Compendium

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Compendium

  1. 1. BASIC DEFINITIONS<br />Interlanguage: Learners’ own version of the second language which they speak as they learn. Interlanguage is constantly changing and developing as learners learn more of the second language.<br />Communicative Approach: A way of teaching which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorizing a series of rules. <br />Grammar-Translation method: A way of teaching in which students study grammar and translate words into their own language. <br />Total Physical Response (TPR): A way of teaching in which the teacher presents language items as instructions and the students have to do exactly what the teacher tells them.<br />Mother tongue: The very first language that you learn as a baby, which is usually the language spoken to you by your parents. Also called L1 or first language.<br />Bilingualism: Using or able to use two languages, especially with the fluency characteristic of a native speaker.<br />Second Language: <br />The Audio lingual Method: This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle that language learning is habit formation, the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning. <br />The Silent Way: This method begins by using a set of colored rods and verbal commands. This introduces components of pitch, timbre and intensity that will constantly reduce the impact of one voice and hence reduce imitation and encourage personal production of one's own brand of the sounds.<br />Interlanguage: Interlanguage scholarship seeks to understand learner language on its own terms, as a natural language with its own consistent set of rules. <br />Input: Learners' most direct source of information about the target language is the target language itself. When they come into direct contact with the target language, this is referred to as " input." When learners process that language in a way that can contribute to learning, this is referred to as " intake." <br />Affective factors: Affective factors relate to the learner's emotional state and attitude toward the target language. <br />Affective Filter: Language learners possess an affective filter which affects language acquisition. If a student possesses a high filter they are less likely to engage in language learning because of shyness, concern for grammar or other factors. Students possessing a lower affective filter will be more likely to engage in learning because they are less likely to be impeded by other factors. <br />Lingua franca: Language as a global language and world language, Language as a medium of intercultural communication.<br />Linguistics: Linguistics is involved with language in all its manifestations and examines all these links between language and human life. <br />DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L1 AND L2 ACQUISITION<br />L1 LEARNINGL2 LEARNINGAGEBaby to young child L1 lasts into adolescence Usually at primary school and/or second school. It can also continue in adulthood. Ways of learningBy exposure people pick up language.By wanting and deciding to communicate.Through introductions with family and friends.By talking about things in present in the child’s surroundings.By listening to and talking in language by one using it.By playing and experimenting with language. Sometimes through exposures but often by bring taught specific language.Through interaction with a teacher and sometimes with classmates.Often by talking about life outside the classroom.Often by needing to produce language soon after it has been taught.Using language in controlled activities.Context The child hears the language around him/her all time.Familiar and friend talk to and interact with the child a lot.The child has a lot of opportunity to experiment with language.Caretakers often praise and The learner is no exposed to L2 very much often no more than 3 hours per week.Teacher usually simply their language.Teacher vary in the amount they praise or encourage learners.The learner does not receive individual attention from the teacher.Teachers generally correct learners a lot.Overall successChildren normally achieve perfect L1 mastery.L2 learners are unlikely to perfect mastery.General failureSuccess guaranteedComplete success rare.Variation Little variation degree of success among learners.Learners vary in overall success and route.Goals Target language competence.Learners may be concerned with less than target.Fossilization Unknown Language competence o more concerned with fluency than accuracy.Common sometimes the learn returns to earlier stages of development.Intuition Children usually clear intuition about correctness. L2 learners are often unable to form clear grammatically judgments.Instruction Not needed.Helpful or necessary.<br />The L2 sequence English grammatical morphemes is similar, tough not identical to that found in L1 acquisition by Brow (1972) the greatest difference bring the irregular past tense (broke) articles the) copula and auxiliaries (Dulay & Krasen 1982).