How each side Actively impedes the achievement of each other’s goals.
Who are they auditing? IT operations.I love IT operatoins. Why? Because when the developers screw up, the only people who can save the day are the IT operations people. Memory leak? No problem, we’ll do hourly reboots until you figure that out.Who here is from IT operations?Bad day:Not as prepared for the audit as they thoughtSpending 30% of their time scrambling, generating presentation for auditorsOr an outage, and the developer is adamant that they didn’t make the change – they’re saying, “it must be the security guys – they’re always causing outages”Or, there’s 50 systems behind the load balancer, and six systems are acting funny – what different, and who made them differentOr every server is like a snowflake, each having their own personalityWe as Tripwire practitioners can help them make sure changes are made visible, authorized, deployed completely and accurately, find differencesCreate and enforce a culture of change management and causality
Who’s introducing variance? Well, it’s often these guys. Show me a developer who isn’t causing an outage, I’ll show you one who is on vacation.Primary measurement is deploy features quickly – get to market.I’ve worked with two of the five largest Internet companies (Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, AOL, Amazon), and I now believe that the biggest differentiator to great time to market is great operations:Bad day: We do 6 weeks of testing, but deployment still fails. Why? QA environment doesn’t match productionOr there’s a failure in testing, and no one can agree whether it’s a code failure or an environment failureOr changes are made in QA, but no one wrote them down, so they didn’t get replicated downstream in productionBelieve it or not, we as Tripwire practitioners can even help them – make sure environments are available when we need them, that they’re properly configured correctly the first time, document all the changes, replicate them downstream
So who are all these constituencies that we can help, and increase our relevance as Tripwire practitioners and champions?How many people here are in infosec?Goal: protect critical systems and dataSafeguard organizational commitmentsPrevent security breaches, help quickly detect and recover from themBad day: no security standardsNo one is complyingYes, we’re 3 years behind. “Whaddyagonna do about it?”Vs. we (Tripwire owner) can become more relevant and add value by help infosec by leveraging all the configuration guidance out thereMeasure variance between produciton and those known good statesTrust and verify that when management says, we’ve trued up the configurations, they’ve actually done itWhy? Now, more than ever, there are an ever increasing amount of regulatory and contractual requirements to protect systems and data
Tell story of Amazon, Netflix: they care about, availability, securityIt’s not a push, it’s a pull – they’re looking for our help (#1 concern: fear of disintermediation and being marginalized)
At RSA 2009, Josh Corman, Jeff Williams, and David Rice were chatting at the Greylock cocktail party.
So software not only need
…agile, but it also needs to be…
…rugged. Capable of withstanding…
…the harshest conditions…
…and most unfriendly environments…
[ text ] My personal goal is to prescriptively define 1) what does Dev need to do to become a reliable partner, 2) what does IT Operations need to do to become a realiable partner, and then 3) how do they work together to deliver unbelievable value to the business.Of course, the goal is more than happy coexistence. It’s to replicate the Etsy and LinkedIn stories:Increase the rate of features that we can put into production, while simultaneously maintaining the reliability, stability, security and survivability of the production environment.
[ picture of messy data center ] Ten minutes into Bill’s first day on the job, he has to deal with a payroll run failure. Tomorrow is payday, and finance just found out that while all the salaried employees are going to get paid, none of the hourly factory employees will. All their records from the factory timekeeping systems were zeroed out.Was it a SAN failure? A database failure? An application failure? Interface failure? Cabling error?
How each side Actively impedes the achievement of each other’s goals.
But it’s not just about effectiveness and efficiency. Or just about being efficiently effective, or effectively efficient. Which brings us to the second theme of this conference, which is relevance. The work has to mean something to someone. In my journey of studying high performing IT organizations, I’ve run into many non-high performers. And in those organizations, controls functions, and information security is often viewed as the shrill, hysterical people who are trying to create bureaucratic processes, which suck the will to live out of everyone it touches.These are the functions that tend to get marginalized, or worse, totally avoided. “We have an urgent project that needs to get done. Make sure you don’t invite Gene, because he’ll guarantee that it won’t get done.” Our job is to make money for the business, and I’m not sure what Gene’s job is…
Winnipeg ISACA Security is Dead, Rugged DevOps
Infosec In The New WorldOrder:Rugged DevOps and More…Gene KimWinnipeg ISACAApril 26, 2012Session ID:
Agenda Background of research The big unsolved problem What is Rugged? What is DevOps? How do you do Rugged DevOps? Things you can do right away 3
High Performing IT Organizations High performers maintain a posture of compliance Fewest number of repeat audit findings One-third amount of audit preparation effort High performers find and fix security breaches faster 5 times more likely to detect breaches by automated control 5 times less likely to have breaches result in a loss event When high performers implement changes… 14 times more changes One-half the change failure rate One-quarter the first fix failure rate 10x faster MTTR for Sev 1 outages When high performers manage IT resources… One-third the amount of unplanned work 8 times more projects and IT services 6 times more applications Source: IT Process Institute, 2008
Visible Ops: Playbook of High Performers The IT Process Institute has been studying high-performing organizations since 1999 What is common to all the high performers? What is different between them and average and low performers? How did they become great? Answers have been codified in the Visible Ops Methodology www.ITPI.org
2007: Three Controls Predict 60% OfPerformance To what extent does an organization define, monitor and enforce the following? Standardized configuration strategy Process discipline Controlled access to production systems Source: IT Process Institute, 2008
The Downward Spiral Operations Sees… Dev Sees… Fragile applications are prone to More urgent, date-driven projects failure put into the queue Long time required to figure out “which Even more fragile code (less bit got flipped” secure) put into production Detective control is a salesperson More releases have increasingly “turbulent installs” Too much time required to restore service Release cycles lengthen to amortize “cost of deployments” Too much firefighting and unplanned work Failing bigger deployments more difficult to diagnose Urgent security rework and remediation Most senior and constrained IT ops resources have less time to Planned project work cannot complete fix underlying process problems Frustrated customers leave Ever increasing backlog of work Market share goes down that cold help the business win Business misses Wall Street Ever increasing amount of commitments tension between IT Ops, Development, Design… Business makes even larger promises to Wall Street These aren’t IT or Infosec problems… These are business problems!
