Scrum and agile methodsare hot topics these days“A simple methodfor the management ofcomplex projects ...”“Older methods focus on staying ontrack; Scrum is aimed at deliveringbusiness value all the time …”“The market is changing morerapidly, external factors are becomingincreasingly more complex – and Scrummakes it possible to adapt…”“It has been documented todramatically improve productivityin teams previously paralyzed byheavier methodologies …”“Scrum is steeredtoward the people inthe project, not thetechnology…”“Embrace change,release creativity,increase productivity”“A smart combination of tried-and-tested methods– that’s Scrum in a nutshell!”“… a hyper-productivitytool!”
Askyourself thefollowing questions1Do you want to handle changing requirements moreefficiently,boost your designers’ motivation and im-prove communication between customer and project?2Are you ready to introduce a new leadership culturethat means altered roles and a new way of working aswell as transferring some of the responsibility from themanagers to the project team?3Are you willing to follow in the footsteps of compa-nies like IBM,Microsoft and Xerox,and successfullyaddress the failings of your software developmentprocess?Ifyou answer “yes”youshould definitely keepreading!
Scrum– an introductionScrum is based on what is called a Sprint – a focused effort fora 30-day period toward fixed goals.2–4 weeksSPRI NT24 hoursProductBacklog SprintBacklog
DeliverableA Product Owner compiles all the changes planned for theproduct and prioritizes the possible functionalities.The result of the Product Owner’s work is a ProductBacklog – a to-do list that is constantly reprioritized. Beforeeach Sprint, the highest prioritized goals are transferred to aSprint Backlog.Together with a user, the project members form a ScrumTeam consisting of 5–9 people. During discussions with theProduct Owner, the goal of the Sprint is determined and theprioritized functionality is broken down into detailed tasks.The team is self-organized and the members have a jointresponsibility for the results.The Scrum Master coaches the development team, removesany possible impediments and constantly works to ensure thatthe team has the best possible circumstances for realizing thegoals fixed for the Sprint.Each Sprint enhances the product’s market value and addsnew functions and improvements that can be delivered to thecustomer.
ROLESThe Scrumteam… performs the actual work of problem solvers and designers.The team normally consists of 5-9 people – a group size thatexperience and research has shown to be best for this type ofwork. The team members decide how the work is arranged andhow assignments are distributed.There are no set project roles– everyone should be able to swap tasks with another member.Naturally,this does not prevent individual members from beingexperts in a field.
Product owner…represents the voice of the customer andensures that the ScrumTeam works with theright things from a business perspective.TheProduct Owner administers a Product Back-log – a current to-do list where all the speci-fications for a product are listed according tohow profitable they are deemed to be.Thedocument is visible to the entire organizationso that everyone is aware of what to expect infuture releases of the product.The Product Owner is often a customer,but can also be part of the internal organiza-tion.The task requires comprehensive knowl-edge about engineering,marketing and busi-ness processes.Scrum master…is a combination of coach,fixer and gate-keeper.The Scrum Master meets with theteam every day in brief meetings, Daily Scrums.When someone outside the project has animportant issue to discuss with the team,theScrum Master tries to ensure that the design-ers are disturbed as little as possible in theirwork.The Scrum Master always adopts a here-and-now perspective to the work.The focusis always on providing the team with the bestpossible circumstances for realizing the goalsfixed for the Sprint.After each Sprint,the Scrum Master holdsan Evaluation Meeting with the Scrum team– a Sprint Retrospective – during which ex-periences and conclusions are reviewed.Thepurpose is to elevate the team’s level of knowl-edge and heighten motivation prior to thenext Sprint.
