Zelizer: “The conflict over the propriety of child labor between 1870 and 1930 in the US involved a profound cultural disagreement over the economic and sentimental value of young children” (emphasis mine).
Today we’ll look at some key images from this “cultural disagreement,” and talk some more about its parameters.
In a pluralistic society, who decides the shape of an “ideal childhood”?
Farm labor in the 19 th c: pulling weeds, tending livestock, milking cows, churning butter, feeding chickens, harvesting crops
City labor: Errands, scavenging, newsboys, “outwork”
Anne Geddes’ sentimentalism
“ Hurry up” (L) (1909) vs “Mennen’s” (1898)
Elizabeth Shippen Green (L) (1871-1954); Jessie Willcox Smith (R) (1863-1935)
Jessie Willcox Smith, ad for Ivory Soap, 1902
Elizabeth Shippen Green, ad for Kodak, 1906
Jessie Willcox Smith, cover for The Bed-Time Book (Helen Hay Whitney), 1907
Jessie Willcox Smith, promotional poster for the children’s book industry
Elizabeth Shippen Green, Frontispiece, The Book of the Child (1902)
Jessie Willcox Smith cover, March 1921
What is it with kids & pumpkins?
Lewis Wickes Hine, 1874-1940
“ Italian family making artificial flowers in a New York tenement apartment,” 1908
“Breaker Boys,” 1911
“ Lincolnton [NC] Spinner Girl,” 1908
Manuel, shrimp-picker, 5 years old, Biloxi, MS, 1911
Group of oyster shuckers, Dunbar, LA (1911)
Child picking cotton (TX), 1912
“ Making Human Junk” ( Child Labor Bulletin 3, 1914-1915)