My Mission: Figure Out How Break The IT Core Chronic Conflict Every IT organization is pressured to simultaneously: Respond more quickly to urgent business needs Provide stable, secure and predictable IT service Words often used to describe process improvement: “hysterical, irrelevant, bureaucratic, bottleneck, difficult to understand, not aligned with the business, immature, shrill, perpetually focused on irrelevant technical minutiae…” Source: The authors acknowledge Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt, creator of the Theory of Constraints and author of The Goal, has written extensively on the theory and practice of identifying and resolving10 core, chronic conflicts.
Good News: It Can Be DoneBad News: You Can’t Do It Alone
DevOps: It’s A Real Movement I would never do another startup that didn’t employ DevOps like principles It’s not just startups – it’s happening in the enterprise and in public sector, too I believe working in DevOps environments will be a necessary skillset 5 years from now Just as Agile helped Dev regain trust with the business, DevOps will help all of IT
The Prescriptive DevOps Cookbook “DevOps Cookbook” Authors Patrick DeBois, Mike Orzen, John Willis Goals Codify how to start and finish DevOps transformations How does Development, IT Operations and Infosec become dependable partners Describe in detail how to replicate the transformations describe in “When IT Fails: The Novel”
The First Way:Systems Thinking(Business) (Customer)
The First Way:Systems Thinking (Left To Right) Never pass defects to downstream work centers Never allow local optimization to create global degradation Increase flow: elevate bottlenecks, reduce WIP, throttle release of work, reduce batch sizes Understanding where reliance is placed
Phase 1: Extend the Agile CI/CR Processes Assign Ops person into Dev team Create one-step Dev, Test and Production environment creation procedure in Sprint 0 Create the one-step automated code deployment procedure Define roles of Dev, QA, Prod Mgmt and Infosec
The First Way:Systems Thinking: Infosec Insurgency Have infosec attend the daily Agile standups Gain awareness of what the team is working on Find the automated infrastructure project team (e.g., puppet, chef) Provide hardening guidance Integrate and extend their production configuration monitoring Find where code packaging is performed Integrate security testing pre- and post-deployment Integrate into continuous integration and release process Add security test scripts to automated test library
The First Way:Outcomes Determinism in the release process Continuation of the Agile and CI/CR processes Creating single repository for code and environments Packaging responsibility moves to development Consistent Dev, QA, Int, and Staging environments, all properly built before deployment begins Decrease cycle time Reduce deployment times from 6 hours to 45 minutes Refactor deployment process that had 1300+ steps spanning 4 weeks Faster release cadence
The Second Way:Amplify Feedback Loops (Right to Left) Protect the integrity of the entire system of work, versus completion of tasks Expose visual data so everyone can see how their decisions affect the entire system
Phase 2: Extend Release Process And CreateRight -> Left Feedback Loops Embed Dev into Ops escalation process Invite Dev to post-mortems/root cause analysis meeting Create necessary rollback procedures (instead of fixing forward) Create application monitoring/metrics to aid in Ops work (e.g., incident/problem management) Actively manage flow of work across org boundaries
The Second Way:Amplify Feedback Loops: Infosec Insurgency Extend criteria of what changes/deploys cannot be made without triggering full retest Create reusable Infosec use and abuse stories that can be added to every project “Handle peak traffic of 4MM users and constant 4-6 Gb/sec Anonymous DDoS attacks” Integrate Infosec and IR into the Ops/Dev escalation processes (e.g., RACI) Pre-enable, shield streamline successful audits Document separation of duty and compensating controls Don’t let them disrupt the work
The Second Way:Outcomes Andon cords that stop the production line Kanban to control work Project freeze to reduce work in process Eradicating “quick fixes” that circumvent the process Ops user stories are part of the Agile planning process Better build and deployment systems More stable environment Happier and more productive staff
Definition: Kanban Board Signaling tool to reduce WIP and increase flow 84
The Third Way:Culture Of Continual Experimentation AndLearning
The Third Way:Culture Of Continual Experimentation AndLearning Foster a culture that rewards: Experimentation (taking risks) and learning from failure Repetition is the prerequisite to mastery Why? You need a culture that keeps pushing into the danger zone And have the habits that enable you to survive in the danger zone
You Don’t Choose Chaos Monkey…Chaos Monkey Chooses You
Phase 3: Organize Dev and Ops To AchieveOrganizational Goals Allocate 20% of Dev cycles to non-functional requirements Build Ops user stories and environments in Dev that can be reused across all projects (e.g., deployment, capacity, security) Integrate fault injection and resilience into design, development and production (e.g., Chaos Monkey) Prioritize backlog to manage technical debt
