Psychological risks of videogame usage by Florian Rehbein
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Psychological risks of videogame usage by Florian Rehbein

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Psychological risks of videogame usage by Florian Rehbein Psychological risks of videogame usage by Florian Rehbein Document Transcript

  • 28.05.2010 Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen KFN-Survey 2005 (children) Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony Germany Stichprobe Anzahl Anteil in % total 5.529 100 male 2.759 49,9 Os danos psicológicos causados pelo uso dos videojogos Psychological risks of video game usage Psychische Wirkrisiken der Computerspielnutzung Alter (M) Grade Return quota: 86 % 10,3 4. Florian Rehbein (Dipl.-Psych.) 2 KFN-Survey 2007/08 (youths) Stichprobe Anzahl Anteil in % Befragungsgebiete: total 44.610 100 male 22.545 51,3 1: Background Age (M) Grade Return quota: 88 % 15,3 9. 3 4 Ownership of screen media among adolescents in Germany (12-19, JIM-Studies) Video game usage time among adolescents (2000, 2005, 2007/2008) 80 160 Ownership quota (percent) 70 71 140 141 Usage time (minutes) 66 67 66 67 64 64 64 62 60 60 61 60 61 120 57 53 54 50 50 51 100 49 91 46 45 45 42 42 80 40 38 68 Boys Jungen 37 35 33 34 33 34 35 60 56 32 Mädchen 30 31 31 28 28 Girls 25 40 23 20 20 19 19 10 0 0 2000 2005 2007/2008 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Year (vgl. Mößle et al. 2007, Rehbein et al., 2009, Rehbein, 2010) TV Fernseher Gaming Spielkonsole Computer Internet access Internetanschluss consoles 5 6 1
  • 28.05.2010 Video game usage and gender Top 10 games of girls (ninth-grade students, 2007/2008) 29,8% Girls Mädchen Boys Jungen Rang Titel* Genre USK** N % 1 Die Sims Simulation 0 4853 22,6 24,3% 25,0% P50 P75 23,2% P90 2 Singstar Partyspiel 0 1471 6,8 19,7% 3 Need for Speed Rennspiel 0 – 12 1042 4,8 18,6% 14,9% 15,8% 4 Solitair Denkspiel 0 779 3,6 5 Super Mario Geschicklichkeit 0–6 620 2,9 10,8% 8,3% 6 Grand Theft Auto Genremix 16 – 18 532 2,5 5,6% 7 Counterstrike Shooterspiel 16 – 18 513 2,4 4,3% 8 FIFA (Fußball) Sportspiel 0 291 1,4 9 Tomb Raider Action- Adventure 12 – 16 273 1,3 No gaming Casual Below Above Regulary Excessive 10 World of Warcraft MMORPG 12 272 1,3 gaming average average < 1 h / Tag > 1 h / Tag > 2,5 h / Tag > 4,5 h / Tag 7 F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 8 KFN survey with German 4th-grade students in 2005 Top 10 games of boys (mean age = 10,3 years) Rang Titel* Genre USK** N %  Experiences with games rated 16+ 1 Counterstrike Shooterspiel 16 - 18 6110 27,0 34 % of all children (Girls: 17 %; Boys: 50 %) 2 FIFA (Fußball) Sportspiel 0 3647 16,1 3 Need for Speed Rennspiel 0 – 12 2581 11,4  Experiences with games rated 18+ 4 Grand Theft Auto Genremix 16 – 18 2277 10,1 18 % of all children (Girls: 7 %; Boys: 29%) 5 World of Warcraft MMORPG 12 2222 9,8 6 Call of Duty Shooterspiel 18 1766 7,8  Playing games rated 16+ or 18+ at the time of the interview 7 Battlefield Shooterspiel 16 1161 5,1 12 % of all children (Girls: 3 %; Boys: 21 %) 8 Warcraft Strategiespiel 12 1118 4,9 9 Pro Evolution Soccer Sportspiel 0 1092 4,8 10 Guild Wars MMORPG 12 601 2,7 Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony Germany 9 Video Game Dependency (www.klicksafe.de) 2: Video Game Dependency 11 2