PROCESSCreating a backlogThe Product Owner compiles all the requests and specificationsthat are the basis of the changes of the product,such as newfunctions and bug fixes.After the goals have been defined,the en-tirety is broken down into segments.Each such segment shouldin part create business value and in part be sub-deliverable. A prioritized list is made at the same time – the ProductOwner personally makes the decisions at this point.In what or-der should the changes be made and delivered?The result is a to-do list arranged according to how the market’s demands and cus-tomer’s requests change over time.When it is time to start a newSprint,the Product Owner“freezes” the foremost items on theto-do list and summons the ScrumTeam to a meeting.The sprint phaseOf the Sprint’s 30 calendar days,the first are set aside to createa Sprint Backlog.When the tasks and required time has been de-termined,the Product Owner lets go.As of now the ScrumTeam works under its own responsibil-ity.If the group has been properly composed,the work will beself organizing.Daily ScrumEvery day,at the same time,the Scrum Master and the ScrumTeam have a brief meeting.The purpose is to eliminate all speedimpediments for the group.Each of the participants should insome way answer three questions:• What have you done since the last meeting?• What will you do between now and the next meeting?• Is there anything preventing you from doing what you haveplanned?The first two questions give the meeting participants full in-sight into how the project is progressing.The third questionprovides a basis for problem solving – ranging from a new com-puter mouse to organizational changes at the company.
Anyone may attend and listen at the meeting,but only theScrum Master and the team members may speak.Demonstration and evaluationEach Sprint finishes with a demonstration during which func-tioning software is run before a larger group consisting of,be-sides the Product Owner,users and representatives for corpo-rate management,for example.This is the basis for an EvaluationMeeting that in turn is the starting block for the next Sprint.A burn-down chart is used to mark day-by-day how much remainsof the scheduled work.The diagram clearly illustrates the rate the re-maining hours of a Sprint are“burned down”.B u r n d o w n C h a r t - C 501 0 02 0 03 0 04 0 05 0 06 0 07 0 01 3 5 7 9 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 7 1 9 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 7 2 9 3 1S p r in t D a yManHoursB u d g e tE s t. E ffo r t
Agile developmentmethodsScrum is classed as what is called agile development– a set of work methods and tool boxes aimed at• improving the ability to respond quickly to needsand requests from the market• cutting down waste and waiting periods• reducing employee stress while simultaneously in-creasing productivity.Those who adhere to the agile methods in their work arehighly enthusiastic. It is no exaggeration to say that the entireglobal IT industry is experiencing an agile wave.The philosophyis summarized in the following table:Important More important• processes and tools • individuals and interaction• detailed documentation • functioning software• contract negotiations • collaboration with the • following a plan customer • adapting to changes(Source: Manifesto for Agile Software Development http://agilemanifesto.org/)The agile methods are a reaction to the processes that lookgood in theory but that do not hold up in practice.The agilemethods are therefore described as empirical – they are basedentirely on practical experiences and work methods that areproven to work.A central concept for agile methods is adaptation to chang-ing external factors.Where older methods are predictive andattempt to foresee future needs,the agile methods are adaptiveand quickly adapt to new demands,adhering to the“Embracechange!” motto.The only measurement of success is functioningproducts.
Another important principle is simplicity and lean thinking.According to the agile thinking concept,large-scale projects forexample are not in themselves desirable. Instead,it is more pref-erable to maximize the amount of work that does not need tobe done.This includes for instance not spending time writingunnecessary documentation – the project form creates goodconditions for fast mouth-to-mouth communication.Other agile methodsExtreme Programming (XP) is the most known agile methodalongside Scrum. XP has a different approach - it is more amethod that deals with how to work in the project.The basisconsists of twelve practices, where pair programming and testcase production before coding are two examples.Another agile method is Lean Development,which stemsfrom the manufacturing industry’s Just-In-Time and Lean Pro-duction concepts. Lean Development deals more with how toorganize the entire company’s development activities at man-agement level.These agile methods can therefore be considered comple-mentary,where• Lean Development deals with which comprehensiveprinciples should apply for the entire developmentorganization• Scrum deals with how the project is organized and planned• XP deals with how to work with programming.
Common questions aboutScrum and agileIsn’t there a significant risk that Scrum runs wild witheveryone doing as they like?Experience from a multitude of various projects shows that thisdoes not happen.The reason is that the principles are easy tounderstand and the team has visible deliveries every 30 days.The shared responsibility for all parts of the code also makesthe ScrumTeam’s members more motivated to adhere to setroutines and rules.Can Scrum only be used for smaller projects?No,the method can be up-scaled by putting together sev-eral smaller projects to form one larger.A so-called Scrum ofScrums can include hundred of programmers,organized in doz-ens of ScrumTeams.How do you start?A common way of starting is to send one or more people ona course to become a certified Scrum Master.Many companiesoffer these types of courses nowadays.Another alternative is to start a pilot project and let someonewith experience from a previous Scrum project serve as mentorfor theTeam,Scrum Master and Product Owner.What happens if you don’t finish on time?Scrum does not allow a delivery date to be altered! If you arebehind,you delete items in the ScrumTeam’s Sprint Backlog andif you are ahead you can ask the Product Owner for more tasks.Does a Sprint have to be 30 days?Not necessarily,but it should be the same length throughout theentire project.Plus,experience shows that 30 days (about 1,000effective hours for an experienced group) is a good compromisebetween a comfortable work pace and adaptability.
