Rene Driven refers to pedagogical grammar asa cover form for any learner or teacher-oriented description or presentation offoreign language rule complexes with theaim of promoting and guiding learning inthe acquisition of that language.
Corder refers to replace the term pedagogical grammar with the pedagogy of grammar, points out that the term does not just imply to the implicit treatment of grammar. Bausch pedagogical grammar results from the consolidation and integration of the findings and insights of these areas: LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY and the FIELD OF APPLICATION (foreign language teaching)
Grammar Pedagogical Grammar Descriptive GrammarLearning Teaching Reference LinguisticGrammar Grammar Grammar Grammar Integrated in School Immediate textbooks grammar constituent University Transformational independent grammar generative Case grammar User’s grammar CommunicativeFig.1 Types of Grammar grammar
On Descriptive Grammar the focus is on the code, linguisticdata is described to reveal patterns ofarrangement of the different grammaticalcategoriesOn Pedagogical Grammar the focus is on how grammaticalitems may be made more learnable orteachable
Pedagogical Grammar is considereda hybrid grammar because it drawsfrom and synthesizes the otherconceptions of grammar choosing thatwhich would best suit the grammaticalitem being taught. Fig. 2 shows the four conception of Grammar which pedagogical grammar draws from
1. Grammar as prescription -> focuses on rules, that is, the do’s anddon’t of grammatical constructionEx.
Grammar Grammar as as prescription description Pedagogical grammar Grammar Grammar as an as a set ofinternalized axioms systemFig. 2 Pedagogical Grammar: A hybrid grammar
2. Grammar as description -> focuses on the sequence or word order to become clearer Ex. teaching of structure of modificationA. Adverbs of place, manner and time[Adverb of time + sentence + adverb of place, manner] Or [Sentence + adverb of manner, place, time]
B. Mid-position or frequency adverbs 1. Subject } + verb to be} + mid-position adverb}+ rest of the sentence Ex. He is often late. 2. Subject} + mid-position adverb} + action verb}+ rest of the sentence. Ex. He often comes late. 3. Subject} + helping verb} + mid-positionadverb} + main verb} + rest of the sentence Ex. He has often arrived late.
3. Grammar as an internalized system -> The innate mental structures which anative speaker has of his language whichguides his actual use of the language andenables him to sense “what sounds correct” and“what seems wrong” even if he cannot explainwhy. Examples: “if-real” conditional clause
Native speaker: If he comes early, we will join you.Filipino learner: If he will come early, we will join you.The approach used is consciousness raising to make thesecond language learner realize what the nativespeaker knows instinctively.
4. Grammar as a set of axioms. -> One such rule is that which pertains to the prepositional phrase. [PP-> P NP (PP) -> The rule stipulates that “a prepositionalphrase may be re-written as a prepositionfollowed by a noun phrase which may in turn befollowed by any number of other prepositionalphrases.
EXPANSIONS PP-> P NP (PP) P NP1. There’s a tree in my garden. P NP P NP2. There’s a nest in a tree in my garden. P NP P NP P NP3. There’s an egg in a nest in a tree in my garden. P NP P NP P4. There’s an embryo in an egg in a nest inNP P NPa tree in my garden
Given these grammatical items, which approach to grammar (prescription, description, innate system or axiomatic system), would each item land itself to render it more learnable and teachable?1. Structure of Complementation [S- TV- DO] I called my friend. [S- TV- DO- OC] I called my friend a real gem.2. Structure of Modification (placement of single-word adjectival modifier) I bought three round brown leather keychains.
3. Parallel constructions Every living creature: the birds of the air, theanimals on the land and the fish in the deep, deservesits place in the sun.4. Agreement in number Neither the teacher nor the students were hurt. Neither the students nor the teacher was hurt. Rice and fish is all I had for lunch. Rice and fish are expensive. 5. Response to negative question Q: You’re not coming around tomorrow, are you? A: No, I’m not. (Some Filipino learners would say “Yes, I’m not coming.)
6. Response to the question, “Do you mind…?” Some Filipino learners say “Sure, go ahead,” evenwhen they mean “Of course not. Go right ahead.”7. Definitiona. Full form [Term to be defined + verb to be + General Class +relative pronoun + specific characteristics]Ex. Zoology is the study which is concerned with animallife.b. Reduced form [Term to be defined + verb to be + Gen. Class +specific characteristic]Ex. Zoology is the study concerned with animal life.
8. * Shall we go to the living room? (to signal aninvitation) * Shall I go to the living room? (To askinformation as to what one is to do)