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  • 1. Organizational BehaviorSchermerhorn,Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University
  • 2. Chapter 1 Study QuestionsWhat is organizational behavior and why isit important?What are organizations like as worksettings?What is the nature of managerial work?How do we learn about organizationalbehavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 2
  • 3. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Workplace success depends on: – Respect for people. – Understanding of human behavior in complex organizational systems. – Individual commitment to flexibility, creativity, and learning. – Individual willingness to change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 3
  • 4. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Organizations and their members are challenged to: – Simultaneously achieve high performance and high quality of life. – Embrace ethics and social responsibility. – Respect the vast potential of demographic and cultural diversity among people. – Recognize the impact of globalization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 4
  • 5. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Organizational behavior. – Study of human behavior in organizations. – A multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 5
  • 6. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Pick up Figure 1.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 6
  • 7. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Reasons for importance of scientific thinking. – The process of data collection is controlled and systematic. – Proposed explanations are carefully tested. – Only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 7
  • 8. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Contingency approach. – Tries to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled. – Important contingency variables include: • Environment. • Technology. • Tasks. • Structure. • People. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 8
  • 9. Study Question 1: What is organizationalbehavior and why is it important? Modern workplace trends. – Commitment to ethical behavior. – Importance of human capital. – Demise of “command and control.” – Emphasis on teamwork. – Pervasive influence of information technology. – Respect for new workforce expectations. – Changing definition of “jobs” and “career.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 9
  • 10. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? An organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 10
  • 11. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. Missions and mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. Mission statements communicate: – A clear sense of the domain in which the organization’s products and services fit. – A vision and sense of future aspirations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 11
  • 12. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? A strategy is a comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. Key managerial responsibilities include strategy formulation and implementation. Knowledge of OB is essential to effectively strategy implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 12
  • 13. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 13
  • 14. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Stakeholders. – People, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization’s performance. – Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, regulators, and local communities are key stakeholders. – Interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes conflict. – Executive leadership often focuses on balancing multiple stakeholder expectations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 14
  • 15. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational culture and diversity. – Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members. – Positive organizational cultures: • Have a high-performance orientation. • Emphasize teamwork. • Encourage risk taking. • Emphasize innovation.. • Respect people and workforce diversity. – Success in business world is tied to valuing diversity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 15
  • 16. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Organizational effectiveness approaches. – Systems resource approach focuses on inputs. – Internal process approach focuses on the transformation process. – Goal approach focuses on outputs. – Strategic contingencies approach focuses on impact on key stakeholders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 16
  • 17. Study Question 2: What are organizationslike as work settings? Longitudinal views of organizational effectiveness. – Short-run emphasis on goal accomplishment, resource utilization, and stakeholder satisfaction. – Intermediate-run emphasis on organization’s adaptability and development potential. – Long-run emphasis on survival. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 17
  • 18. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managers perform jobs that involve directly supporting the work efforts of others. Managers assume roles such as coordinator, coach, or team leader. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 18
  • 19. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? The management process. – An effective manager is one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals while its members remain capable, committed, and enthusiastic. – Key results of effective management: • Task performance. • Job satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 19
  • 20. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 20
  • 21. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? The nature of managerial work. – Managers work long hours. – Managers are busy people. – Managers are often interrupted. – Managerial work is fragmented and variable. – Managers work mostly with other people. – Managers spend a lot of time communicating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 21
  • 22. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 22
  • 23. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managerial mind-sets. – Reflective mind-set — managing one’s self. – Analytic mind-set — managing organizational operations and decisions. – Worldly mind-set — managing in a global context. – Collaborative mind-set — managing relationships. – Action mind-set — managing change. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 23
  • 24. Study Question 3: What is the natureof managerial work? Managerial skills and competencies. – A skill is an ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance. – Categories of skills. • Technical. • Human. • Conceptual. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 24
  • 25. Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from experience. Organizational learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 25
  • 26. Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 26
  • 27. Study Question 4: How do we learnabout organizational behavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 27
  • 28. Chapter 2 Study QuestionsWhat is a high-performance organization?What is multiculturalism, and how canworkforce diversity be managed?How do ethics and social responsibilityinfluence human behavior inorganizations?What are key OB transitions in the newworkplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 28
  • 29. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? High-performance organizations. – Value and empower people, and respect diversity. – Mobilize the talents of self-directed work teams. – Use cutting-edge technologies to achieve success. – Thrive on learning and enable members to grow and develop. – Are achievement-, quality-, and customer-oriented, as well as being sensitive to the external environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 29
  • 30. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Stakeholders. – The individuals, groups, and other organizations affected by an organization’s performance. Value creation. – The extent to which an organization satisfies the needs of strategic constituencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 30
  • 31. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 31
