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Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolersin a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning
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Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolers in a Guided Discovery-Based Program of Game Design Learning

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This study reports upon students’ strategies for inquiry and resource use in a program of game design learning. The study highlights the need for understanding the relationship between project-based …

This study reports upon students’ strategies for inquiry and resource use in a program of game design learning. The study highlights the need for understanding the relationship between project-based learning creative tasks involving student design of an artifact, and, the inquiry strategies that can best support these tasks. Findings offer pragmatic insights on design of information literacy scaffolds, and theory on guided discovery-based learning.

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  • This presentation reports on work being done in the context of . . . .
  • How do we plan to grow exponentially in a way that is sustainable? Strong and innovative Professional Development programs for educators, principals and students ensure the community can self-manage, grow and develop.Hands-on training: Mentor program – cascading and taken to scaleVirtual support – sustainable, scalable – walking our talkRewards & Recognition – we pay
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • Site visits, interviews, observationsBeing up close and personal yielded insightsPrimary task: Game designSecondary tasks: Other CLAsRange of resourcesCollaboration as practiceE-Learning platform hosts
  • Site visits, interviews, observationsBeing up close and personal yielded insightsPrimary task: Game designSecondary tasks: Other CLAsRange of resourcesCollaboration as practiceE-Learning platform hosts
  • Site visits, interviews, observationsBeing up close and personal yielded insightsPrimary task: Game designSecondary tasks: Other CLAsRange of resourcesCollaboration as practiceE-Learning platform hosts
  • In addition to the amazing impact we have seen over the past few years researching and evaluating the Globaloria program we…We are in unique position of having everything we do be rooted in years of academic research and real-world practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, while at Harvard and the MIT Media Lab, Idit really founded the concept that children learn best by designing – when they are programming computers instead of computers programming them. Ground breaking research with children in Bronx, showing how software designing could change their relationship to education and their engage them in learning in a way that had not been seen before
  • Site visits, interviews, observationsBeing up close and personal yielded insightsPrimary task: Game designSecondary tasks: Other CLAsRange of resourcesCollaboration as practiceE-Learning platform hosts
  • Transcript

