INDEX Iron and Steel Architecture Realism (Sculpture and Painting)
IRON AND STEEL ARCHITECTURE The Industrial Revolution that started in Britain in 1760, led to the main changes in architecture in the second half of the 19th century. New materials like iron, steel, concrete, glass… started to be used to build because they were more resistant that the older ones. The advantages of these materials are that they are more resistant and easier to work with. Their main problems are oxidation and they aren´t easy to cast with fire, because steel loses its resistance with heat. Sainte Geneviève Library
The new necessities of industry and cities created a boom of construction of infrastructures and facilities for transport communications, such as train stations, bridges (one of the first important projects was The Iron Bridge in Shropshire, a precedent setting structure made almost entirely of cast iron), viaducts, storehouses, factories, department stores, libraries (Saint Genevieve’s Library in Paris) , markets, greenhouses, aqueducts (such as the world-famous Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in North Wales)… Large diaphanous spaces were needed. Iron Bridge Sainte Geneviève Pontcysyllte Aqueduct Library
Many architects continued using traditional materials, because they didn´t trust the use of the new materials in architecture. Discussions between architects and engineers started, because at the beginning, the engineers were excluded from the buildings´ construction. The Academies of Fine Arts, considered “not really artistic” the fantastic buildings built by the engineers during the 19th century.
FIRST BUILDINGS The use of the new materials was spread out with the World Fairs, events organized by the different states to show their science advances. Large spaces were needed to keep the machines and the new inventions. For that reason buildings were built with the most advanced techniques, to get the maximum profit. The most important buildings were: Chrystal Palace in London by Patxon, Gallery of the Machines by Dutert and Contamin and finally Eiffel Tower by Gustave Eiffel. Chrystal Palace Eiffel Tower Gallery of the Machines
CHRYSTAL PALACE It was built to host the first Great Exhibition, by Joseph Paxton in London in 1851. This building was a complete innovation, because it was totally different to the past built structures. This palace had the influence of greenhouses ´ architecture. It was only built with iron and glass. The purpose was to create a diaphanous building with daylight. It was prefabricated, so it could be assembled and disassembled. It had decorative elements like, arches, circular windows, pinnacles and lattices, which embellished the aesthetic appearance of the building.
EIFFEL TOWER The engineer Gustave Eiffel built the tower from 1887 to 1889 in Paris, next to Seine River. It´s made of iron. It´s 321 meters high. At the beginning it caused an unsightly impression, because it seemed to be a factory instead of a monument. It´s formed by four arches over four pillars in the lower part and the arches become narrower as they go to the upper part .
It was built for the World Fair in 1889 to commemorate the French Revolution. It was considered to be the highest building until 1930, when the Chrysler building in Manhattan was built. Its weigh is 7,300 tons. There were 300 workers in total working during 2 years, 2 months and 5 days. The Eiffel Tower is formed by 18,083 iron pieces, 2 million rivets and 50 tons of paint. Every 7 years, the tower is painted to improve its appearance and avoid corrosion. The tower is formed by three floors: in the first one there is a post office, a cinema, a gift shop, the conference and reception room and some pictures, in the second one there is a restaurant and in the third one, there is a bar, a gift shop and Gustave Eiffel’s office. In 1909, it should have been destroyed, but its telegraph antenna saved it. The Eiffel tower is visited by more than 6 million people every year.
FIRST SKYSCRAPERS With the use of iron and steel the first skyscrapers appeared. The first one appeared in Chicago and it had a commercial purpose. It was built by Sullivan and it was called Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building.
IRON AND STEEL ARCHITECRURE IN SPAIN In Spain, iron and steel were used in railway stations. An example is Atocha Station in Madrid by Alberto Palacio. Another example can be the Chrystal Palace of the Retiro Gardens in Madrid, built by Velázquez Bosco.
REALISM (PAINTING AND SCULPTURE) In the 2nd half of the 19th century there was a reaction against Romanticism. Artists wanted to reflect and describe reality and they wanted to show the real world. This was related to some facts, such as the failure of political revolutions, the consequences of industrialization (child work, exploitation, misery…) and advances in science, based on observation and description of reality. In Realism the main topic is the common life: human beings and their work had to be the point of inspiration. The artists didn´t idealize things, they showed the beautiful and the ugly as they were. Realism was the reflection of the social ideas of the period. The Gleaners The Third-wagon class
SCULPTURE In sculpture realism was reflected in more detailed sculptures with themes like work and ordinary life. Sculptors didn´t have much artistic liberty like painters. As the bourgeoisie was the richest class in this period, they decorated the cities and their houses with sculptures made of bronze, marble, terracotta and ceramic. The sculptures drew inspiration from Renaissance Roman busts and animals. Dalou Bust Monument to Colon
The main sculptors were: -France: Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (Ugolino), Daumier( Cartoonish sculptures), Rodin ( Dalou bust) -Italy: Vicenzo Vela( Vicenzo victim´s work), -Belgium: Constantin Meunier ( The forger, The driller) -Spain: Mariano Benlliure( Joselito´s funeral) , Ponciano Ponzano (Lions of the Courts), Antonio Susillo( Monument to Colon). Vicenzo victim s Lions of the Ugolino The forger work Courts
ANALYSIS OF A SCULPTURE Name: Dance Author: Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux Made in: 1869 Present Location: Paris Opera House Material: Stone Description: It´s a nymphs´ dance around a genius. The main figure is in the middle, placed to the left and he is naked. Under their feet there is a child who is encouraging some naked women to dance around him. The figures are very natural and they express happiness with their faces and their naughty looks. The sculpture has Rude´s influence but with relaxed and playful figures.