  • 32. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Total quality management (TQM). – A total commitment to: • High-quality results. • Continuous improvement. • Customer satisfaction. – Meeting customers’ needs. – Doing all tasks right the first time. – Continuous improvement focuses on two questions: • Is it necessary? • If so, can it be done better? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 32
  • 33. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Human capital. – The economic value of people with job-relevant abilities, knowledge, ideas, energies, and commitments. Knowledge workers. – People whose minds rather than physical capabilities create value for the organization. Intellectual capital. – The performance potential of the expertise, competencies, creativity, and commitment within an organization’s workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 33
  • 34. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Empowerment. – Allows people, individually and in groups, to use their talents and knowledge to make decisions that affect their work. Social capital. – The performance potential represented in the relationships maintained among people at work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 34
  • 35. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Learning and high-performance cultures. – Uncertainty highlights the importance of organizational learning. – High-performance organizations are designed for organizational learning. – A learning organization has a culture that values human capital and invigorates learning for performance enhancement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 35
  • 36. Study Question 1: What is a high-performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 36
  • 37. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Workforce diversity. – Describes differences among people with respect to age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical ability, and sexual orientation. Multiculturalism. – Refers to pluralism and respect for diversity and individual differences in the workplace. Inclusivity. – The degree to which the organization’s culture respects and values diversity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 37
  • 38. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Diversity biases in the workplace. – Prejudice. – Discrimination. – The glass ceiling effect. – Sexual harassment. – Verbal abuse. – Pay discrimination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 38
  • 39. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 39
  • 40. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism,and how can workforce diversity be managed? Managing diversity. – Developing a work environment and organizational culture that allows all organization members to reach their full potential. A diversity mature organization is created when: – Managers ensure the effective and efficient utilization of employees in pursuit of the corporate mission. – Managers consider how their behaviors affect diversity. Well-managed workforce diversity increases human capital. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 40
  • 41. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Ethical behavior. – “Good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in a particular setting. The public demands that people in organizations act according to high moral standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 41
  • 42. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Immoral managers. – Do not subscribe to any ethical principles; pursuit of self-interest. Amoral managers. – Ethics is simply not on this manager’s “radar screen.” Moral managers. – Incorporate ethical principles and goals into their personal behavior . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 42
  • 43. Study question 3: How do ethics and socialresponsibility influence human behavior inorganizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 43
  • 44. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Ways of thinking about ethical behavior. – Utilitarian view –– the greatest good for the greatest number of people. – Individualism view –– best serving long-term self-interests. – Moral-rights view –– respects and protects the fundamental rights of all human beings. – Justice view –– fair and impartial in the treatment of all people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 44
  • 45. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Different types of justice. – Procedural justice –– properly following rules and procedures in all cases. – Distributive justice –– treating people the same under a policy, regardless of demographic differences. – Interactional justice –– treating people affected by a decision with dignity and respect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 45
  • 46. Study question 3: How do ethics and socialresponsibility influence human behavior inorganizations? Ethical dilemmas. – Occur when someone must choose whether or not to pursue a course of action that, although offering the potential of personal or organizational benefit or both, may be considered unethical. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 46
  • 47. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Rationalizations for unethical behavior. – Pretending the behavior is not really unethical or illegal. – Saying the behavior is really in the organization’s or person’s best interest. – Assuming the behavior is acceptable if others don’t find out about it. – Presuming that superiors will support and protect you. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 47
  • 48. Study question 3: How do ethics andsocial responsibility influence humanbehavior in organizations? Organizational social responsibility. – The obligation of organizations to behave in ethical and moral ways as institutions of the broader society. – Managers should commit organizations to: • Pursuit of high productivity. • Corporate social responsibility. – A whistleblower exposes others’ wrongdoings in order to preserve high ethical standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 48
  • 49. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership. – Society expects and demands ethical decisions and actions from businesses and other social institutions. – Corporate governance. • The active oversight of management decisions, corporate strategy, and financial reporting by Boards of Directors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 49
  • 50. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership (cont.). – Ethics leadership. • Making business and organizational decisions with high moral standards that meet the ethical test of being “good” and not “bad,” and of being “right” and not “wrong.” . – Integrity. • Acting in ways that are always honest, credible, and consistent in putting one’s values into practice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 50
  • 51. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior. – Quality of work life. • The overall quality of human experience in the workplace. • Commitment to quality of work life is an important value within organizational behavior. • Theory Y provides the theoretical underpinnings for contemporary quality of work life concepts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 51
  • 52. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior (cont.). – Positive organizational behavior focuses on practices that value human capacities and encourage their full utilization. – Positive organizational behavior is based on the core capacities of: • Confidence. • Hope. • Optimism. • Resilience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 52
  • 53. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation. – Globalization. • The worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets, and business competition. – Job migration. • The shifting of jobs from one nation to another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 53
  • 54. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation (cont.). – Global outsourcing. • Involves employers cutting back on domestic jobs and replacing them with contract workers in other nations. – Job migration and global outsourcing have contributed to organizations redesigning themselves for high performance in a changed world. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 54
