The Industrial Revolution

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  • 1. The Industrial Revolution
  • 2. Europe in the 18th Century: Background to Revolution Paradigm Shifts Population growth Agricultural Revolution Class Divisions Global War
  • 3. Foundations of the IndustrialRevolution Agricultural Revolution Population Growth ◦ Enclosure System in Great Britain Concentrated Markets Atlantic – centered economy Money and banking Political stability
  • 4. Human CapitalPeasants = large,semi-skilled workforcePutting out system: Inefficient SlowFailure of the puttingout system led to riseof industry
  • 5. The Rise of Industry - Late1700’s Entrepreneurs Inventors Consumers Technological advancement Resources Mass production
  • 6. The Rise of Industry Spinning Jenny ◦ James Hargreaves - 1764 Spinning Jenny Steam engine ◦ James Watt - 1765 Canals ◦ Steamboat – 1774 (first successful boat) ◦ Robert Fulton  Made commercial use of steamboats popular Railroads - 1829 Steam Engine ◦ George Stephenson ◦ Urbanization ◦ Nationalism Rocket Locomotive
  • 7. Spread of Industrialization Great Britain ◦ Industrial Revolution began here ◦ 50 year monopoly ◦ The Crystal Palace
  • 8. The Second Industrial Revolution Second Industrial Revolution ◦ Around 1850 ◦ United States ◦ Germany
  • 9. Industrial Society Material Benefits Migration Urbanization ◦ Living conditions Gender Relations
  • 10. Industrial Society Upward social mobility Bourgeoisie - (in Marxist theory) the class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values. Proletariat - (in Marxist theory) the class of workers, esp. industrial wage earners, who do not possess capital or property and must sell their labor to survive. Working conditions ◦ Resistance ◦ Reform
  • 11. Socialism Karl Marx ◦ History propelled forward by class struggles. ◦ Capitalism is to blame for social problems.  Industry is good  Unequal distribution of wealth is bad ◦ The last struggle will be between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. ◦ The proletariat will seize the means of production and the result will be a classless / stateless society.  Everyone will be equal  Utopian