The Third Way:Culture Of Continual Experimentation AndLearning: Infosec Add Infosec fixes to the Agile backlog Make technical debt visible Help prioritize work against features and other non-functional requirements Weaponize the Security Monkey Evil/Fuzzy/Chaotic Monkey Eridicate SQLi and XSS defects in our lifetime Let loose the Security Monkies and the Simian Army Eliminate needless complexity Become the standard bearer: 20% of Dev cycles spent on non-functional requirements Take work out of the system Keep decreasing cycle time: it increases work that the system can achieve
The Third Way:Outcomes Dedicated time spent on improving daily work (best practice: 20% of Dev dedicated to non-functional requirements) Continual reduction of unplanned work More cycles for planned work Projects completed to pay down technical debt and increase flow Elimination of needless complexity More resilient code and environments Balancing nimbleness and practiced repetition Enabling wider range of risk/reward balance
This Is An Important Problem Operations Sees… Dev Sees… Fragile applications are prone to More urgent, date-driven projects failure put into the queue Long time required to figure out “which Even more fragile code (less bit got flipped” secure) put into production Detective control is a salesperson More releases have increasingly “turbulent installs” Too much time required to restore service Release cycles lengthen to amortize “cost of deployments” Too much firefighting and unplanned work Failing bigger deployments more difficult to diagnose Urgent security rework and remediation Most senior and constrained IT ops resources have less time to Planned project work cannot complete fix underlying process problems Frustrated customers leave Ever increasing backlog of work Market share goes down that cold help the business win Business misses Wall Street Ever increasing amount of commitments tension between IT Ops, Development, Design… Business makes even larger promises to Wall Street
When IT Fails: The Novel and The DevOps Cookbook Coming in July 2012 “In the tradition of the best MBA case studies, this book should be mandatory reading for business and IT graduates alike.” Paul Muller, VP Software Marketing, Hewlett- PackardGene Kim, Tripwire founder, “The greatest IT management book of ourVisible Ops co-author generation.” Branden Williams, CTO Marketing, RSA
When IT Fails: The Novel and The DevOps Cookbook Our mission is to positively affect the lives of 1 million IT workers by 2017 If you would like the “Top 10 Things You Need To Know About DevOps,” sample chapters and updates on the book: Sign up at http://itrevolution.comGene Kim, Tripwirefounder, Visible Ops co- Email firstname.lastname@example.org Hand me a business card
Resources From the IT Process Institute www.itpi.org Both Visible Ops Handbooks ITPI IT Controls Performance Study Rugged Software by Corman, et al: http://ruggedsoftware.org “Continuous Delivery: Reliable Software Releases through Build, Test, and Deployment Automation” by Humble, Farley Follow us… @JoshCorman, @RealGeneKim mailto:email@example.com http://realgenekim.me/blog
Common Traits of High PerformersCulture of…Change management Integration of IT operations/security via problem/change management Processes that serve both organizational needs and business objectives Highest rate of effective changeCausality Highest service levels (MTTR, MTBF) Highest first fix rate (unneeded rework)Compliance and continual reduction ofoperational variance Production configurations Highest level of pre-production staffing Effective pre-production controls Effective pairing of preventive and detective controls Source: IT Process Institute
Visible Ops: Playbook of High Performers The IT Process Institute has been studying high-performing organizations since 1999 What is common to all the high performers? What is different between them and average and low performers? How did they become great? Answers have been codified in the Visible Ops Methodology The “Visible Ops Handbook” is available from the ITPI www.ITPI.org
IT Operations Increases Process Rigor Standardize deployment Standardize unplanned work: make it repeatable Modify first response: ensure constrained resources have all data at hand to diagnose Elevate preventive activities to reduce incidents
Help Development… Help them see downstream effects Unplanned work comes at the expense of planned work Technical debt retards feature throughput Environment matters as much as the code Allocate time for fault modeling, asking “what could go wrong?” and implementing countermeasures
Help QA… Ensure test plans cover not only code functionality, but also: Suitability of the environment the code runs in The end-to-end deployment process Help find variance… Functionality, performance, configuration Duration, wait time and handoff errors, rework, …
John Pesche, CISO CISO for 12 years 39 years old Aggressive career climber Ex-Big Four auditor