  • 55. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning. – Shamrock organizations. • Relatively small core group of permanent, full-time employees with critical skills. • Outside operators contracting to core group to perform essential daily activities. • Part-timers hired by core group on an as-needed basis. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 55
  • 56. Study question 4: What are key OBtransitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning (cont.). – Personal management. • Understand one’s self, exercising initiative, accepting responsibility, working well with others, and continually learning from experience. – Self-monitoring. • Observing and reflecting on one’s own behavior and acting in ways that adapt to the situation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 56
  • 57. Chapter 3 Study QuestionsWhy is globalization significant fororganizational behavior?What is culture and how can weunderstand cultural differences?How does cultural diversity affect peopleat work?What is a global view on organizationallearning? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 57
  • 58. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Most organizations must achieve high performance within a complex and competitive global environment. Globalization refers to the complex economic networks of international competition, resource suppliers, and product markets. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 58
  • 59. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Forces of globalization. – Rapid growth in information technology and electronic communication. – Movement of valuable skills and investments. – Increasing cultural diversity. – Implications of immigration. – Increasing job migration among nations. – Impact of multicultural workforces. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 59
  • 60. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Globalization is contributing to the emergence of regional economic alliances. Important regional alliances. – European Union (EU). – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). – Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 60
  • 61. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Outsourcing. – Contracting out of work rather than accomplishing it with a full-time permanent workforce. Off shoring. – Contracting out work to persons in other countries. Job migration. – Movement of jobs from one location or country to another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 61
  • 62. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Global managers. – Know how to conduct business in multiple countries. – Are culturally adaptable and often multilingual. – Think with a worldview and are able to map strategy in the global context. – Have a global attitude. – Have a global mindset. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 62
  • 63. Study Question 1: Why is globalizationsignificant for organizational behavior? Culture. – The learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society. – The “software of the mind.” – Helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one another. – Cultural intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 63
  • 64. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Language. – Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture. – Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as a major determinant of thinking. – Low-context cultures — the message is conveyed by the words used. – High-context cultures — words convey only a limited part of the message. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 64
  • 65. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Time orientation. – Polychronic cultures. • Circular view of time. • No pressure for immediate action or performance. • Emphasis on the present. – Monochronic cultures. • Linear view of time. • Create pressure for action and performance. • Long-range goals and planning are important. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 65
  • 66. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Use of space. – Proxemics. • The study of how people use space to communicate. • Reveals important cultural differences. – Concept of personal space varies across cultures. – Space is arranged differently in different cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 66
  • 67. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Religion. – A major element of culture. – Can be a very visible aspect of culture. – Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior. – Influences conduct of economic matters. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 67
  • 68. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Values and national culture. – Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes. – Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: • Power distance. • Uncertainty avoidance. • Individualism-collectivism. • Masculinity-femininity. • Long-term/short-term orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 68
  • 69. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Power distance. – The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. – Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations. – Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia. – Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 69
  • 70. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Uncertainty avoidance. – The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. – Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations. – Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France. – Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 70
  • 71. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Individualism-collectivism. – The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests. – Preferences for working individually or in groups. – Example of an individualistic culture — United States. – Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 71
  • 72. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Masculinity-femininity. – The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. – Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships. – Example of a masculine culture — Japan. – Example of a feminine culture — Thailand. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 72
  • 73. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Long-term/short-term orientation. – The tendency of a culture to emphasize future- oriented values versus present-oriented values. – Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons. – Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea. – Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 73
  • 74. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 74
  • 75. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Understanding cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism. – Parochialism — assuming that the ways of one’s own culture are the only ways of doing things. – Ethnocentrism — assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the best ways of doing things. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 75
  • 76. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 76
  • 77. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people. – Universalism versus particularism. • Relative emphasis on rules and consistency, or on relationships and flexibility. – Individualism versus collectivism. • Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, or on group interests and consensus. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 77
  • 78. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Neutral versus affective. • Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment, or on emotion and expressed feelings. – Specific versus diffuse. • Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement, or on involvement with the whole person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 78
  • 79. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Achievement versus prescription. • Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status, or on ascribed status. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 79
  • 80. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward time. – Sequential view of time. • Time is a passing series of events. – Synchronic view of time. • Time consists of an interrelated past, present, and future. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 80