    • 1. Inquiry and Resource Use Strategies that Emerge Among Middle Schoolers in a Guided DiscoveryBased Program of Game Design Learning ALISE 2014 Rebecca Reynolds, Assistant Professor Xiaofeng Li, Doctoral Fellow Eun Baik, Doctoral Student School of Communication & Information Library and Information Science Rutgers University
    • 2. Learning Management Systems Are Coming to K-12
    • 3. LMS Curriculum Management, Content
    • 4. Course Management
    • 5. Course Resource Sharing
    • 6. Prima Facie Assumptions Using LMS will improve teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes at middle school and high school level. • Where are the data? Questions of infrastructure: • 1:1 teacher and 1:1 student computer availability; printers; scanners
    • 7. Prima Facie Assumptions Teachers: • Questions of fit: Subject domain, topic, assignment, grade level • Teacher’s own digital and information literacy, individual differences • Organizational skills • Information architecture / user interface design capabilities • Navigation, labeling, categorizing, language • What material makes sense to digitize, what makes sense to keep in print? • How to effectively incorporate their own and students’ LMS access and use into precious school instructional hours: During class? After school? At home? Homework?
    • 8. Prima Facie Assumptions Students: • Age / grade level / developmental readiness • Individual differences (gender, SES, ELL status, IEPs, struggling readers, etc.) • Prior technology experience / expertise variation • Home access variation • Information and digital literacy: • Orientation to and navigation of hypertextual environment • Internet reading • Searching/Finding/Interpeting/Using
    • 9. Inquiry, Collaboration, Creation during a Game Design Course My research investigates MS and HS student engagement in collaborative information-seeking behavior, within a pilot game design learning program involving a wiki-based LMS as a “coordinating representation” and productive social media platform.  Design affordances / constraints of the environment  Student inquiry and collaborative processes  Learning outcomes: successes, struggles / challenges • This testbed environment and program is richly and deeply integrated into the schools in which it is being piloted. • Research is eliciting understandings that are generalizable to wider LMS proliferation, and may have implications for their successful implementation.
    • 10. INTERVENTION: Guided discovery-based game design program and curriculum offered by the World Wide Workshop. MS, HS teachers and students gain experience and expertise in a range of agentive digital practices.
    • 11. Globaloria is currently active in 4 U.S. states: CA, TX, NY, WV, >2000 students
    • 12. Learning Management System as Information System
    • 13. Learning Management System as Information System
    • 14. Learning Supports for Students and Educators: Flash software, Wiki Environment, Curriculum, Tutorials “Hands On” Training Sessions (virtual, local) • Globaloria Academy – In-person, intensive trainings (3) • Online Mini Webinars - Web-based workshops (7) Globaloria Mentors Program Experienced educators take on a leadership role by supporting other educators “24/7” Virtual Support • Expert Support via wikis, blogs, email, WebEx • Educator Community Development – private educators community wiki, peer-to-peer mentoring, weekly educators newsletter, sharing teaching & learning reports Rewards and Recognition •Teachers: Stipends and Graduate credits are earned •Students: Nationally-Recognized Game Design Competitions
    • 15. Domains of Learning and Expertise • Game Example • Constructionist digital literacy (skills needed in knowledge economy => 6-CLAs) • Computational thinking through game design in Flash and programming in Actionscript • Core curricular subject matter: o When game subjects are linked to core curriculum and students deepen knowledge about topic through online research and design • STEM career interests: Technology & Engineering; Computer Science • Motivation, Affect, Attitudes, Life Choices, New Possibilities and Horizons
    • 16. Research Questions, Methods (Reynolds, Hmelo-Silver, Sorenson, & Van Ness, 2013; Reynolds, Baik, Li, 2013). o “What collaborative information behaviors do middle school students evidence when given the chance to self-organize their game design task-driven teamwork?” o Step 1: Categorical analysis o Data sources: o video recorded face-to-face and virtual interviews with student teams, transcripts, coded in 2 waves in Dedoose o Step 2: Case study analysis of 4 distinctly dissimilar teams (Firestone, 1993) o Data sources: o wiki log files, wiki history, teacher quarterly progress reports, game design evaluation results, and individual student blogs
    • 17. Collaborative Information Behavior Research Findings in Globaloria (Reynolds, Hmelo-Silver, Sorenson, & Van Ness, 2013; Reynolds, Baik, Li, 2013). o Primary TASK categories that students engaged in during class were identified as: o game design o game domain narrative development o game programming o Students engaged in resource uses on the wiki to support these primary tasks o Collaboration & information seeking are meta processes supporting the primary game design task
    • 18. Collaborative Information Behavior Research Findings in Globaloria (Reynolds, Hmelo-Silver, Sorenson, & Van Ness, 2013; Reynolds, Baik, Li, 2013). Collaboration: o Teams of 2-4 collaborate to complete a game (& some indivs) o Unstructured collaboration practices Inquiry: o LMS provides information / organizational scaffolds for game planning, programming, creation o Unstructured inquiry practices
    • 19. Findings Wiki LMS Resource Uses: o o o o o o o Review of Worked Examples of Existing Games Assignment completion Use of Tutorials CMC Review One’s Own Earlier Work Information seeking for programming solutions to emergent problems Unsuccessful Attempts.
    • 20. Findings o “… we always go back to the wiki and read it over again…” o “we can use other people‟s games from past semester files and get ideas from them.” o “sometimes I look and can‟t find the information.” o “sometimes the wiki doesn‟t have answers to the exact problem we have.”
