art Gallery of Ontario
1,200 Rightsholder Contacts
1,200 Assignments/Contracts
2002 2010
Ex...
TMS
(3)
Mimsy
(4)
Cuadra
Star (2)
Portfolio (1)
Portfolio+ZyImage (1)
Portfolio+TMS (1)
Eloquent (1)
None
(3)
In-House (1)...
Documenting IP Rights
Types of IP Information with Consistent RecordsTypes of IP Information with Consistent RecordsTypes ...
0
25
50
75
100
Types of IP Information for which Consistent Records Are Held
CMS Paper
Status
Contact
Permissions
Licenses...
Integration still an issue...
We have different areas of this information
stored in several different databases. We
would ...
Customizing TMS
26
TMS Bibliography Module used for recording permissions granted Harvard by rightsholders.
Courtesy, Harv...
Susan Chun and Michael Jenkins, "Why Digital Asset Management?
A Case Study." RLG DigiNews, 10 (6), December 15, 2006.
27
...
• easy access to images
• foregrounds image rights + other image
metadata
• shows relationships within image families
• ca...
C. Licensing
0
1
2
3
4
1-50 50-200 200-1000 1000+
DoYou License a Core Set of Images?
Number of Most-Frequently-Requested ...
INVENTORY
Licensing
OUTSOURCING AUTOMATION
30
30
INVENTORY
Licensing
OUTSOURCING AUTOMATION
31
7,000 core
images
31
INVENTORY OUTSOURCING
Licensing
AUTOMATION
32
32
INVENTORY OUTSOURCING
Licensing
AUTOMATION
33
33
INVENTORY OUTSOURCING
Licensing
AUTOMATION
34
34
INVENTORY OUTSOURCING
Licensing
AUTOMATION
35
35
INVENTORY OUTSOURCING
Licensing
AUTOMATION
36
36
...a system of standards that makes it
easier to communicate, understand and
manage image rights in all countries. The
PLU...
D. Risk Management/Rights Protection
Sensitive to Risk in
Displaying Work Online?
0
5
10
Very Somewhat A Little Not At All...
“We’re still waiting for
government policies and
central mechanisms for e-
commerce to be developed.”
“The chief stumbling...
Value of image
Timeliness of use
Impact on scholarship
Benefit to museum “brand”
Audit + due diligence
Likelihood rightshol...
Lesley Ellen Harris, “Developing A Copyright Risk
Management Plan” www.copyrightlaws.com
• Origin of the work. Is the arti...
“Concerns about risk are balanced
with the objective of increasing
access to collection material for
research purposes by ...
D. Risk Management/Rights Protection
“It isnʼt that the
technology isnʼt there or
isnʼt efficient, but more
that people at ...
ALL
RIGHTS
RESERVED
© (rights statement as per license) 
© artist or artist's estate
Creative Commons-BY-NC
no known copyr...
“Showing something on a screen is a
start, but it is not the end of what we
aspire to.The people we serve want to
be able ...
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Museum Guide to Digital Rights Management

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Museum Guide to Digital Rights Management

  1. 1. A Museum Guide to Digital Rights Management David Green Knowledge Culture www.knowledgeculture.com Museum Computer Network Conference October 28, 2010 1 Available at: http://www.pro.rcip-chin.gc.ca/sommaire-summary/ gestion_numerique_droits-digital_rights_management-eng.jsp 1
  2. 2. Review of Current Practice + Guide to Good Practice Summary Recommendations Guide to Digital Rights Management 2 2
  3. 3. Survey (Canadian)Survey (Canadian) Anonymous Art Gallery of Ontario Canadian Centre for Architecture Canadian Museum of Nature Manitoba Museum Montreal Museum of Fine Arts Montréal Science Centre Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec National Gallery of Canada Nova Scotia Museum Royal Alberta Museum Royal BC Museum Royal Tyrrell Museum The Rooms: Provincial Archives, Art Gallery and Museum of Newfoundland Vancouver Aquarium Vancouver Art Gallery Interviews (International) Denise Bastien, Museum of Rhode Island School of Design Jennie Choi, Billie Kwan & Julie Zeftel, Metropolitan Museum of Art Elspeth Cowell, Canadian Centre for Architecture Danielle Currie, Vancouver Art Gallery Alicia Cutler, National Museum of American History Anita Duquette, Whitney Museum of American Art Syvalya Elchen & Jane Rhodes, Art Gallery of Ontario Rosemarie Falanga, The Exploratorium Denise Gosé, Center for Contemporary Photography Naomi Korn, Naomi Korn Copyright Consultancy Mary Kuch-Nagle, Digimarc Corporation Debra LaKind, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Erik Landsberg & Jeri Moxley, Museum of Modern Art Alan Newman, National Gallery of Art Marie-Claude Rousseau, National Gallery of Canada Jeff Sedlik, PLUS Coalition David Sturtevant, Harvard Art Museums Simon Tanner, Digital Consultancy Services, King's College London Darci Vanderhoff, The Phillips Collection Layna White, San Francisco Museum of Art Deborah Wythe, Brooklyn Museum 3 3