  • 81. Study Question 2: What is culture and how canwe understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment. – Inner-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it. – Outer-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 81
  • 82. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Multinational corporation (MNC). – A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country. – Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home. – Have enormous economic power and impact. – Bring benefits and controversies to host countries. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 82
  • 83. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Multicultural workforces and expatriates. – Styles of leadership, motivation, decision making, planning, organizing, and controlling vary from country to country. – Expatriates. • People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time. • Can be very costly for employers. • Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 83
  • 84. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 84
  • 85. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Ethical behavior across cultures. – Ethical challenges result from: • Cultural diversity. • Variations in governments and legal systems. – Prominent current issues. • Corruption and bribery. • Poor working conditions. • Child and prison labor. • Business support of repressive governments. • Sweatshops. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 85
  • 86. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 86
  • 87. Study Question 3: How does culturaldiversity affect people at work? Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism. – Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect fundamental human rights. – Beyond the threshold, businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions, foundations, and needs of different cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 87
  • 88. Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Organizational learning. – The process of acquiring the knowledge necessary to adapt to a changing environment. Global organizational learning. – The ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational adaptation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 88
  • 89. Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Are management theories universal? – Answer is “no.” – Cultural influences should be carefully considered in transferring theories and their applications across cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 89
  • 90. Study Question 4: What is a globalview on organizational learning? Best practices around the world. – Global organizational learning should identify best practices around the world. – Potential high-performance benchmarks exist throughout the world. – Cultural diversity enriches global organization learning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 90
  • 91. Chapter 4 Study QuestionsWhat is personality?How do personalities differ?What are value and attitude differencesamong individuals, and why are theyimportant?What are individual differences and howare they related to workforce diversity? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 91
  • 92. Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality. – The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 92
  • 93. Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 93
  • 94. Study Question 1: What is personality? Heredity and environment. – Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. – Environment determines development within these limits. – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. – Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. – Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. – Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 94
  • 95. Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 95
  • 96. Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality and the self-concept. – Personality dynamics. • The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. – Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings. • Self-esteem. • Self-efficacy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 96
  • 97. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? “Big Five” personality dimensions. – Extraversion • Being outgoing, sociable, assertive. – Agreeableness. • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. – Conscientiousness. • Being responsible, dependable, persistent. – Emotional stability. • Being unworried, secure, relaxed. – Openness to experience. • Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 97
  • 98. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Social traits. – Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings. – An important social trait is problem-solving style. • The way a person goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 98
  • 99. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Information gathering in problem solving. – Getting and organizing data for use. – Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information. – Intuitive-type individuals like new problems and dislike routine. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 99
  • 100. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Information evaluation in problem solving. – Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected. – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people. – Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 100
  • 101. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 101
  • 102. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Personal conception traits. – The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation. – Key traits. • Locus of control. • Authoritarianism/dogmatism. • Machiavellianism. • Self-monitoring. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 102
  • 103. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Locus of control. – The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. – Externals. • More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. – Internals. • More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 103
  • 104. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 104
  • 105. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Authoritarianism/dogmatism. – Authoritarianism. • Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority. – Dogmatism. • Tendency to view the world as a threatening place. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 105
  • 106. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? People with a high-Machiavellian personality: – Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. – Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. – Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. – Are skilled at influencing others. – Try to exploit loosely structured situations. – Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 106
  • 107. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? People with a low-Machiavellian personality: – Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. – Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. – Are unlikely to lie or cheat. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 107
  • 108. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Self-monitoring. – A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. – High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations. – Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 108
  • 109. Study Question 2: How dopersonalities differ? Emotional adjustment traits. – How much an individual experiences distress or displays unacceptable acts. – Type A orientation. • Characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism. – Type B orientation. • Characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 109
  • 110. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Values. – Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. – Values influence behavior and attitudes. – Parents, friends, teachers, and external reference groups can influence individual values. – Values develop as a product of learning and experiences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 110
  • 111. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Pick up Figure 4.5 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 111