  • 28.05.2010 KFN-CSAS-II KFN-CSAS-II (Diagnoseinstrument) (Video Game Dependency Scale) Einengung des Denkens preoccupation/salience • 14 Items, 5 dimensions und Verhaltens • Four-stage response format (1 - 4) Example: conflict • Range: 14 to 56 Negative Konsequenzen • Cut-off values: “During the time that I don’t play loss of control „At Risk“: sum score 35 and above(2 SD) Kontrollverlust video games, in my thoughts I am very „Dependent“: sum score 42 and above (3 SD) much occupied with games.” withdrawal symptoms • Item difficulties (1.23 - 1.64) Entzugserscheinungen • Discriminatory power (> r= .60) • Cronbachs Alpha = .92 tolerance Toleranzentwicklung Rehbein, F., Kleimann, M., & Mößle, T. (2010). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Video Game Dependency in Adolescence: Results of a German Nationwide Survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, in press. F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 13 F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 14 KFN-CSAS-II (Diagnoseinstrument) KFN-CSAS-II (Diagnoseinstrument) Einengung des Denkens Einengung des Denkens und Verhaltens und Verhaltens Example: Example: Negative Konsequenzen Negative Konsequenzen “My school achievement suffers “I have a feeling that I cannot control Kontrollverlust under my game habits.” Kontrollverlust my gaming time.” Entzugserscheinungen Entzugserscheinungen Toleranzentwicklung Toleranzentwicklung 15 16 KFN-CSAS-II (Diagnoseinstrument) KFN-CSAS-II (Diagnoseinstrument) Einengung des Denkens Einengung des Denkens und Verhaltens und Verhaltens Example: Example: Negative Konsequenzen Negative Konsequenzen “If I don’t play for quite a while, I “I feel forced to play longer and Kontrollverlust become restless and nervous.” Kontrollverlust longer to be satisfied.” Entzugserscheinungen Entzugserscheinungen Toleranzentwicklung Toleranzentwicklung 17 18 3
  • 28.05.2010 Psychosocial stress indicators (Boys) Prevalence of VGD in Germany Stress indicators Main group Extensive P. Dependend P. (< 2,5 h/Tag) (> 2,5 h/Tag) (SS) >= 42) Primary validation KFN-Survey 2007/08 Population (843.200) Online gaming time 26 Min. 159 Min.** 188 Min.** Offline gaming time 33 Min. 100 Min.** 78 Min.** Self-assessment VGD (1-6) M = 1.8 M = 2.4** M = 4.8** Grades at school 5 4,7 German 3.14 3.28** 3.46** Mathemathics 3.05 3.07ns 3.29** 4 3 Prevalence (%) History 2.83 2.92** 3.17** 3 2,8 2.400 Girls (10%) Sports 2.05 2.17** 2.42** School absenteeism 1,7 21.200 Boys (90%) 2 Skipped lessons 10.1 h 10.0 hns 18.6 h** Multiple truancy 12.5 % 12.2.%ns 22.4 %** 1 0,5 Motive: video gaming 8.2 % 23.2 %** 63.8 %** 0,3 Health-related factors 0 Time of sleep 7.5 h 7.3 h** 6.9 h** dependent abhängig at risk gefährdet Sleep disturbance 4,1 % 6,1 %** 15,1 %** 1.300 Girls (9%) No regular leisure-time activities 30.4 % 36.9 %** 44.6 %** Frequent thoughts of suicide 2.4 % 3.0 %ns 12.3 %** boys Junge girls Mädchen total gesamt 13.000 Boys (91%) SS = Sum Score. * p < .05, ** p < .01, ns = nicht signifikant F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 19 F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 20 Riskfactor: Prefered game Risikomodell Logistische Regression zur Vorhersage von Computerspielabhängigkeit (n = 4.727, Spieler) Imperiled and Dependent Persons among Players of the 10 Most Popular Predictors B Std. Error Exp(B) Games of Male Adolescents gaming behavior gaming in terms of dysfunctional coping 1.22** 0.10 3.39 World of Warcraft 11,6 8,5 gaming as source of