Europe in the 18th Century: Background to Revolution Paradigm Shifts Population growth Agricultural Revolution Class Divisions Global War
Foundations of the IndustrialRevolution Agricultural Revolution Population Growth ◦ Enclosure System in Great Britain Concentrated Markets Atlantic – centered economy Money and banking Political stability
Human CapitalPeasants = large,semi-skilled workforcePutting out system: Inefficient SlowFailure of the puttingout system led to riseof industry
The Rise of Industry - Late1700’s Entrepreneurs Inventors Consumers Technological advancement Resources Mass production
The Rise of Industry Spinning Jenny ◦ James Hargreaves - 1764 Spinning Jenny Steam engine ◦ James Watt - 1765 Canals ◦ Steamboat – 1774 (first successful boat) ◦ Robert Fulton Made commercial use of steamboats popular Railroads - 1829 Steam Engine ◦ George Stephenson ◦ Urbanization ◦ Nationalism Rocket Locomotive
Spread of Industrialization Great Britain ◦ Industrial Revolution began here ◦ 50 year monopoly ◦ The Crystal Palace
The Second Industrial Revolution Second Industrial Revolution ◦ Around 1850 ◦ United States ◦ Germany
Industrial Society Material Benefits Migration Urbanization ◦ Living conditions Gender Relations
Industrial Society Upward social mobility Bourgeoisie - (in Marxist theory) the class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values. Proletariat - (in Marxist theory) the class of workers, esp. industrial wage earners, who do not possess capital or property and must sell their labor to survive. Working conditions ◦ Resistance ◦ Reform
Socialism Karl Marx ◦ History propelled forward by class struggles. ◦ Capitalism is to blame for social problems. Industry is good Unequal distribution of wealth is bad ◦ The last struggle will be between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. ◦ The proletariat will seize the means of production and the result will be a classless / stateless society. Everyone will be equal Utopian
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