  • 112. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Gordon Allport’s values categories. – Theoretical values. – Economic values. – Aesthetic values. – Social values. – Political values. – Religious values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 112
  • 113. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Maglino’s categories of workplace values. – Achievement. – Helping and concern for others. – Honesty. – Fairness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 113
  • 114. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes. – Are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values. – Are more specific and less stable than values. – An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 114
  • 115. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 115
  • 116. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? The attitude-behavior relationship is stronger when: – Attitudes and behaviors are more specific. – There is freedom to carry out the behavioral intent. – The person has experience with the attitude. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 116
  • 117. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes and cognitive consistency. – Cognitive dissonance. • Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior. – Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: • Changing the underlying attitude. • Changing future behavior. • Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 117
  • 118. Study Question 3: What are value and attitudedifferences among individuals, and why are theyimportant? Attitudes and cognitive consistency (cont.). – Dissonance reduction choices are influenced by: • The degree of control a person has over the situation. • The magnitude of the rewards involved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 118
  • 119. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Workforce diversity. – The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different from one another. Challenge of workforce diversity. – Respecting individuals’ perspectives and contributions and promoting a shared sense of organizational vision and identity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 119
  • 120. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? As workforce diversity increases, the possibility of stereotyping and discrimination increases. – Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis for stereotypes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 120
  • 121. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Equal employment opportunity. – Nondiscriminatory employment decisions. • No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally protected groups. – Affirmative action. • Remedial actions for proven discrimination or statistical imbalance in workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 121
  • 122. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Demographic characteristics. – The background characteristics that help shape what a person becomes. Important demographic characteristics for the workplace. – Gender. – Age. – Able-bodiedness. – Race. – Ethnicity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 122
  • 123. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender. – No consistent differences between men and women in: • Problem-solving abilities. • Analytical skills. • Competitive drive. • Motivation. • Learning ability. • Sociability. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 123
  • 124. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender (cont.). – As compared to men, women: • Are more conforming. • Have lower expectations of success. • Have higher absenteeism. • Are more democratic as leaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 124
  • 125. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Age. – Aging workforce. – Older workers are more susceptible to stereotyping. – Age discrimination lawsuits are increasingly common in the United States. – Small businesses tend to value older workers. – Experienced workers, who are usually older, tend to perform well, be absent less, and have low turnover. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 125
  • 126. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Able-bodiedness. – Despite evidence of effective job performance, most disabled persons are unemployed. – Most disabled persons want to work. – More firms are likely to hire disabled workers in the future. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 126
  • 127. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Racial and ethnic groups. – African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans make up an ever- increasing percentage of the American workforce. – Potential for stereotypes and discrimination can adversely affect career opportunities. – Race cannot be a BFOQ. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 127
  • 128. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Important lessons regarding demographic characteristics. – Respect and deal with the needs and concerns of people with different demographics. – Avoid linking demographics to stereotypes. – Demography is not a good indicator of individual-job fits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 128
  • 129. Study Question 4: What are individual differencesand how are they related to workforce diversity? Aptitude. – A person’s capability of learning something. Ability. – A person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job. – Includes relevant knowledge and skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 129
  • 130. Chapter 5 Study QuestionsWhat is the perception process?What are common perceptualdistortions?How can perceptions be managed?What is attribution theory? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 130
  • 131. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Perception. – The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. – People process information inputs into responses involving feeling and action. – The quality or accuracy of a person’s perceptions has a major impact on responses. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 131
  • 132. Study Question 1: What is the perceptionprocess? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 132
  • 133. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 133
  • 134. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 134
  • 135. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information attention and selection. – Selective screening. • Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that is available. – Two types of selective screening. • Controlled processing. • Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 135
  • 136. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Organization of information. – Schemas. • Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience. – Types of schemas: • Self schemas. • Person schemas. • Script schemas. • Person-in-situation schemas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 136
  • 137. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information interpretation. – Uncovering the reasons behind the ways stimuli are grouped. – People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 137
  • 138. Study Question 1: What is theperception process? Information retrieval. – Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory. – Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 138
  • 139. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 139
  • 140. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Stereotypes or prototypes. – Combines information based on the category or class to which a person, situation, or object belongs. – Individual differences are obscured. – Strong impact at the organization stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 140
  • 141. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Halo effects. – Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. – Likely to occur in the organization stage. – Important in the performance appraisal process. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 141
  • 142. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Selective perception. – The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes. – Strongest impact is at the attention stage. – Perception checking with other persons can help counter the adverse impact of selective perception. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 142