self-efficacy 0.45** 0.11 1.57 gefährdet at risk usage of online role-playing game 0.58** 0.20 1.78 Guild Wars 5,8 3,8 abhängig dependent usage of strategy games 0.17ns 0.21 1.19 Warcraft 8,7 3,8 usage of shooter games 0.06ns 0.23 1.06 social predictors Nagelkerkes Counterstrike 8,2 4,9 no leisure time successes besides gaming 1.60** 0.32 4.94 R2 = .41 Call of Duty 6,2 4 school related anxieties 0.54** 0.14 1.72 previous repetition of school year 0.50* 0.21 1.65 * p < .05 Battlefield 6,5 4,1 Mean value demographic predictors ** p < .01 dependent male gender 0.39ns 0.36 1.48 Grand Theft Auto 4,5 2,7 players low parental education -0.28ns 0.27 0.76 Pro Evolution S. 3,5 1,9 low youth education 0.22ns 0.22 1.24 psychological predictors FIFA (Fußball) 2,9 1,2 lower social competence 0.85** 0.31 2.34 Need for Speed 2,8 1,8 impulsiveness 0.31** 0.12 1.36 internalization of violent legitimizing norms 0.27* 0.12 1.31 7.7 ADHS disorder in history -0.02ns 0.28 0.98 0 5 10 15 20 25 depression disorder in history -0.04ns 0.41 0.96 anxiety disorder in history 0.43ns 0.46 1.54 % frequent physical abuse in childhood 0.59ns 0.39 1.81 21 F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 22 Videosequences of violent video games 3: Violent video games 23 4
  • 28.05.2010 Short-Term-Effects (General Aggression Model ) Desensitization Desensitization = Reduction of emotional, cognitive and behavioral responses on violent media Phase 1: Scenes from a violent game (e.g., headshot) cause aversion or disgust. Phase 2: Scenes become less annoying. Handling of the game becomes easier. Phase 3: In the absence of becoming annoyed the sense and the rating of violence changes. A „headshot“ becomes a normal goal of the game. Transfer-phase: The adaption of game violence leads to a lower reaction on real- life violence. (Bartholow et al., 2006; Carnagey et al., 2007). In the long run this leads to lower empathy and lower compassion for casualties of real-life violence (see Funk et al., 2004; Möller, 2006). Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony Germany Violent video game and aggressiveness Longitudinal Study: Möller et al, 2009 N = 143 students (T1: 13 years, T2: 16 years) (Meta-analysis, 54 independent samples, Anderson & Bushman, 2001) Longitudinal Study: Möller et al, 2009 N = 143 students (T1: 13 years, T2: 16 years) Another Longitudinal Study (Hopf, Huber & Weiß, 2008) N = 314 students(T1: 12 years, T2: 14,7 years) 5
  • 28.05.2010 Thank you for your attention!!! Rehbein, F., Kleimann, M., & Mößle, T. (2010). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Video Game Dependency in Adolescence: Results of a Research team KFN-survey 2007/2008: German Nationwide Survey. CyberPsychology & Behavior, in press. Rehbein, F., Kleimann, M., & Mößle, T. (2009). Dirk Baier (Dipl.-Soziologe) Exzessives Computerspielen und Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter: Ergebnisse einer deutschlandweiten Susann Rabold (Soziologin, M.A.) Repräsentativbefragung. Die Psychiatrie, 6, 140-146. Dr. Julia Simonson (Dipl.-Soziologin) Further information to our overall project “Media usage and school achievement“ you will find on our homepage: www.kfn.de Florian Rehbein (Dipl.-Psych.) frehbein@kfn.uni-hannover.de Matthias Kleimann (Dipl.-Medienwiss.) mkleimann@kfn.uni-hannover.de Dr. Thomas Mößle (Dipl.-Psych.) moessle@kfn.uni-hannover.de 31 F. Rehbein - Computerspielabhängigkeit im Jugendalter 32 6