The phase in which water exists is determined by:a.density and pressure.b.density and salinity.c.pressure and salinity.d.temperature and pressure.e.temperature and salinity.
Hydrogen bonds form between neighboringwater molecules because of:a.electron sharing.b.electron transfer.c.polarity of water molecules.d.surface tension.e.viscosity of water.
The surface tension of water:a.increases as density decreases.b.is related to salinity.c.is relatively high.d.is relatively low.e.is very similar to similar liquids.
Covalent bonds form between hydrogen andoxygen atoms in a water molecule as aresult of the:a.polarity of water molecules.b.sharing of electrons between atoms.c.surface tension of water.d.transfer of electrons between atoms.e.viscosity of water.
Many of the unique properties of water areattributed to the fact that water:a.contains hydrogen bonds.b.exists in three phases at the Earths surface.c.is a polar molecule.d.is a universal solvent.e.requires heat to condense.
The amount of energy that is necessary toraise the temperature of one gram of waterby one degree oC is called the:a.boiling point elevation.b.calorie.c.latent heat of condensation.d.latent heat of evaporation.e.thermal capacity.
Which property of water causes coastalcommunities to have only moderatedifferences in daily highs and lows whencompared to inland communities?a.high heat capacityb.high salinityc.high viscosityd.low heat capacitye.low viscosity
Latent heat is used to:a.break chemical bonds.b.change molecular structure.c.change states of matter.d.change the temperature of a substance.e.form chemical bonds.
A beaker contains a mixture of ice and pure waterat 0oC. What happens to the temperature of themixture as heat is added?a. It immediately begins to rise slowly.b. It remains constant until the ice melts; then it begins to rise.c. It rises rapidly as the ice melts.d. It rises slowly until it reaches 32oC; then it remains constant as the ice melts.e. The temperature pattern cannot be predicted.
When water evaporates from the oceansurface:a.energy is transferred from the atmosphere to the remaining liquid.b.sea surface temperature increases.c.sea surface salinity decreases.d.the remaining water is cooled.e.the remaining water is warmed.
In comparison to most other liquids, the heatcapacity of water is:a.a function of salinity.b.about the same as other liquids.c.higher than other liquids.d.lower than other liquids.e.related to solvent concentration.
The average salinity of sea water is:a.0.35%.b.2.0%.c.3.5%.d.10%.e.25%.
The Principle of Constant Proportions states that:a. ocean salinity varies as a function of season.b. ocean salinity varies with geographical location.c. the percentage of chloride varies with geographical location.d. the percentage of sodium varies with ocean depth.e. the relative concentration of seawater ions does not change.
Which of the following statements regarding pH isnot true?a. A pH of 3.0 is acidic and a pH of 10.0 is alkaline.b. As a whole, the pH of the ocean is slightly acidic.c. Buffers prevent large changes in the pH of a solution.d. pH will increase in areas of rapid plant or algal growth.e. pH relates to relative acid-base ion balance in a solution.
The average length of time that a chemicalsubstance resides in a reservoir is called its:a.capacity time.b.flow rate.c.flux.d.half-life.e.residence time.
The impact of a pollutant on a coastal baymight be estimated by knowing the________ of the water in that bay.a.carbonate concentrationb.depthc.residence timed.salinitye.sediment load
For water, the solid phase:a. has a greater density than the liquid phase.b. has a lower density than the liquid phase.c. occupies the same volume as the liquid phase.d. occupies a smaller volume than the liquid phase.e. weighs more than the same volume of liquid water.
The transfer of water from the atmosphereto the oceans to the continents is known asthe:a.closed cycle.b.geologic cycle.c.hydrobiological cycle.d.hydrologic cycle.e.meteorological cycle
As the salinity of seawater increases, its:a.density decreases.b.heat capacity decreases.c.residence time increases.d.residence time decreases.e.residence time does not change.
A rapid change in ocean temperature withchange in depth is the:a.barocline.b.halocline.c.isocline.d.pycnocline.e.thermocline.
A rapid change in ocean density withchange in depth is the:a.barocline.b.halocline.c.isocline.d.pycnocline.e.thermocline.
Heat must be ___________ to breakhydrogen bonds. a. added b. removed c. remain unchanged d. none of the above
________ heat capacity and ___________latent heats of water moderate changes intemperature. a. high, high b. high, low c. low, low d. low, high
Ice is less dense than water because_____________________________. a. arrangement of molecules in atomic structure b. water reaches maximum density at 00C c. salinity is reached through latent heat of condensation d. hypersaline waters are reach maximum density at 00C
Substances with ______________residence times are ______________ andhave higher concentrations in seawater. a. long, unreactive b. long, reactive c. short, unreactive d. short, reactive
The Rappahannock River with an averagesalinity less than 33 ppt would beconsidered ______________. a. brackish b. hypersaline c. normally salinity for rivers d. none of the above
Substances dissolved in seawater thatchange slowly through time or are inconstant proportions are______________ . a. conservative constituents b. nonconservative constituents c. bipolar constituents d. polar constituents
The amount of gas in seawater depends onpressure, ______________, and ability toescape to the atmosphere. a. temperature b. salinity c. acidity d. alkalinity
Two common non-conservative constituentsare _______ and ___________. a. O2 and CO2 b. O2 and H2O c. CO2 and N2 d. CO2 and H2O
Dissolved substances are added to theoceans primarily by ______________. a. rivers b. precipitation c. condensation d. percolation
Which of the following does NOT removedissolved substances from the oceans? a. salt spray b. recycling through mid-ocean ridges c. biogenic sediments d. evaporates e. condensation
__________ seawater and ____________seawater can hold ____________ dissolvedgas. a. cooler, deeper, more b. cooler, deeper, less c. warmer, shallow, more d. warmer, deeper, more
In surface oceans, O2 concentration is highdue to ____________________. a. photosynthesis b. dissolution c. carbonation d. decomposition e. respiration
Below the photic zone, O2 concentrationdecreases due to __________________. a. decomposition and respiration b. photosynthesis and respiration c. carbonation and dissolution d. respiration and carbonation
In surface oceans, CO2 concentration is lowbecause it is used in _________________. a. photosynthesis b. dissolution c. carbonation d. decomposition e. respiration
Below the photic zone, CO2 concentrationincreases due to ____________________. a. decomposition and respiration b. photosynthesis and respiration c. carbonation and dissolution d. respiration and carbonation
Acid releases a(n) ________ ion whendissolved in water. a. O- b. Cl- c. He d. Na+ e. H+
What system keeps the pH of seawaterabout the same? a. carbonate buffering system b. respiration recycling system c. photosynthesis system d. decomposition and respiration system
Which of the following does not decreasesalinity of the oceans? a. evaporation b. precipitation c. runoff d. melting ice
Which of the following causes salinity at theequator to be low? a. rain b. evaporation c. formation of sea ice d. none of the above