<br />Other similar sequence of syntactic acquisition has been found in L1 and L2 learning. L2 learners, like L1 learner, start by believing that John is the subject of please, in both, John is easy to please and John and john is eager to please and only go on to discover it is the object in John is easy to please after sometimes (Cook 1973, Anglojan & Tucker 1975).<br />L1 learner, like L1 learner at first put negative elements, at the beginning of the sentence, No the sun shining and then progress to negation within the sentence that is not ready (Wode 1981).<br />SECOND-LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS<br />Below is a description of the basic principles and procedures of the most recognized methods for teaching a second or foreign language. <br />Grammar-Translation Approach<br />Direct Approach<br />Reading Approach<br />Audio lingual Method<br />Community Language Learning<br />The Silent Way<br />Communicative Approach--Functional-Notional <br />Total Physical Response<br />The Grammar-Translation Approach: Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists. Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together; instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. <br />The Direct Approach: This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction. <br />Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures. The mother tongue is NEVER, NEVER used. There is no translation. <br />The Audio lingual Method: This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. <br />Skills are sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in order. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. Teaching points are determined by contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. <br />Community Language Learning: This methodology is not based on the usual methods by which languages are taught. Rather the approach is patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign languages. Consequently, the learner is not thought of as a student but as a client. The native instructors of the language are not considered teachers but, rather are trained in counseling skills adapted to their roles as language counselors. <br />The Silent Way: This method begins by using a set of colored rods and verbal commands in order to achieve the following: <br />To create simple linguistic situations that remains under the complete control of the teacher.<br />To pass on to the learners the responsibility for the utterances of the descriptions of the objects shown or the actions performed. <br />To let the teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they are saying it, drawing their attention to the differences in pronunciation and the flow of words. <br />To generate a serious game-like situation in which the rules are implicitly agreed upon by giving meaning to the gestures of the teacher and his mime. <br />Functional-notional Approach: This method of language teaching is categorized along with others under the rubric of a communicative approach. The method stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus. The emphasis is on breaking down the global concept of language into units of analysis in terms of communicative situations in which they are used.<br />Total Physical Response: James J. Asher defines the Total Physical Response (TPR) method as one that combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system; understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of speaking. Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or communicate information. The student is not forced to speak, but is allowed an individual readiness period and allowed to spontaneously begin to speak when the student feels comfortable and confident in understanding and producing the utterances. <br />Lateralization: The brain is divided into two halves, a left hemisphere and a right hemisphere.  This is called lateralization, and applies to any animal further up the evolutionary tree than, say, a worm.  In animals that are particularly vocal, such as canaries, dolphins, and chimpanzees, it seems that one hemisphere or another is dedicated to controlling those behaviors and the responses to them.<br />In human beings, it is the left hemisphere that usually contains the specialized language areas.  While this holds true for 97% of right-handed people, about 19% of left-handed people have their language areas in the right hemisphere and as many as 68% of them have some language abilities in both the left and the right hemispheres.<br />Broca's Area: The first language area within the left hemisphere to be discovered is called Broca's Area, after Paul Broca.  Broca was a French neurologist who had a patient with severe language problems:  Although he could understand the speech of others with little difficulty, the only word he could produce was " tan."   Because of this, Broca gave the patient the pseudonym " Tan."   After the patient died, Broca performed an autopsy, and discovered that an area of the frontal lobe, just ahead of the motor cortex controlling the mouth, had been seriously damaged.  