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PreK Member Manual PreK Member Manual Document Transcript

  • M I N N E S O TA R E A D I N G C O R P S 2010–2011 Literacy Handbook Pre-K Members Minnesota Reading Corps is a statewide initiative to help every Minnesota child become a successful reader.MRC_cvr_PreK_Memb.indd 1 7/27/10 1:12 PM
  • Table of Contents1 Introduction to Minnesota Reading Corps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Mission and History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Program Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Program Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Minnesota Reading Corps – A National Service Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Supporting Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Personnel Policies and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Member Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Member Code of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Discipline Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Exiting Minnesota Reading Corps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Suspension of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Member Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Equal Opportunity Employment & Non-Discrimination Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Workplace Harassment & Offensive Behavior Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Individuals with Disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Drug-free Workplace Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Grievance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Member Time Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Completing Time Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Time Sheet & Payroll Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Step to Complete Time Sheets (Members Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Steps to Approve Time Sheets (Internal Coaches Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Internal Coach Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Role Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Site Orientation for the Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Setting a Weekly Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Performance Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Steps to Handling Member Performance Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Master Coach Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual i
  • 3 A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 A Day in the Life of a Literacy Tutor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Introduction to Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Expectations of Reading Corps classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Service Requirements for Literacy Tutors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Planning and Managing Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Training and Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Family Involvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Civic Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Read for the Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Literacy Home Visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Book Reports (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 Literacy Rich Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Introduction to ELLCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Classroom Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Literacy Rich Daily Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Language Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Books and Book Reading Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Print and Early Writing Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Journaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Teaching Concepts of Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Dictation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155 Benchmark Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Introduction to Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Benchmark Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Conducting the Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Recording and Submitting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Next Steps for Benchmark Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296 Progress Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Response to Intervention (RtI) in Early Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Steps to RtI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Guide to Data Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Embedded and Explicit Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144ii Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • 7 Interventions and Integrity Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Introductions to Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Integrity Observation Checklists and Intervention Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Sign-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Repeated Read Aloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Oral Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Visual Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Phonological Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Integrity Observation Checklists for Benchmark Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Rhyming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Letter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Picture Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Alliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Letter Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1768 Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1779 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Zaner-Bloser auditory script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Group Recording Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Individual Progress Monitoring Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Student Progress Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Lead Teacher Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22910 SEEDS of Emergent Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Session 1: Literacy Rich Environment and Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Session 2: Quality Teacher-Child Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Session 3: Vocabulary / Oral Language and ELL Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Session 4: Dialogic Reading and Repeated Read Aloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Session 5: Developing Phonological Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Session 6: Developing Visual Discrimination and Letter Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . 310 Session 7: Relationship-Based Interactions that Promote Social-Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual iii
  • iv Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • Section 1 Introduction toMinnesota Reading Corps 1
