Air-Sea Interaction

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  • 1. Chapter 7: Air-Sea InteractionFig. 7-20
  • 2.  Atmosphere and ocean one interconnected system Change in atmosphere affects ocean Change in ocean affects atmosphere
  • 3. Unequal solar heating Low latitudes receive more solar radiation High latitudes receive less solar radiation
  • 4.  Equatorial areas excess heat  Polar regions heat deficientFig. 7-3
  • 5. Insolation factors Latitude Thickness of atmosphere Albedo Seasons Time of day Vegetation, bare rock, etc.
  • 6. Atmosphere (troposphere) N2, O2, Ar Temperature decreases with increasing altitude Warm air is less dense than cool air Moist air is less dense than dry air Wind flows from high pressure to low pressure
  • 7. Coriolis Effect Deflection in motion of moving objects Rotation of Earth Important for objects that move long distances/long times Maximum deflection at poles Negligible deflection at equator
  • 8. Coriolis Effect Videos Click on Picture to See How  Click on Picture to at Equator vs. It Works N. Hemisphere vs. S. Hemisphere
  • 9. Atmospheric circulation Hadley, Ferrell and polar cells Warm, moist air rises  Equator  Sub-polar lows (60 o N and S) Cool, dry air sinks  Sub-tropical highs (30o N and S)  Polar regions
  • 10. Windbelts
  • 11. Cells and surface winds Surface winds flow from high pressure to low pressure Fig. 7-10
  • 12. Surface winds Tradewinds  About 0o to 30o N and S  Northeast (Northern hemisphere)  Southeast (Southern hemisphere) Westerlies  About 30o to 60o N and S Polar Easterlies
  • 13. Idealized 3-cell model Complicated by  Seasons, tilt  Differences in heat capacities of land and ocean  Uneven distribution of land and ocean  Example: monsoon winds in Asia and Indian Ocean
  • 14. Local winds and their effects Sea breeze Land breeze Sea fog Radiation fog
  • 15. Air masses meet at lowpressure Fig. 7-14
  • 16. Regional winds and storms Mid-latitude storm systems  Low pressure  Warm front  Cold front Fig. 7-15
  • 17. Hurricane (tropical cyclone) Develop over tropical ocean Warm ocean Warm, moist air rising Sufficient Coriolis Effect to cause rotation Fig. 7-17
  • 18. Tropical cyclones Destructive high winds, storm surge Classified by damage done/wind speed Moved westward by trade winds
  • 19. Sea ice vs. icebergs Sea ice frozen seawater  Especially important in Arctic  Pack ice, polar ice, fast ice Icebergs broken pieces of glacier  Float in ocean  Shelf ice (extremely large plate-like icebergs)
  • 20. Greenhouse effect Energy from Sun shorter wavelengths Energy reradiated from Earth longer wavelengths
  • 21. Fig. 7-24
  • 22. Greenhouse gases Absorb infrared radiation from Earth Mainly H2O and CO2
  • 23. Other greenhouse gases Minor gases: methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons Anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases contribute to global warming  Increase in global temperature  Some natural  Most artificial
  • 24. CO2 in oceans CO2 high solubility in seawater Excess CO2 in atmosphere locked up in oceans  CaCO3 biogenic sediments Stimulate growth of phytoplankton to use up CO2 in ocean
  • 25. SOFAR Channel Sound travels far  Velocity of sound is temperature- dependent  Use sound to measure temperature in much of ocean  ATOC (Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate)
  • 26. End of Chapter 7: Air-SeaInteraction