  • 143. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Projection. – The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals. – Especially likely to occur in interpretation stage. – Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 143
  • 144. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Contrast effects. – Occur when an individual is compared to other people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower. – People must be aware of the impact of contrast effects in many work settings Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 144
  • 145. Study Question 2: What are commonperceptual distortions? Self-fulfilling prophecy. – The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected to find. – Also called the “Pygmalion effect.” – Can have either positive or negative outcomes. – Managers should adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 145
  • 146. Study Question 3: How canperceptions be managed? Impression management. – A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. – Successful managers: • Use impression management to enhance their own images. • Are sensitive to other people’s use of impression management. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 146
  • 147. Study Question 3: How canperceptions be managed? Distortion management. – Managers should: • Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage. • Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage. • Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 147
  • 148. Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: – Understand the causes of a certain event. – Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event. – Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 148
  • 149. Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Factors influencing internal and external attributions. – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s behavior across situations. – Consensus — likelihood of others responding in a similar way. – Consistency — whether an individual responds the same way across time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 149
  • 150. Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Fundamental attribution error. – Applies to the evaluation of someone’s else behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of situational factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 150
  • 151. Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Self-serving bias. – Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of personal factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 151
  • 152. Study Question 4:What isattribution theory? Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. – Be self-aware. – Seek a wide range of differing information. – Try to see a situation as others would. – Be aware of different kinds of schemas. – Be aware of perceptual distortions. – Be aware of self and impression management. – Be aware of attribution theory implications. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 152
  • 153. Chapter 6 Study QuestionsWhat is motivation?What do the content theories suggest aboutindividual needs and motivation?What do the process theories suggest aboutindividual motivation?What are reinforcement theories and howare they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 153
  • 154. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. – Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth. – Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 154
  • 155. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories. – Content theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people seek to fulfill. – Process theories. • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive processes. – Reinforcement theories. • Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 155
  • 156. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories. – Motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs. Major content theories. – Hierarchy of needs theory. – ERG theory. – Acquired needs theory. – Two-factor theory. Each theory offers a slightly different view. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 156
  • 157. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 157
  • 158. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory. – Existence needs. • Desire for physiological and material well-being. – Relatedness needs. • Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. – Growth needs. • Desire for continued personal growth and development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 158
  • 159. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory. – Need for achievement (nAch). • The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. – Need for affiliation (nAff). • The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. – Need for power (nPower). • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 159
  • 160. Study Question 2: What do the content theoriessuggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 160
  • 161. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Process theories. – Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action. The chapter focuses on two process theories: – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 161
  • 162. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity theory. – People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others. – Felt negative inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs. – Felt positive inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 162
  • 163. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors. – Change work inputs. – Change the outcomes received. – Leave the situation. – Change the comparison person. – Psychologically distort the comparisons. – Take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 163
  • 164. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity comparisons. – Recognize that equity comparisons are inevitable in the workplace. – Anticipate felt negative inequities when rewards are given. – Communicate clear evaluations for any rewards given. – Communicate an appraisal of performance on which the reward is based. – Communicate comparison points that are appropriate in the situation Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 164
  • 165. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 165
  • 166. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (M = E x I x V). Motivational implications of expectancy theory. – Motivation is sharply reduced when, expectancy, instrumentality, or valence approach zero. – Motivation is high when expectancy and instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 166
  • 167. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by some other person. Intrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 167
  • 168. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards. – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. – Maintain an inventory of rewards that have the potential to serve as positive reinforcers. – Recognize individual differences in the rewards that will have a positive value for each person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 168
  • 169. Study Question 3: What do the process theoriessuggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards (cont.). – Let each person know exactly what must be done to receive a desirable reward; set clear target antecedents and give performance feedback. – Allocate rewards contingently and immediately upon the appearance of the desired behaviors. – Allocate rewards wisely in terms of scheduling the delivery of positive reinforcement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 169
  • 170. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement. – The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. – Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 170
  • 171. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 171
  • 172. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect. – Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences of behavior. – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 172
  • 173. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 173
  • 174. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). – The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior. – Uses four basic strategies: • Positive reinforcement. • Negative reinforcement. • Punishment. • Extinction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 174