PAINTING In painting, new techniques weren´t develop. The themes were the main difference with respect to Romanticism: ordinary life, problems derived from industrialization and disillusion for the failure of the liberal revolutions. Painters didn´t idealize the pictures and they showed people in their ordinary life. The painters who best represented these ideas were the painters who belonged to Barbizon School. They showed the reality through landscape. The Return of the Flock Landscape with two figures
The main painters were: -Jean François Millet. He painted peasants ‘ life: The The Angelus lumberjack The Gleaners The Sower
-Gustave Courbet: his paintings were polemic and scandalous sometimes, due to his crude realism: The origin The artist s of the world studio The man A burial at with a Ornans pipe
-Honoré Daumier: his paintings had an important social content and his prints were very critical. The lawyer The Third-wagonThe Caricatures and classWasherwoman drawings about Don Quixote The studio
- Barbizon School: The old The Bridge at forest Mantes Charles Camille Corot Émile Jacque Landscape with two figures The Old Oak Henri Harpignies Jules Dupré
ANALYSIS OF A PAINTING Name: The artist´s studio or “ A Real Allegory of a Seven Year Phase of my Artistic and Moral life” Author: Gustave Courbet Painted in: 1885 Location: D´Orsay Museum (Paris) Material: Oil on canvas.
DESCRIPTION On the center part is the painter (Courbet), who is painting a landscape. This landscape represents the place where he lived during his childhood There´s also a child who is an innocent shepherd and he is looking to the painting. It´s Courbet´s ideal viewer. There is also a naked woman, who is another ideal viewer and his muse, who represents the Allegory of Truth. Some people are visiting the artist´s studio, while his son is drawing on a paper; it represents study and cultural interest. There is a window which illuminates the scene. The light is reflected in the middle to enhance that figure as the main character. On the left part is the low class, represented in a realistic manner. There is a woman breastfeeding her child, she represents starvation and misery. On the right, a skull above a newspaper represents the press. For some experts, a member of the middle class represents Courbet´s grandfather or for others he represents the Finance minister collecting money for the coup d´État. Baudelaire is representing poetry. On the background, a couple hugging represents free love. In this part are Proudhon, his friends Bruyas, Promayet and Buchon, too. And in the left part of the background is Saint Sebastian who represents the Academy.
EXPLANATION On this painting, Courbet represented his political ideas and his temperament. The colors used are dark and brown. The characters represent Courbet´s different stages and influences. Courbet is painting the landscape on his canvas, especially Ornans´ landscape. The painting represents a final judgment: on the left side the low class and the intellectual people on the right side. It´s a realistic painting, because Courbet represented the real life, he avoided the representation of the ideal world and he represented workers, the common life, the dead, women and the life in the street… He painted with short strokes and he preferred dark colors because in this way he represented the real life, without ornament and he avoided decadence been carefully with color and technique. On his painting Courbet represented all the social classes without relationship between them. Courbet considered himself as a free worker who wasn´t under the interests of a pattern and for this reason he achieved freedom in his work, so he showed his ideas and knowledge. The painting is modern and revolutionary. This painting is a Realism´ manifesto. Courbet said a sentence that showed that he was a Realistic painter: Painting is an essentially concrete art, which only consists in the representation of real and living things.
REALISM IN SPAIN Realism arrived late in Spain. It appears in some painters, such as : Joaquin Sorolla (fishermen´s paintings) Ignacio Zuloaga and Ramón Martí- Alsina (The nap )
SOURCES Books: Blanco Carrasco Cristina, Pérez Fons Paqui, Social Sciences History 4th Year Eso, Campo de Criptana , Ciudad Real Websites: Arqhys Architects Site, Copyright ArqHys®, http://www.arqhys.com/arquitectura-del-hierro.html http://www.arqhys.com/articulos/realismo.html Wikipedia , The Free Encyclopedia, Wikipedia ®, November 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cast- iron_architecture http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escultura_del_realismo Slideshare, 2012 SlideShare Inc. http://www.slideshare.net/archieg/hierro-y-acero2 http://www.slideshare.net/tomperez/la-pintura-realista-del-s-xix-415909 http://www.slideshare.net/nmenap/realismo-proyecto-de-arte ArteEspana, June 2005, http://www.arteespana.com/arquitecturadelhierro.htm http://www.arteespana.com/carpeaux.htm http://www.arteespana.com/pinturarealista.htm ArteHistoria, http://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/arte/videos/777.htm Viajes.net, http://www.viajes.net/europa/francia/paris/monumentos/torreeiffel Wikillerato,2009 Fundación Telefónica, http://www.educared.org/wikiEducared/La_escultura_realista.html Arte torreherberos,Paco Hidalgo http://artetorreherberos.blogspot.com.es/2010/04/comentario-de-el- estudio-del-pintor-de.html Obeservatario, una obra de arte diaria. Teresa Moreno, arte.observatorio.info