  4. 4. Structure 1. Definition of Terms (DRM;Workflow) 2. Brief History & Taxonomy of Technologies 3. Findings & Recommendations following Workflow: a. I.P. Audit (Survey + Comments) b. Documentation & Management (Survey + Comments) c. Licensing (Survey + Comments) d. Risk Management & Rights Protection (Survey + Comments) 4. Conclusions 4 4
  5. 5. 6,241 Artists and 33,175 Works Online From a selection... ...to Everything 5 5
  6. 6. DRM Digital Rights Management Rights-In - Rights-Out End-to-End Rights Workflow Asset Protection Rights Enforcement Technological Protection Measures “DRM”-Watermarking-Encryption 6 6
  7. 7. Rights In Digitization Rights Out Object Rights Image Rights Images/Digital Assets 1. Accession/IP Audit Public Domain or Rightsholder? 2. Documenting & Managing Request and/or document the assignment or transfer of rights, or of permission to display and reproduce work 2.a Documenting & Managing Image work order Attach/embed/link rights metadata + range of allowable uses to images 3. Licensing Field requests & Locate images Set fees & Issue License Bill & Fulfill 4. Rights Protection Track & Protect CMS Excel, etc DAMS Excel, etc Rights Management Software CMS/DAMS/Filemaker I.P.Workflow 7 7
  8. 8. DUPLICATION DUPLICAT 8 Registrar Collections Database Donors File Loans File Exhibits File Acquisitions File Development Donor Info CURATORS Inventory File Artists Files Robert Baron, “Choosing Museum Collection Management Software. The Systems Analysis: Its Methods, Functions and Benefits.” 1991. http://www.studiolo.org/MusComp/STATEMNT.htm Object Notes DATA DATADATA DATHISTORY 8
  9. 9. 1980 Lenore Sarasen founds Willoughby Systems (MIMSY) 1981 Jay Hoffman founds Gallery Systems (TMS) 1982 Cuadra Associates release STAR 9 Early Key Collection Management Systems HISTORY 9
  10. 10. 10 Collection Management SystemsHISTORY TMS Modules: Objects Constituents Media Exhibitions Loans Shipping Bibliography Events Sites Insurance. Rights & Reproduction Screen ofTMS Objects Module (as used at the Museum of Modern Art). Reproduced with permission. Rights & Reproduction Screen 10
  11. 11. 1988 First commercial digital camera (Fuji DS-1P ) 1990 Adobe Photoshop 1990 Kodak PhotoCD System 1993 Mosaic Web Browser Released 1995 www.DIA.org - one of first museum websites 11 Dates of Key Digital DevelopmentsHISTORY 11
  12. 12. 12 Digital Asset Management Systems (DAMS)HISTORY Image Rights Metadata on MediaBin screen. Courtesy, Metropolitan Museum of Art. 12
  13. 13. 1992 Canto Cumulus 1996 Extensis Portfolio (Adobe’s Fetch) 1999 Artesia TEAMS 1999 MediaBin 2001 NetXposure 13 Introduction Dates of Key Digital Asset Management Systems (DAMS) HISTORY 13
  14. 14. 14 Rights Protection: WatermarkingHISTORY https://www.digimarc.com/solutions/images/ 14
  15. 15. RightsLine http://www.rightsline.com/html/products.aspx Library Manages contacts & rights information and metadata structures Acquisitions Manages rights; generates appropriate contracts; automates all acquisitions workflow Sales Automates sales and licensing from inquiry through fulfillment Licensing Validates licensee information and creates the contract for the licensing transaction Invoicing Invoices and provides an audit trail of the whole process 15 HISTORY 15
  16. 16. 16 HISTORY ✔ 16
  17. 17. 17 17
  18. 18. 1999 RightsLine 2000 Rightslink 2003 ImageSpan 18 Introduction Dates of Select Rights Management Systems HISTORY 18
  19. 19. Structure 1. Definition of Terms (DRM;Workflow) 2. Brief History & Taxonomy of Technologies 3. Findings & Recommendations following Workflow: – I.P. Audit (Survey + Comments) – Documentation & Management (Survey + Comments) – Licensing (Survey + Comments) – Risk Management & Rights Protection (Survey + Comments) 4. Conclusions 19 19
  20. 20. A. IP Audit “...an inventory of the IP assets held by an institution, whether by creation, acquisition or license.” Authoritative IP Records? 0 2 4 6 1-25% 26-50% 51-75% 76-100% Conduct IP Audit? Yes No Percentage of objects NumberofMuseums Rina Elster Pantalony 20 20
  21. 21. Partial Audit with Interns Yes Art Gallery of Ontario 1,200 Rightsholder Contacts 1,200 Assignments/Contracts 2002 2010 Excel Access-based CMS TMS 21 21
  22. 22. TMS (3) Mimsy (4) Cuadra Star (2) Portfolio (1) Portfolio+ZyImage (1) Portfolio+TMS (1) Eloquent (1) None (3) In-House (1) Content & Asset Management Systems Used by Survey Respondents 22 B. Documenting IP Rights 22
  23. 23. Documenting IP Rights Types of IP Information with Consistent RecordsTypes of IP Information with Consistent RecordsTypes of IP Information with Consistent Records 1 Copyright status 70% 2 Rightsholder contact information 88% 3 Rightsholder correspondence 88% 4 Permission to reproduce work without further contact 82% 5 License agreements 82% 6 Licensed-use reporting 41% 7 Rights and reproductions workflow 47% 23 23