  • 175. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement. – The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. – Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers. – A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 175
  • 176. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcement. – Law of contingent reinforcement. • The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited. – Law of immediate reinforcement. • The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 176
  • 177. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement. – Continuous reinforcement. • Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs. – Intermittent reinforcement. • Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 177
  • 178. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 178
  • 179. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement. – Also known as avoidance. – The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 179
  • 180. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment. – The administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 180
  • 181. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment. – Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction. – Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and low satisfaction. – Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 181
  • 182. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction. – The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. – The behavior is not unlearned; it simply is not exhibited. – The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 182
  • 183. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 183
  • 184. Study Question 4: What are reinforcementtheories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement usage. – Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? – Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? – Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? – How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 184
  • 185. Chapter 7 Study QuestionsHow are motivation, job satisfaction, andperformance related?What are job-design approaches?How are technology and job designrelated?What alternative work arrangements areused today? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 185
  • 186. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Job satisfaction. – The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. – Job satisfaction can be assessed: • By managerial observation and interpretation. • Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 186
  • 187. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Implications of key work decisions for job satisfaction. – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. • Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover. – Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. • Three alternative relationships between performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 187
  • 188. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: satisfaction causes performance. – Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. – Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 188
  • 189. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: performance causes satisfaction. – Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow. – Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period. – Rewards link performance with later satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 189
  • 190. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance. – Managerial implications. • Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. • High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. • Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 190
  • 191. Study Question 1: How are motivation,job satisfaction, and performance related? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 191
  • 192. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 192
  • 193. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. – Job simplification. • Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. • Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 193
  • 194. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job enlargement. • Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. – Job rotation. • Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 194
  • 195. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Job enrichment. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 195
  • 196. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Ways to increase job depth. – Allow workers to plan. – Allow workers to control. – Maximize job freedom. – Increase task difficulty. – Help workers become task experts. – Provide performance feedback. – Increase performance accountability. – Provide complete units of work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 196
  • 197. Study question 2: What are job-design approaches? Concerns about job enrichment. – Job enrichment can be very costly. – Controversy concerning whether pay must be increased when jobs are enriched. • Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact of competitive pay and enriched jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 197
  • 198. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 198
  • 199. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics. – Skill variety. • Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual. – Task identity. • Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 199
  • 200. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Task significance. • Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general. – Autonomy. • Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 200
  • 201. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Job feedback. • Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 201
  • 202. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Motivating potential score. – Combined together, the core job characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 202
  • 203. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Critical psychological states. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched, three critical psychological states are positively influenced. • Experienced meaningfulness of work. • Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. • Knowledge of actual results of work activities. – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 203
  • 204. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: – Employee growth-need strength is high. – The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. – Employee context satisfaction exists. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 204
  • 205. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 205
  • 206. Study question 3: What are the keysto designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications of enriching jobs. – Not everyone’s job should be enriched. – Job enrichment can apply to groups. – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 206
  • 207. Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Sociotechnical systems. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems. – Essential for new developments in job design, given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 207
  • 208. Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Flexible manufacturing systems. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products. – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions. – Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 208
  • 209. Study Question 4: How are technologyand job design related? Workflow and process reengineering. – Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – This approach for improving workflows and job designs is driven by one question: • What is necessary and what else can be eliminated? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 209
  • 210. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. – “4/40” is most common form. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 210
  • 211. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks (cont.). – Advantages. • For workers: added time off. • For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Disadvantages. • For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. • For organizations: work scheduling problems, customer complaints, and possible union opposition. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 211