He correctly hypothesized that this area was responsible for speech production.<br />Physicians called the inability to speak aphasia, and the inability to produce speech was therefore called Broca's aphasia, or expressive aphasia.  Someone with this kind of aphasia has little problem understanding speech.  But when trying to speak themselves, they are capable only of slow, laborious, often slurred sequences of words.  They don't produce complete sentences, seldom use regular grammatical endings such as -ed for the past tense, and tend to leave out small grammatical words. <br />It turns out that Broca's area is not just a matter of getting language out in a motor sense, though.  It seems to be more generally involved in the ability to deal with grammar itself, at least the more complex aspects of grammar.  For example, when they hear sentences that are put into a passive form, they often misunderstand:  If you say " the boy was slapped by the girl," they may understand you as communicating that the boy slapped the girl instead.<br />Wernicke's Area: The second language area to be discovered is called Wernicke's area, after Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist.  Wernicke had a patient who could speak quite well, but was unable to understand the speech of others.  After the patient's death, Wernicke performed an autopsy and found damage to an area at the upper portion of the temporal lobe, just behind the auditory cortex.  He correctly hypothesized that this area was responsible for speech comprehension.<br />This kind of aphasia is known as Wernicke's Aphasia, or receptive aphasia.  When you ask a person with this problem a question, they will respond with a sentence that is more or less grammatical, but which contains words that have little to do with the question or, for that matter, with each other.  Strange, meaningless, but grammatical sentences come forth, a phenomenon called " word salad." <br />Like Broca's area is not just about speech production, Wernicke's is not just about speech comprehension.  People with Wernicke's Aphasia also have difficulty naming things, often responding with words that sound similar, or the names of related things, as if they are having a very hard time with their mental " dictionaries." <br />SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L2 AND L1<br />FeatureL1 acquisitionL2 (foreign language)acquisitionOverall success children normally achieve perfect L1 masteryadult L2 learners are unlikely to achieve perfect L2 masteryGeneral failuresuccess guaranteed  complete success rareVariationlittle variation in degree of success or route  L2 learners vary in overall success and routeGoalstarget language  competence L2 learners may be content with less than target language competence or more concerned with fluency than accuracyFossilization unknown common, plus backsliding (i.e. return to earlier stages of developmentIntuitions children develop clear intuitions about correctness L2 learners are often unable to form clear grammaticality judgmentsInstructionnot needed helpful or necessaryNegative evidence correction not found and not necessarycorrection generally helpful or necessaryAffective factors not involved play a major role determining success<br />TABLE OF CONTENTS<br /> TOC o " 1-2" h z u BASIC DEFINITIONS PAGEREF _Toc274588074 h 1<br />Interlanguage: PAGEREF _Toc274588075 h 1<br />Communicative Approach PAGEREF _Toc274588076 h 1<br />Grammar-Translation method PAGEREF _Toc274588077 h 1<br />Total Physical Response (TPR): PAGEREF _Toc274588078 h 1<br />Mother tongue: PAGEREF _Toc274588079 h 1<br />Bilingualism: PAGEREF _Toc274588080 h 1<br />Second Language: PAGEREF _Toc274588081 h 1<br />The Audio lingual Method: PAGEREF _Toc274588082 h 1<br />The Silent Way: PAGEREF _Toc274588083 h 1<br />Interlanguage: PAGEREF _Toc274588084 h 1<br />Input: PAGEREF _Toc274588085 h 2<br />Affective factors: PAGEREF _Toc274588086 h 2<br />Affective Filter PAGEREF _Toc274588087 h 2<br />Lingua franca: PAGEREF _Toc274588088 h 2<br />Linguistics: PAGEREF _Toc274588089 h 2<br />DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L1 AND L2 ACQUISITION PAGEREF _Toc274588090 h 2<br />SECOND-LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS PAGEREF _Toc274588091 h 5<br />The Grammar-Translation Approach: PAGEREF _Toc274588092 h 5<br />The Direct Approach: PAGEREF _Toc274588093 h 6<br />The Audio lingual Method: PAGEREF _Toc274588094 h 6<br />Community Language Learning: PAGEREF _Toc274588095 h 6<br />The Silent Way: PAGEREF _Toc274588096 h 6<br />Functional-notional Approach: PAGEREF _Toc274588097 h 7<br />Total Physical Response: PAGEREF _Toc274588098 h 7<br />Lateralization: PAGEREF _Toc274588099 h 7<br />Broca's PAGEREF _Toc274588100 h 8<br />Wernicke's Area: PAGEREF _Toc274588101 h 9<br />SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L2 AND L1 PAGEREF _Toc274588102 h 10<br />

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