4.4 aerobic respiration

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  • 1. How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Introduction to Cell Metabolism Glycolysis Aerobic Cell Respiration Anaerobic Cell Respiration
  • 2. Breathing and Cell Respiration are related O2 CO2 BREATHING Lungs Muscle cells CO2 Bloodstream O carrying out 2 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O2 → ATP + CO2 + H2O
  • 3. Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produceCarbon dioxide, water, and ATP.Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon Water Energy dioxide
  • 4. How efficient is cell respiration? Energy released Energy released Gasoline energy from glucose from glucose converted to (as heat and light) banked in ATP movement 100% About 40% 25%Burning glucose “Burning” glucose Burning gasolinein an experiment in cellular respiration in an auto engine
  • 5. Reduction and Oxidation OILRIGOxidation is losing electronsReduction is gaining electrons Loss of hydrogen atoms Energy Glucose Gain of hydrogen atomsGlucose gives off energy as is is oxidized
  • 6. Reduction and Oxidation OILRIG Gain or loss of electrons is often in the form ofhydrogen. The hydrogen is then passed to a coenzyme suchas NAD+
  • 7. Reduction and OxidationWhat are some common co-enzymes? NAD+ and FAD NAD+ + 2 H ⇒ NADH + H+ FAD + 2H ⇒ FADH2 Remember that H =2 electrons and 2H+
  • 8. Reduction and OxidationThese co-enzymes are very important for cellrespiration because they transfer high-energyelectrons to electron transport systems (ETS).
  • 9. Reduction and Oxidation As the electrons move from carrier to carrier, energy is released in small quantities.Electron transport system(ETS)
  • 10. Generation of ATPThere are two ways to generate ATP Chemiosmosis Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
  • 11. Generation of ATPChemiosmosisCells use the energyreleased by “falling”electrons in the ETS topump H+ ions across amembraneUses the enzyme ATPsynthase.
  • 12. Generation of ATPChemiosmosis
  • 13. Generation of ATPSubstrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be Adenosine made by transferring phosphate groups from organic substrate molecules to ADP Adenosine product Figure 6.7B
  • 14. Generation of ATPSubstrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be Adenosine made by transferring phosphate groups from organic substrate molecules to ADP Adenosine product Figure 6.7B
  • 15. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  • 16. GlycolysisWhere? The cytosolWhat? Breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid
  • 17. Steps 1 – 3 A fuel Glucose molecule is energized, Step using ATP.Glycolysis 1 Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Fructose-6-phosphateEnergy In: 2 ATP 3 Fructose-1,6-diphosphate Step 4 A six-carbon 4 intermediate splits into two three-carbon Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate intermediates. (G3P) 5 Step 5 A redox reaction generates NADH. 1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 6 Steps 6 – 9 ATP 3-Phosphoglyceric acidEnergy Out: 4 ATP and pyruvic acid are produced. 7 (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid 8 (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) NET 2 ATP 9 Pyruvic acid (2 molecules per glucose molecule)
  • 18. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  • 19. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  • 20. Transition Reaction Each pyruvic acid molecule is broken down to form CO2 and a two-carbon acetyl group, which enters the Krebs cycle Pyruvic Acid Acetyl CoA
  • 21. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  • 22. Krebs CycleWhere? In the MitochondriaWhat? Uses Acetyl Co-A to generate ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2.
  • 23. Krebs Cycle
  • 24. Krebs Cycle
  • 25. General Outline of Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System
  • 26. Electron Transport System Protein complexIntermembrane Electronspace carrierInnermitochondrialmembrane Electron flowMitochondrialmatrix ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP Figure 6.12 SYNTHASE
  • 27. Electron Transport System
  • 28. Electron Transport SystemFor each glucose molecule that enters cellularrespiration, chemiosmosis produces up to 38 ATPmolecules
  • 29. Overview of Aerobic Respiration
  • 30. General Outline Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen No Oxygen Pyruvic Acid Aerobic Anaerobic Transition Reaction Fermentation Krebs Cycle ETS 36 ATP
  • 31. Fermentation Requires NADH generated by glycolysis. Where do you suppose these reactions take place? Yeast produce carbon dioxide and ethanol Muscle cells produce lactic acid Only a few ATP are produced per glucose
  • 32. Fermentation