  • 212. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. – Advantages: • For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. • For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover; more commitment; and higher performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 212
  • 213. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Job sharing. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. – Advantages. • For workers: less burnout and higher energy level. • For organizations; attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 213
  • 214. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. – Telecommuting. • Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. – Variants of telecommuting. • Flexiplace. • Hoteling. • Virtual office. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 214
  • 215. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of telecommuting. – For workers: flexibility, comforts of home, and choice of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle. – For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and improved employee satisfaction. Disadvantages of telecommuting. – For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased identification with work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 215
  • 216. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Part-time work. – Temporary part-time work. • An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. – Permanent part-time work. • An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 216
  • 217. Study Question 5: What alternativework arrangements are used today? Advantages of part-time work. – For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work. – For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and better management of retention quality. Disadvantages of part-time work. – For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 217
  • 218. Chapter 8 Study QuestionsWhat is goal setting?What is performance appraisal?What are compensation and rewards?What are human resourcedevelopment and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 218
  • 219. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 219
  • 220. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines. – Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are less difficult ones. – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or general ones. – Task feedback, or knowledge of results, is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 220
  • 221. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines (cont.). – Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when the people have the abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy required to accomplish them. – Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 221
  • 222. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting and MBO. – Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate. – MBO is consistent with the goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham model. – MBO establishes performance goals consistent with higher level work unit and organizational objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 222
  • 223. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 223
  • 224. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Potential problems with MBO. – Too much paperwork. in documenting goals and accomplishments. – Too much emphasis on: • Goal-oriented rewards and punishments. • Top-down goals. • Goals that are easily stated in objective terms. • Individual goals instead of group goals. – MBO may need to be implemented organization-wide. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 224
  • 225. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Performance appraisal. – Helps both the manager and subordinate maintain the organization-job-employee characteristics match – The process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback upon which performance adjustments can be made. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 225
  • 226. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Functions of performance appraisal. – Define the specific job criteria against which performance will be measured. – Measure past job performance accurately. – Justify rewards, thereby differentiating between high and low performance. – Define ratee’s needed development experiences. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 226
  • 227. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Two general purposes of good performance appraisal. – Evaluation. • Concerned with such issues as promotions, transfers, terminations, and salary increases. – Feedback and development. • Let workers know their status relative to firm’s expectations and performance objectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 227
  • 228. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Who does the performance appraisal? – Traditionally done by ratee’s immediate superior. – People other than immediate superior may have better information on certain aspects of ratee’s performance. – 360-degree evaluation provides appraisal information from multiple perspectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 228
  • 229. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Performance appraisal dimensions and standards. – Output measures. • Quantity of work output. • Quality of work output. – Activity measures. • Behavioral measures that are typically obtained from the evaluator’s observation and rating. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 229
  • 230. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Comparative methods of performance appraisal. – Ranking. • Raters rank order people from best to worst. – Paired comparisons. • Raters compare each person with every other person. – Forced distribution. • Raters place a specific proportion of employees into each performance category. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 230
  • 231. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal. – Graphic rating scales. • Raters assign scores on a list of dimensions related to high performance outcomes in a given job. – Critical incident diary records. • Rater records incidents of unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect. – Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). • Rater identifies observable job behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 231
  • 232. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal (cont.). – Behavioral observation scale (BOS). • Rater rates each observable job behavior on a five- point frequency scale. – Management by objectives. • Jointly established goals used as standards against which the subordinate’s performance is evaluated. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 232
  • 233. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? To be meaningful, an appraisal system must be: – Reliable — provide consistent results across time. – Valid — actually measure people on relevant job content. Measurement errors can threaten the reliability or validity of performance appraisals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 233
  • 234. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal. – Halo errors. • Raters evaluate on several different dimensions and give a similar rating for each dimension. – Leniency errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively high ratings. – Strictness errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively low ratings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 234
  • 235. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Central tendency errors. • Raters lump everyone together around the average or middle. – Low differentiation errors. • Raters restrict themselves to a small part of the rating scale. • Examples include leniency, strictness, and central tendency errors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 235
  • 236. Study Question 2: What is performanceappraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Recency errors. • Raters allow recent events to exercise undue influence on ratings. – Personal bias errors. • Raters let personal biases, such as stereotypes, unduly influence the ratings. – Cultural bias errors. • Raters allow cultural differences of employees to influence the