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The Rock Cycle and Rocks
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The Rock Cycle and Rocks

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Rock types and the Rock Cycle

Rock types and the Rock Cycle

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  • 1. Rocks
    All You Need To Know
  • 2. Rock Types
    Three Main Types of Rocks:
    Igneous
    Sedimentary
    Metamorphic
  • 3. Igneous Rocks
    Formed from magma (molten rock below earth’s surface) or lava (molten rock above earth’s surface).
    When molten rock crystallizes (cools/hardens), Two types of Igneous Rocks can Form:
    Intrusive: cool slowly inside earth’s crust allowing for large crystals to grow
    Extrusive: cool quickly above earth’s surface not allowing for any crystals to grow or allowing for very small crystals to grow
    Examples include:
    Granite and gabbro (intrusive) and basalt and obsidian (extrusive)
  • 4. Sedimentary Rocks
    Formed from pieces of other rocks (sand, shells, pebbles etc…)  i.e. sediment that gets glued and compacted together.
    Different Types Include:
    Clastic – made from other pieces
    Examples  sandstone, conglomerate, shale
    Chemical – precipitates or evaporates
    Example  rock salt (halite)
    Organic – formed from once living things
    Examples  coal, limestone
    Fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.
  • 5. Metamorphic Rocks
    Formed from intense heat and pressure.
    Two Types:
    Foliated: ribbonlike/banded layers
    Examples  slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
    Non-foliated: crystals (no banding)
    Examples  quartzite, marble
    May have shiny crystals as well as the minerals in the rock change due to the intense heat and pressure.
  • 6. Key Identifying Characteristics
    Igneous Rocks:
    Gas bubbles holes created from trapped gas
    Glassy surface  shiny smooth surface from quick cooling rocks
    Crystals  small, flat surfaces that are shiny or sparkly
    Sedimentary Rocks:
    Sand or pebbles  individual stones, pebbles, or sand grains visible in the rock
    FossilsI imprints of shells, insects, leaves etc…
    Metamorphic Rocks:
    Ribbonlike layers wavy or straight stripes/bands of different colors in the rock
  • 7. Different Rocks
  • 8. Click the Picture Below
  • 9. How Rocks Change
    Rocks change due to various processes.
    Processes Include:
    Heat and Pressure
    Melting and Cooling
    Weathering and Erosion
    Compacting and Cementing
  • 10. Heat and Pressure
    Heat from the earth’s interior can melt rock and pressure from overlying rock can also morph (change) rocks from one type to another.
    Heat increases dramatically the deeper a rock gets pulled under the earth’s surface – prior to melting a rock can change chemically to become another rock.
    Pressure from overlying rock also can change a rock chemically into another type of rock.
    Heat and pressure work together and this is known as metamorphism  thus creating metamorphic rocks.
  • 11. Click Below and Press Start
  • 12. Melting and Cooling
    Melting:
    Temperatures between 600 and 1300 degrees Celsius (1100 – 2400 degrees Fahrenheit) melt rock and turn it into magma
    Cooling:
    any rock that forms from cooling magma is an igneous rock
    Two Types of Igneous Rock:
    Intrusive  form from slowly cooling magma inside earth
    Extrusive  form from quickly cooling lava above/on earth’s crust
  • 13. Click Below and View Each Animation
  • 14. Weathering and Erosion
    Weathering:
    the breaking apart or wearing down of rock due to water, wind, gravity, temperatures, and other elements at the earth’s surface.
    Creates sediments.
    Erosion:
    Transportation of weathered material via water, wind, or gravity.
  • 15. Compacting and Cementing
    Compacting:
    Sediment formed from weathering and erosion accumulates (is deposited/left behind) in oceans, lakes, and valleys  this allows for layers of sediment to build up
    Each layer presses down on the layer below it, thus compacting (pushing down on) bottom layers.
    Cementing:
    When water passes through spaces in between particles of sediment  this helps cement the particles together forming sedimentary rock
  • 16. Click Below and View Each Animation
  • 17. Test Your Knowledge  Click and Complete
  • 18. The Rock Cycle
    James Hutton (1726-1797) is attributed with the concept of the rock cycle.
    Main Idea of Rock Cycle:
    Rocks are continually changing from one type to another and back again
    Elements that make up rock aren’t destroyed or created, they are just being recycled
  • 19. Click and Explore the Rock Cycle by Rolling Your Mouse Over It
  • 20. Click and Test Your Rock Cycle Knowledge
  • 21. Click Below and Test Your Rock Skills