  24. 24. 0 25 50 75 100 Types of IP Information for which Consistent Records Are Held CMS Paper Status Contact Permissions Licenses Tracking R&RW orkflow Correspondence Percentageofinstitutions 24 24
  25. 25. Integration still an issue... We have different areas of this information stored in several different databases. We would like to move to a more streamlined system: for example, having copyright contact and copyright license information stored together in our CMS. “ ” 25 25
  26. 26. Customizing TMS 26 TMS Bibliography Module used for recording permissions granted Harvard by rightsholders. Courtesy, Harvard Art Museums 26
  27. 27. Susan Chun and Michael Jenkins, "Why Digital Asset Management? A Case Study." RLG DigiNews, 10 (6), December 15, 2006. 27 Workflow Analysis 27
  28. 28. • easy access to images • foregrounds image rights + other image metadata • shows relationships within image families • can dramatically improve the efficiency and speed of image discovery and delivery • saves in image production costs 28 The DAMS Advantage 28
  29. 29. C. Licensing 0 1 2 3 4 1-50 50-200 200-1000 1000+ DoYou License a Core Set of Images? Number of Most-Frequently-Requested Images NumberofMuseums TOP 10 REQUESTED IMAGES 29 29
  30. 30. INVENTORY Licensing OUTSOURCING AUTOMATION 30 30
  31. 31. INVENTORY Licensing OUTSOURCING AUTOMATION 31 7,000 core images 31
  32. 32. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 32 32
  33. 33. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 33 33
  34. 34. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 34 34
  35. 35. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 35 35
  36. 36. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 36 36
  37. 37. ...a system of standards that makes it easier to communicate, understand and manage image rights in all countries. The PLUS Coalition exists at the crossroads between technology, commerce, the arts, preservation and education. INVENTORY OUTSOURCING Licensing AUTOMATION 37 useplus.com 37
  38. 38. D. Risk Management/Rights Protection Sensitive to Risk in Displaying Work Online? 0 5 10 Very Somewhat A Little Not At All Yes No NumberofMuseums Obstacles to Online Licensing? 0 5 10 15 Yes No Dont Know Total 13 – Risk Issues 4 38 38
  39. 39. “We’re still waiting for government policies and central mechanisms for e- commerce to be developed.” “The chief stumbling blocks for us are limited resources and a need for faster development of online applications and image management (DAM) tools.” “Inconsistent rights management prior to 2006 has made it nearly impossible to trace rights from some of the most useful images in our archives.” “The collection database is not online.” Risk Issues in Perspective in Developing E-Commerce 39 39
  40. 40. Value of image Timeliness of use Impact on scholarship Benefit to museum “brand” Audit + due diligence Likelihood rightsholder appear Likelihood of suit Impact of potential suit on institution 40 Weighing Risk Factors Against Benefits of Using 40
  41. 41. Lesley Ellen Harris, “Developing A Copyright Risk Management Plan” www.copyrightlaws.com • Origin of the work. Is the artist well known? ... • Who will have access to the work? If it is being reproduced on the Web, then it is accessible to a huge number of people around the world. • Can you afford litigation? Analyze your budget for after-the-fact royalty payments, settlements out of court, court-related fees, and infringement- related legal advice. • What are the "political" consequences of using materials without permission? • Do you have insurance coverage for copyright infringement? • What are the "emotional" costs of a claim against you for copyright infringement? • Weigh the time and inconvenience of dealing with an infringement claim with the advantages of using authorized materials. 41 41
  42. 42. “Concerns about risk are balanced with the objective of increasing access to collection material for research purposes by providing online access.” Elspeth Cowell, Canadian Centre for Architecture 42 42
  43. 43. D. Risk Management/Rights Protection “It isnʼt that the technology isnʼt there or isnʼt efficient, but more that people at our institutions donʼt yet know enough about the various means of protecting works” 43 43
  44. 44. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © (rights statement as per license)  © artist or artist's estate Creative Commons-BY-NC no known copyright restrictions copyright status unknown 44 44
  45. 45. “Showing something on a screen is a start, but it is not the end of what we aspire to.The people we serve want to be able to do [things] with the material we are putting out.” Josh Greenberg, NYPL IMLS, The Future of Museums and Libraries: A Discussion Guide p.12. 45 45

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