Weather, Layers of the Atmosphere and Energy Transfer

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  • Layers are hyperlinked to slides. Go to Ozone layer after doing layers of atmosphere
  • Weather, Layers of the Atmosphere and Energy Transfer

    1. 1. What is weather? The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. ex. Partly cloudy with 50% chance of rain today Then, what is climate? Typical patterns over a period of years in a given location ex. Temperate climate
    2. 2. What gases make up the atmosphere? • • • • 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen 1% other argon, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, neon, water vapor, dust
    3. 3. Troposphere (0-18km) • Closest to Earth • Layer in which almost all weather occurs • Nearly all CO2 and H2O vapor found here Tropopause • Temp. remains nearly constant –55 oC • Clouds in this region consist mainly of ice
    4. 4. Stratosphere (20-50km) • Very little H20 vapor and dust • Contains ozone layer • Protects humans and all other organisms by absorbing UV rays • Super Sonic Jets fly in this layer
    5. 5. Mesosphere (50-80km) • Coldest layer of the atmosphere Thermosphere (80-500km) • Hottest layer of the atmosphere – Few molecules but, the molecules absorb Sun’s UV rays and heat up individual molecules
    6. 6. Ionosphere (65-500km) • Atoms become charged due to intense radiation • Located within the Thermosphere Exosphere • Outermost layer of the atmosphere • Gradually fades out into space
    7. 7. Exosphere • Outermost layer of the atmosphere • Gradually fades out into space Ionosphere (65-500km) • Atoms become charged due to intense radiation Thermosphere (80-500km) • Hottest layer of the atmosphere Mesosphere (50-80km) • Coldest layer of the atmosphere • Extremely high winds • Jet stream – airplanes fly here Stratosphere (20-50km) • Very little H20 vapor and dust • Contains ozone layer • Protects humans and all other organisms by absorbing UV rays Tropopause • Temp. remains nearly constant – 55oC • Clouds in this region consist mainly of ice • As you move away from the Earth, the temp. in each layer changes Troposphere (0-18km) • Closest to Earth • Layer in which almost all weather occurs • Nearly all CO2 and H2O vapor found here
    8. 8. OZONE LAYER • The sun produces many types of radiation, including light and ultraviolet (UV) rays • UV rays can cause skin cancer if we receive too much • Ozone layer protects us from most of the harmful rays by absorbing 99% of UV radiation • BUT……. • The ozone layer is thinning b/c we use CFC’s CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS • CFC’s are used as coolants in refrigerators, air conditioners; propellants (think of aerosol hairsprays); and in making foam • Why are CFC’s so bad?
    9. 9. OZONE LAYER • Here’s what happens when CFC’s get into the ozone layer…. • NORMALLY… UV rays break down ozone, which can reform under normal conditions and absorb more UV rays  GOOD • BUT… CFCs prevent ozone from reforming; Cl atom can destroy thousands of ozone molecules.
    10. 10. Heat & Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere • Changes in weather involve air movements, formation of clouds, and precipitation. • Energy is needed to make these things happen. • The energy comes from the SUN.
    11. 11. Heat & Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere 3 Ways to Transfer Heat… RADIATION • Transfer of heat energy in waves (infrared waves or light) • Ex. Your head gets hot when you sit by the pool in the summer as it absorbs the sun’s energy
    12. 12. Heat & Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere CONDUCTION • Transfer of heat through direct contact • Ex. Your feet get hot when you stand barefoot on a hot sidewalk
    13. 13. Heat & Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere CONVECTION • Transfer of heat through currents in heated material • Only occurs in liquids and gases • Ex. Cooking rice on a stove
    14. 14. RADIATION CONVECTION CONDUCTION
    15. 15. The Wonderful GREENHOUSE EFFECT • The atmosphere acts like a blanket to keep in the sun’s warmth • If we didn’t have our atmosphere, it would be 400oF (200oC) during the day, and -420oF (250oC) at night! • GREENHOUSE EFFECT: trapping of the sun’s energy by the atmosphere • Several gases are responsible for this effect… – – – – – Carbon dioxide (CO2) Water vapor Nitrous oxide (N2O) Methane (CH4) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
    16. 16. The Wonderful GREENHOUSE EFFECT • Unfortunately, greenhouse effect is increasing due to… – burning of fossil fuels – industry waste Why is this considered a bad thing? • A warmer atmosphere could… • melt the ice caps of the world raise sea levels and flood coastal areas around the world shift rainfall patterns around the world

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