What’s happened to the project manager?Scrum has no role with that title.A project manager that leanstoward administration is commonly found in the role of Prod-uct Owner.Those best suited to coaching will probably be morecomfortable as a Scrum Master.How does Scrum and CM mix?Well functioning CM routines are needed in a Scrum project,but normally there is no dedicated CM role.The operative CMprocess is handled by the self-organized development team.To slim the CM process,continuous integration and automatictests are used to automate as much as possible.Is Scrum a method just for software development?Not at all!The method can be adapted for all different types ofprojects – for instance newspaper production or medical engi-neering development.Where does the word Scrum come from?Scrum is a rugby term for the close-knit shoulder-to-shoulderformation a rugby team forms to jointly move the ball forward.The word was first used byTakeuchi and Nonaka in a famousarticle published in the Harvard Business Review in which theydescribed the most successful product development projects inJapan.
GlossaryAdaptive, adjustable – in this context, that project goals orschedules are adjusted in line with how the external factorschange.Burn-down Chart, a diagram that monitors how muchwork remains to implement a segment of the software beingdeveloped during a Sprint.Daily Scrum, brief, daily meetings (about 15 min) betweenthe Scrum Master and the Scrum Team.The purpose is to keepwork flowing smoothly and eliminate any impediments.Empirical, based on experience.Agile development, a methodology for softwaredevelopment which emphasizes, among other things,adaptability, short paths between ideas and implementation, andsimplified forms of collaboration. Examples of agile methodsinclude Extreme Programming (XP) and Scrum.Sprint Retrospective, meeting (about 3 hours) held aftereach Sprint.The Scrum Master and the Scrum Team reviewboth what went well and what should be improved in the nextSprint.Predictive, foresighted – in this context, project goals andschedules based on a prognosis of external factors made at thebeginning of the project.Product Backlog, current “to-do list” that contains theproject’s goals and priorities. Managed by the Product Owner.Product Owner, the person responsible for the product’sProduct Backlog and that the project is working with the rightthings from a business perspective.Release Backlog, the same as a Product Backlog, but restrictedto a release of the product.Scrum Master, “the team leader” for the Scrum Team.
ScrumTeam, ”the work force” – in this case, softwaredesigners – in a Scrum project. Organizes its work itself andlacks a formal group manager.Sprint, the iteration comprised (normally) of thirty days duringwhich the Scrum Team concentrates on realizing the goalsdefined by the project’s current Sprint Backlog.Sprint Backlog, a to-do list for a Sprint. Consists of theassignments that the Product Owner has defined as having thehighest priority. Is given its final structure during the Sprint’sfirst day at a meeting between the Product Owner and theScrum Team.Sprint Review, an informal meeting (about 4 hours) atthe end of a Sprint during which the team presents (anddemonstrates, if relevant) for management, customers and theProduct Owner what has been created during the Sprint.Timebox, a period during which something is to be carriedout.A Sprint is a result of timebox thinking. Deadlines may notbe exceeded – parts of the assignment are deleted instead.
SCRUM – smarterprojectmanagementScrum is a method for project managementthat is becoming increasingly more commonin the software industry.Small teams con-sisting of a maximum 6-8 people divide theirwork into“mini projects” that have a durationof about one month during which a limitednumber of detailed tasks are solved.Where traditional methods focus on staying ontrack,Scrum is aimed at – like other agile meth-ods - delivering business value.Softhouse Consulting | Stormgatan 14 | SE-211 20 Malmö Sweden | Phone:+46 (0)40 664 39 00Fax:+46 (0)40 664 39 19 | email@example.com |www.softhouse.se