    • 21. Findings Wider Internet Resource Uses: o o o o o o Internet – text Internet – video Internet – games Internet – images Evaluation of sources: strategies, challenges Synthesis of information: how they use it, challenges “I went to Google and I saw the oil spill, was thinking why did it happen…I was thinking from my teacher, I need more like what happened with an oilspill at Yellowstone River, but went to YouTube, and I put in oil spill in Yellowstone…I ended up picking the Gulf Mexico instead of the Yellow Stone cause the Gulf has more information…I was doing separate search to think „what is better, Yellow Stone oil spill, or the Gulf coast?‟”
    • 22. Findings Non-internet based human resources: o o o o o o o o Peer help, Giving help Help desk Teacher expertise Alternative resources Engagement @ Home Other classes Mainstream media Exemplifies: Collaborative information seeking “I just ask someone, could you please check on work, and then they would go „yea can you check mine,‟ and we check it, that‟s how we know what we are doing wrong.”
    • 23. Knowledge Building as Conditions to Cultivate in Instructional Design Reynolds & Hmelo-Silver. (2013). Areas of Convergence in Constructionism, Knowledge Building and Guided Discovery Based Learning in the Globaloria Game Design Initiative. Presented at AERA 2013 in San Francisco, CA. Scardamalia & Bereiter (2006) describe knowledge building conditions in brief :  Knowledge advancement as a community rather than individual achievement  Knowledge advancement as idea improvement rather than as progress toward true or warranted belief  Knowledge of in contrast to knowledge about  Discourse as collaborative problem solving rather than as argumentation  Constructive use of authoritative information  Understanding as emergent Knowledge building is afforded, but not guaranteed
    • 24. How does Globaloria structure and scaffold students? (Reynolds, Hmelo-Silver, Sorenson, & Van Ness, 2013; Reynolds, Baik, Li, 2013) o Little scaffolding for effective discovery-based engagement with the LMS (e.g., minimal information literacy instruction; no inquiry circles (Kuhlthau, Maniotes, Caspari, 2007) • This result may generalize to other present and future LMS implementations with middle school and high school students • Signals strong need for information literacy skills instruction • Signals strong and growing role for school librarians to develop and implement scaffolds for more effective “collaborative information literacy”
    • 25. How does Globaloria structure and scaffold students? • Guided Inquiry model of Kuhlthau is informing ongoing modifications for information literacy; collaboration (e.g., more explicit information literacy instruction; transportation to transformation in SYNTHESIS AND USE; reciprocal teaching / inquiry circles) • Quantitative research is investigating role of instructional design factors and individual differences among students as contributors to outcomes (for instance intrinsic motivation) • The more intrinsically motivated, the more successful • Inquiry process may actually move the needle on some students’ motivation – opportunity for inquiry creates awareness of personal agency
    • 26. Scaffolding Information Literacy and Collaboration • Leverage agency inherent to inquiry; cultivate agency in students • But don’t lose the learning and knowledge production needed during the inquiry process • Creating information literacy modifications in Globaloria • Help students track sources, find and use information more effectively • Delicious; NoodleTools; others? • Ross Todd: “Transportation vs. Transformation” • Internet reading comprehension literature; Donald Leu • School librarians can help; professional development of SLs as information literacy experts and curriculum developers => Common Core emphasis on non-fiction information texts; digital environments
    • 27. Thank you! Rebecca.reynolds@gmail.com Rutgers University website http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/directory/rbreynol/index.html Thanks to IMLS! Thanks to my partners! Globaloria.org Worldwideworkshop.org
    • 28. References • • • • • • • • Reynolds, R., & Chiu, M. (2013). Context matters: The effect of formal and informal context differences upon pre- to post-program changes in student engagement in a program of game design learning. Journal of Learning, Media & Technology. Reynolds, R.; Baik, EB & Li, X. (2013). Collaborative information seeking in the wild: Middle-schoolers’ self-initiated teamwork strategies to support game design. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST), 2013. Reynolds, R., & Chiu, M. (2013). How sustained engagement in game design and social media use among diverse students can mitigate effects of the digital divide. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Education Research Association (AERA), San Francisco, CA, April, 2013. Reynolds, R., Hmelo-Silver, C., Sorenson, L., & Van Ness, C. (2013). Interview findings on middle schoolers’ collaboration in self-organizing game design teams. Poster presented at the International Conference of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, July 2013, Madison, WI. Reynolds, R., and I. Harel Caperton. 2011. Contrasts in student engagement, meaning-making, dislikes, and challenges in a discovery-based program of game design learning. Educational Technology Research and Development 59 (2): 267–289. Reynolds, R. (2011). Children's game design learning in discovery-based contexts: Contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations to student outcomes. Paper presented at the annual International Communication Association (ICA) conference, May 2011, Boston, MA. Reynolds, R. (2012). Changes in student attitudes towards 6 dimensions of digital engagement in a program of game design learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Education Research Association (AERA), April 2012, Vancouver, Canada. Reynolds, R., & Chiu, M. (2012). Contribution of motivational orientations to student outcomes in a discovery-based program of game design learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS), July 2012, Sydney, Australia.

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