Physical Properties of Minerals

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Physical Properties of Minerals

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Physical Properties of Minerals

  1. 1. Properties of Minerals
  2. 2. 1. Color <ul><li>Easy to see but is least reliable property for ID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many different minerals are same color (calcite, quartz, dolomite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>same mineral can come in many colors (quartz can be pink, white, clear, purple, yellow) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Many Colors of Quartz Amethyst Citrine Smoky Quartz Rose Quartz Rock Crystal
  4. 4. Many Different White Minerals
  5. 5. Minerals Come in Many Different Colors
  6. 6. 2. Luster <ul><li>How mineral shines in reflected light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>metallic : like polished metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-metallic : all others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vitreous : glassy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pearly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dull </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Luster Metallic Dull Vitreous Pearly
  8. 8. 3. Streak <ul><li>Color of powdered form of mineral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not always same color as mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>found by rubbing mineral on unglazed tile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-metallic minerals usu. have white streak </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 4. Cleavage <ul><li>Mineral splits along flat surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can cleave in 1,2 or 3 directions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Cleavage
  11. 13. 5. Fracture <ul><li>Mineral breaks along non-cleavage surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rough edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conchoidal fracture: smoothly curved like inside of a shell </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Fracture
  13. 15. 6. Hardness <ul><li>Mineral’s resistance to being scratched </li></ul><ul><li>Moh’s Scale of Hardness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compares minerals from softest (talc=1) to hardest (diamond=10) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Moh’s Scale of Hardness <ul><li>1. Talc </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gypsum </li></ul><ul><li>3. Calcite </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fluorite 8. Topaz </li></ul><ul><li>5. Apatite 9. Corundum </li></ul><ul><li>6. Feldspar (ruby) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Quartz 10. Diamond </li></ul>
  15. 18. Hardness Continued <ul><li>Scratch Test </li></ul><ul><li>fingernail scratches mineral =2 </li></ul><ul><li>penny scratches mineral =3 </li></ul><ul><li>steel nail or file “ “ =4 </li></ul><ul><li>mineral scratches glass =6 </li></ul>
  16. 19. 7. Specific Gravity <ul><li>How dense the mineral is </li></ul><ul><li>metallics usu.>5 </li></ul><ul><li>non-metallics usu.<3 </li></ul>
  17. 20. Specific Gravity Metallic minerals are high Non-metallic minerals are lower
  18. 21. 8. Acid Test <ul><li>Only CARBONATE minerals fizz in weak acid </li></ul><ul><li>calcite </li></ul>
  19. 22. 9. Crystals <ul><li>Not all minerals show crystals </li></ul><ul><li>when minerals do show crystals, they usu. have a characteristic shape </li></ul>
  20. 23. Quartz Crystals
  21. 24. 10. Special Properties <ul><li>Taste (rock salt) </li></ul><ul><li>Smell (sulfur) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescence : glows in UV light </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity (uranium) </li></ul><ul><li>Double refraction : two images show through clear mineral (calcite) </li></ul>
  22. 25. Special Properties Magnetite- magnetic Uraninite- radioactive Sulphur- smelly
  23. 26. Some Common Minerals Galena Cleavage in 4 directions Me tallic
  24. 27. Feldspar Cleavage Pinkish
  25. 28. Graphite Metallic Very Soft Lubricant
  26. 29. Magnetite
  27. 30. Limonite
  28. 31. Quartz
  29. 32. Aquamarine: Click for sample mineral lab .

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