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The Great War
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  • 1. THE GREAT WAR: THEWORLD IN UPHEAVAL
  • 2. La Belle Époque - 1871 - 1914  Absence of armed conflict  Increasing power of popularly elected legislatures.  Increasing involvement of government in social legislation.  Improved health and leisure .
  • 3. CAUSES AND ORIGINS OF THE WAR Short term cause – Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandFranz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie enter their car one final time unaware they are minutes from dying
  • 4. LONG TERM CAUSES OF WORLDWAR I Long term causes are much more complex  National rivalries  Imperialism  Military Arms Race  Economic Rivalries  Domestic Problems
  • 5. LONG TERM CAUSES OF WORLDWAR I  Alliance System  Triple Alliance (Central Powers ) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (later left and became neutral, then joined the Allies)  Triple Entente (Allied Powers) – Britain, France, Russia  Nationalism
  • 6. MARCH TO WAR Crisis in the Balkans  Serbia  Bosnia – Herzegovina
  • 7. MARCH TO WAR Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Gavrilo Princip  Black Hand Franz Ferdinand and family  Produces a Chain Reaction Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip being apprehended
  • 8. AUSTRIA – HUNGARY ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO SERBIA- Demands were impossible for Serbia to meet- Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia- This sets off a chain reaction
  • 9. CHAIN REACTIONAustria-Hungary and Germany Vs. Serbia and Russia
  • 10. MARCH TO WAR Schlieffin Plan  Had been created in 1905  Take France, then Russia Rape of Belgium  Belgium was neutral  Germany invades  Great Britain enters WWI Battle of the Marne
  • 11. REACTION TO WAR - EXCITEMENT
  • 12. NEW TECHNOLOGIES Trench warfare
  • 13. TRENCH FOOT
  • 14. NO MAN’S LAND
  • 15. NEW TECHNOLOGIES Poisonous gas Tanks Airplanes Submarine
  • 16. BATTLE OF VERDUN – FEBRUARY1916
  • 17. BATTLE OF THE SOMME – JULY 1916
  • 18. THE EASTERN FRONT
  • 19. ON THE HOMEFRONT… Total War  Mass conscription  Government controlled economies  Wage & price controls, work hours, full employment  Limited & restricted freedoms.
  • 20. PROPAGANDA
  • 21. WOMEN AND WAR Women performed the jobs of men at home Women served as nurses on the battlefield At the war’s end, women expected more equality with men In some places, gained the right to vote
  • 22. WIDENING THE WAR The Ottoman Empire Italy Middle East Japan United States
  • 23. AMERICA JOINS THE WAR Lusitania
  • 24. AMERICA JOINS THE WAR Lusitania
  • 25. AMERICA JOINS THE WAR The Zimmerman Telegram
  • 26. 1918 OFFENSIVES German Offensive  Treaty of Brest – Litovsk with Russia  Moved troops to Western Front Second Battle of the Marne The Hundred Days German defeat – November 1918  Government collapse  Weimar Republic
  • 27. HUMAN COST Military & Civilian Deaths: 15 million Wounded: 20 million Germany – 2 million Russia – 1.7 million France – 1.4 million Great Britain – 1 million U.S. – 126k
  • 28. PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE Georges Clemenceau David Lloyd George Victorio Orlando Woodrow Wilson  Fourteen Points George, Orlando, Clemenceau, Wilson
  • 29. THE REORDERING OF EUROPE Treaty of Versailles  Germany blamed for the war  Territorial loss  Military reduction  Saddled with reparations payments League of Nations  America didn’t join Redrawing the Map of Europe
  • 30. IMPACT OF WAR AND PEACE Weak peace settlement – led to WWII Bolshevik Revolution Destroyed Empires New Map of Europe Age of Anxiety