4.4 aerobic respiration

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4.4 aerobic respiration

  1. 1. How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Introduction to Cell Metabolism Glycolysis Aerobic Cell Respiration Anaerobic Cell Respiration
  2. 2. Breathing and Cell Respiration are related O2 CO2 BREATHING Lungs Muscle cells CO2 Bloodstream O carrying out 2 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O2 → ATP + CO2 + H2O
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produceCarbon dioxide, water, and ATP.Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon Water Energy dioxide
  4. 4. How efficient is cell respiration? Energy released Energy released Gasoline energy from glucose from glucose converted to (as heat and light) banked in ATP movement 100% About 40% 25%Burning glucose “Burning” glucose Burning gasolinein an experiment in cellular respiration in an auto engine
  5. 5. Reduction and Oxidation OILRIGOxidation is losing electronsReduction is gaining electrons Loss of hydrogen atoms Energy Glucose Gain of hydrogen atomsGlucose gives off energy as is is oxidized
  6. 6. Reduction and Oxidation OILRIG Gain or loss of electrons is often in the form ofhydrogen. The hydrogen is then passed to a coenzyme suchas NAD+
  7. 7. Reduction and OxidationWhat are some common co-enzymes? NAD+ and FAD NAD+ + 2 H ⇒ NADH + H+ FAD + 2H ⇒ FADH2 Remember that H =2 electrons and 2H+
  8. 8. Reduction and OxidationThese co-enzymes are very important for cellrespiration because they transfer high-energyelectrons to electron transport systems (ETS).
  9. 9. Reduction and Oxidation As the electrons move from carrier to carrier, energy is released in small quantities.Electron transport system(ETS)
  10. 10. Generation of ATPThere are two ways to generate ATP Chemiosmosis Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
  11. 11. Generation of ATPChemiosmosisCells use the energyreleased by “falling”electrons in the ETS topump H+ ions across amembraneUses the enzyme ATPsynthase.
  12. 12. Generation of ATPChemiosmosis
  13. 13. Generation of ATPSubstrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be Adenosine made by transferring phosphate groups from organic substrate molecules to ADP Adenosine product Figure 6.7B
  14. 14. Generation of ATPSubstrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be Adenosine made by transferring phosphate groups from organic substrate molecules to ADP Adenosine product Figure 6.7B
  15. 15. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  16. 16. GlycolysisWhere? The cytosolWhat? Breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid
  17. 17. Steps 1 – 3 A fuel Glucose molecule is energized, Step using ATP.Glycolysis 1 Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Fructose-6-phosphateEnergy In: 2 ATP 3 Fructose-1,6-diphosphate Step 4 A six-carbon 4 intermediate splits into two three-carbon Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate intermediates. (G3P) 5 Step 5 A redox reaction generates NADH. 1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 6 Steps 6 – 9 ATP 3-Phosphoglyceric acidEnergy Out: 4 ATP and pyruvic acid are produced. 7 (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid 8 (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) NET 2 ATP 9 Pyruvic acid (2 molecules per glucose molecule)
  18. 18. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  19. 19. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  20. 20. Transition Reaction Each pyruvic acid molecule is broken down to form CO2 and a two-carbon acetyl group, which enters the Krebs cycle Pyruvic Acid Acetyl CoA
  21. 21. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  22. 22. Krebs CycleWhere? In the MitochondriaWhat? Uses Acetyl Co-A to generate ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2.
  23. 23. Krebs Cycle
  24. 24. Krebs Cycle
  25. 25. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  26. 26. Electron Transport System Protein complexIntermembrane Electronspace carrierInnermitochondrialmembrane Electron flowMitochondrialmatrix ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP Figure 6.12 SYNTHASE
  27. 27. Electron Transport System
  28. 28. Electron Transport SystemFor each glucose molecule that enters cellularrespiration, chemiosmosis produces up to 38 ATPmolecules
  29. 29. Overview of Aerobic Respiration
  30. 30. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  31. 31. Fermentation Requires NADH generated by glycolysis. Where do you suppose these reactions take place? Yeast produce carbon dioxide and ethanol Muscle cells produce lactic acid Only a few ATP are produced per glucose
  32. 32. Fermentation

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