Open Source Open HardwareA simple computer which can gather inputfrom reality and interface outputs with the environment however you instruct it to http://arduinothedocumentary.org/
Fundamentals Of Arduino• Write sketches or modify existing ones to suit your needs• Wire an electrics circuit• Upload the sketches to the Arduino (via USB connection) and connect the electrics circuit to the arduino, by joining wires to the sockets on the Arduino board
What is Arduino?• 5V & GND : sources of power• Inputs and Outputs• Data transmissionNomenclature• On board sockets = Pins• Any numbered pin = input or output• TX = transmitting RX = receiving• Arduino AKA microcontroller fig (i)
Sources of Power fig (ii)● The arduino has three GND pins and one 5V out● The pins can be used to create a 5v DC circuit,_sufficient to illuminate an LED (fig ii, above)● A resistor is necessary to ensure the current does not_burn out the LED
Breadboard: An Arduinos Companion ● The breadboard holds components external to Arduino ● Each socket on a breadboard connects to a conductive _horizontal or vertical strip
Electrical Circuits fig (iii) The yellow trail indicates the positive pole of this circuit The green trail indicates the common or negative pole When both trails are linked by the LED, the circuit is_completed
The Logic of Switches fig (iv) The LED does not complete the circuit this time –_instead a button links the positive and negative poles_of the circuit A button can be pressed (ON) or not pressed (OFF) Depending on the buttons state (ON/OFF) the circuit is_complete or open
Input & Output: Digital● Digital Pin :: input & output● Digital means two possible states ➢ HIGH/LOW = ON/OFF ➢ 5v – 0v = ON/OFF● Programmed code tells the arduino whether each pin is HIGH/LOW (aka on/off) (The arduino assumes a pin to be off until told otherwise) fig (v)
Digital Switches fig (vi)● This circuit is the same as fig (ii)● This time the HIGH signal from digital pin 13_supplies the 5v positive pole to the circuit
Digital Sensors Digital pins detect whether a circuit is in an ON or OFF state When arduino measures voltage in a circuit it will register 0 – 2.5v equal to LOW 2.5v – 5v equal to HIGH LOW == OFF HIGH == ON fig (vii)
Input & Output: Analog* Analog Pin(s) :: input only* Analog is different to digital *Analog equals continuous *Digital equals discreet* Not just HIGH/LOW* Instead 0 – 5v is a widerspectrum of values to measure0 – 5v = 0 – 1023 in Arduino fig (viii)
Multimeter: Good Electronics Practice• Multimeter reads resistance, voltage and ampage• Multimeter is a big help to making sure you’re electronic circuit works the way it should:• a circuit should always work the way you expect it before writing/amending arduino code
Serial Port CommunicationSerial Port is how the ArduinoCommunicates with other Digital Devices (E.G. the computer or adigital SD card)All computer tetheredcommunications go via the serialport which arduino is connected toSerial Port data can be accessedby software other than Arduinoprogramming software (mostreadily via Processing)Arduino can save data to SDcards using the TX and RXfacilities (advanced feature)
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