Jim Crow<br />
Sharecropping<br />Black farmers generally farmed as sharecroppers. <br />White tenants were allowed to rent. <br />With f...
“Furnishing merchants” charged interest & higher rates for credit customers. In return, they:<br /><ul><li> received a “li...
 insisted that debtors grow cotton </li></ul>Factors<br />1.	1894 crop double of that in 1873, but the prices were 1/3. <b...
Bought food & supplies at inflated prices on credit
Fell into a cycle of “debt peonage”:couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debt</li></ul>Crop-Lien System<br />
Jim Crow<br />Swept across the South between 1890 & 1905<br />Consisted of<br />1.	Racial Segregation<br />Political Disen...
Legal Underpinnings<br />Jim Crow was undergirded by reactionary Supreme Court decisions that rolled back civil rights gai...
Racial Segregation<br />Laws requiring separation in public accommodations<br />Laws that required separation in public pl...
Separate But Equal?<br />
Segregation<br />
Self-Segregation?<br />
Disenfranchisement<br />Black voting rates in the South dropped:<br /><ul><li> from 60-70% in the 1870s
 to less than 5% by 1910</li></ul>Methods of Disenfranchisement<br /> Poll Taxes<br /> Literacy Tests<br /> Residency Requ...
Map of Disenfranchisement<br />
Racial Degradation<br />Customs that applied unequally to blacks in practice<br />Second-class accommodations<br />Economi...
Convict Labor<br />
Lynchings, 1882-1965<br />
Function of Lynching<br />Between 1882-1930:2805 confirmed lynchings across the South<br />87.7% Black97.2% Male<br />Sout...
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African-American History ~ Jim Crow

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  • (copyleft 2008) Chad David Cover.Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 1.0 Generic. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0/
  • As one sharecropper put it, the only direction Southern farmers were headed in was “facing the eastbound end of a westbound mule.”
  • Problem: But the price cotton fell from 1880 to 1900.
  • (L) W.E.B.DuBois(R) Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954), the daughter of a politically powerful financier from Memphis, TN, received an M.A. from Oberlin in 1888. She moved to Washington, D.C. to teach school & became a leader in the black society of the city after her marriage to Robert Terrell. She founded the National Assocation of Colored Women in 1896 and was the first female member of the DC Board of Education. IN 1909 she became a charter member of the NAACP.
  • African-American History ~ Jim Crow

    1. 1. Jim Crow<br />
    2. 2. Sharecropping<br />Black farmers generally farmed as sharecroppers. <br />White tenants were allowed to rent. <br />With falling wholesale cotton crop prices, both fell into debt. <br />
    3. 3. “Furnishing merchants” charged interest & higher rates for credit customers. In return, they:<br /><ul><li> received a “lien” on the crop
    4. 4. insisted that debtors grow cotton </li></ul>Factors<br />1. 1894 crop double of that in 1873, but the prices were 1/3. <br />2. Competition from cotton grown in Egypt, India & Brazil.<br />3. Renters & croppers got caught in a system of falling crop prices as worldwide supply increased. <br /><ul><li>To make ends meet, they grew less of their own foodstuffs
    5. 5. Bought food & supplies at inflated prices on credit
    6. 6. Fell into a cycle of “debt peonage”:couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debt</li></ul>Crop-Lien System<br />
    7. 7. Jim Crow<br />Swept across the South between 1890 & 1905<br />Consisted of<br />1. Racial Segregation<br />Political Disenfranchisement<br />Public Degradation<br />Upheld by Supreme Court<br />Plessyv. Ferguson (1896)“separate but equal” not a violation of 14th Amendment<br />Williams v. Mississippi (1898) poll taxes & literacy tests do not violate 14th Amendment<br />
    8. 8. Legal Underpinnings<br />Jim Crow was undergirded by reactionary Supreme Court decisions that rolled back civil rights gains made during Reconstruction:1) Slaughterhouse Cases <br />2) U.S. v. Reese (1875)<br />3) U.S. v. Cruikshank (1875)<br />4) Civil Rights Cases (1883)<br />5) U.S. v. Santa Clara Railroad (1886)<br />6) Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)<br />
    9. 9. Racial Segregation<br />Laws requiring separation in public accommodations<br />Laws that required separation in public places<br />Corporate & individual acts of discrimination<br />Miscegenation Laws<br />Self-segregation by the black community<br />
    10. 10. Separate But Equal?<br />
    11. 11. Segregation<br />
    12. 12. Self-Segregation?<br />
    13. 13. Disenfranchisement<br />Black voting rates in the South dropped:<br /><ul><li> from 60-70% in the 1870s
    14. 14. to less than 5% by 1910</li></ul>Methods of Disenfranchisement<br /> Poll Taxes<br /> Literacy Tests<br /> Residency Requirements<br /> Property Requirements<br /> Grandfather Clauses<br />
    15. 15. Map of Disenfranchisement<br />
    16. 16. Racial Degradation<br />Customs that applied unequally to blacks in practice<br />Second-class accommodations<br />Economic Discrimination<br />Racial Epithets<br />Vagrancy & Debtor Laws<br />Black Stereotypes<br />White Supremacy<br />Lynching<br />
    17. 17. Convict Labor<br />
    18. 18. Lynchings, 1882-1965<br />
    19. 19. Function of Lynching<br />Between 1882-1930:2805 confirmed lynchings across the South<br />87.7% Black97.2% Male<br />Southern whites’ claimed:<br /><ul><li> Lynching was only protection against black criminal behavior</li></ul>47.1% of victims accused of murder or nonsexual assault 33.6% accused of violating sexual norms<br />Purpose of Lynching<br /><ul><li> Take care of dangerous blacks (per Southern claims)
    20. 20. State-Sanctioned Terror Giving Whites Leverage Over Blacks
    21. 21. Target Black Competitors for Social, Economic or Political Power
    22. 22. Affirm White Racial Unity & Superiority</li></li></ul><li>Lynching of Jesse Washington<br />
    23. 23. Accommodationism<br />Booker T. Washington: Atlanta Exposition Speech (1895):<br />&quot;In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.“<br />Eschewal of Politics<br />Focus on Economics<br />Vocational Education<br />Self-Segregation<br />
    24. 24. Civil Rights Struggle: NACW<br />
    25. 25. Niagara Movement & NAACP<br />W.E.B. DuBois, Niagara Movement Leader, Mary Church Terrell, NACW Founder, <br /> NAACP Charter Member NAACP Charter Member<br />

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