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsMission and History Mission and History Minnesota Reading Corps is a statewide initiative to help every Minnesota child become aMinnesota Reading Corps is a statewide initiative to help every Minnesota child rdbecome a successfulby the end of 3 grade. grade. successful reader reader by the end of 3rd From preschool through 3rd grade, children’s timein school focuses on learning to read. childrens time in school focuses on learning to read. From From preschool through 3rd grade, From 3rd grade Did you know?forward, students arestudents arelearn. Thisto learn. This importantof 5 Minnesota 3rd graders 3rd grade forward, reading to reading important 1 out window in the life of a youngwindow in the life of a young learner is an opportunity are not proficient readers. learner is an opportunity to build a foundation for a lifetime.to build a foundation for a lifetime. The literacy challenge in MinnesotaThe literacy the 2009 Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment (MCA) tell Results from challenge in MinnesotaResults from the our states 3rd grade children failed to pass(MCA) tell us that 20% Did you know? us that 20% of 2009 Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment the state’sof our state’s 3rd grade children failed to pass the state’s reading proficiency exam. In reading proficiency exam. In school districts with high concentrations of 1 out of 5school districts with high concentrations of poverty, these rates are significantly higher. poverty, these rates are significantly higher. If this performance remains Minnesota 3rdIf this performance remains consistent in the future, approximately 65,000 children age graders are notthree to grade three are at approximately 65,000 children age three to grade consistent in the future, risk for not reading at the expected levels. proficient readers. three are atwho for not reading atread expected levels. grade have difficulty ever Children risk are struggling to the at the end of 3rdcatching up to their peers. Literacy researchers Snow, Burns & Griffin (1998, NationalAcademic Press)are struggling to“A personthe endnot 3rdleast a modestly skilledever catching up to Children who concluded that, read at who is of at grade have difficulty readerby thepeers. Literacy researchers Snow, Burns & Griffin high school.” This Academic Press) their end of third grade is quite unlikely to graduate from (1998, National can leadto a lifelong struggle with literacy. According to the Orton Dyslexia Society, “illiterate” is concluded that, "A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by the end of third gradea term that can be used to describe 75% of unemployed workers, 85% of juveniles who is quite unlikely to graduate from high school." This can lead to a lifelong struggle with literacy.appear in court, and 60% of prison inmates.  According to the Orton Dyslexia Society, "illiterate" is a term that can be used to describe 75% of unemployed workers, 85% of juveniles who appear in court, and 60% of prison inmates.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 3
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsThe solution in MinnesotaIt is estimated that the number of children who are typically identified as Goal:poor readers could be reduced by up to 70 percent through early identifica- All children aretion and prevention programs (Lyon, Fletcher, Shaywitz, Torgesen, Wood, on track to becomeSchulte and Olson, Rethinking Learning Disabilities, 2001). Minnesota proficient readers.Reading Corps was piloted in 2003 as one of these programs – deployingMinnesota Reading Corps members to provide intensive, individualized,research-based instruction to children struggling with literacy.Program ExpansionMinnesota Reading Corps was piloted in 2003-04 and served to help Head Start chil-dren improve their emergent literacy skills in preparation for kindergarten. The modelof the program proved to be effective. In 2005-06 the program expanded to serve chil-dren in kindergarten – 3rd grade. Since the pilot year, the results continue to improveand the program has expanded to serve more children age 3 to grade 3 across thestate. Minnesota Reading Corps Growth 800 675 700 555 600 500 430 362 400 319 300 238 165 200 127 117 109 95 77 94 55 45 27 51 100 0 4 23 0 8 0 14 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Number of school districts Number of sites Number of members4 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsProgram ModelThe Minnesota Reading Corps model integrates assessmentand intervention in working with students to improve their “Even with excellent instructionliteracy skills, utilizing a Response to Intervention (RtI) frame- in the early grades, somework. This means that members identify students who are at children fail to make satisfactoryrisk for not reading at grade level, monitor student progress, progress in reading. Getting back on track will require supplementaryprovide evidence-based interventions and adjust the inter- individual or small-group intensiveventions to produce positive outcomes for students. instruction that is coordinated with classroom teacher instruction.”Preschool (PreK) Model (Snow, et al, 1998)Members serve in a preschool classroom to support andenhance the Tier 1 literacy instruction provided in the class-room for all students. Members collect benchmark data onall students to identify children who need more intense help (or intervention) in orderto reach their spring target. Members then provide daily supplemental instruction forthe identified children in Tier 2 small groups or in Tier 3 one-on-one settings. Membersregularly collect data to make instructional decisions for children.Elementary School (K-3) ModelMembers serve in elementary schools as one-on-one tutors to pro-vide supplemental reading practice to students who are just belowproficiency in reading. These students are classified as Tier 2 stu-dents who need intense, individualized instruction to help themreach their target. Members tutor students for 15 or 20 minuteseach day using specific interventions that build fluency skills.Members collect data each week to make instructional deci-sions for students.Volunteer Mobilization and Family EngagementApproximately 15 members serve in an indirect capacity to provide further supple-mental support in helping Reading Corps students reach their spring targets. Membersfocus on strategies that will help students improve their literacy skills outside of thetutoring provided by Literacy Tutors. Strategies include recruiting literacy volunteers toread with students during after-school time, developing literacy resources for families,coordinating literacy events for families, etc.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 5
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsProgram ResultsMinnesota Reading Corps has proven to be an effective program for working intention-ally to improve students’ literacy skills. The complete evaluation report can be down-loaded from the ‘Publications’ on the MRC website (www.MinnesotaReadingCorps.org).Students served by Reading Corps* Region K-3 PreK Total Metro 5,647 2,661 8,303 Northwest 670 306 976 Northcentral 413 264 677 Northeast 520 129 649 Central 1,294 509 1,803 Southeast 1,002 244 1,246 Southwest 532 266 798 Statewide 10,078 4,379 14,457PreK Results – Showing students “Ready for K” and Growth* IGDI Skills % of 4- and 5-year olds % of all students reaching Spring target demonstrating growth (difference from 08-09) Fall to Spring Rhyming 48.4% (+5.9) 81% Letter Sounds 44.3% (-.06) 76% Picture Naming 59.7% (+3.0) 90% Alliteration 38.2% (+3.0) 69% Letter Naming 65.5% (+3.1) 92%K-3 Result – Growth (Fall to Winter)* K 1 2 3 # Students 512 2100 2027 2406 % Exceeding Target Growth Rate 94% 94% 62% 94% Reading Corps Average Growth Rate 2.93 2.68 1.94 2.25 Target Growth Rate 1.22 1.11 1.61 1.17*Results for the 2009-10 school year, includes data submitted through May 15, 2010.6 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsMinnesota Reading Corps –A National Service Program Minnesota Reading Corps – A National Service ProgramMinnesota Reading Corps is an AmeriCorps program, engaging its members in serviceto Minnesota Reading Corps is anof a social issue. Theengaging its members inservice got its work towards the solution AmeriCorps program, concept of national service to workofficial start during the a socialwhen President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Civilian towards the solution of 1930’s issue. The concept of national service got its official start duringConservation Corps. It has expanded Roosevelt created years through the creation of It has the 1930’s when President Franklin D. throughout the the Civilian Conservation Corps. thePeace Corps, VISTA (Volunteer in Service to America), and AmeriCorps. The(Volunteer in expanded throughout the years through the creation of the Peace Corps, VISTA chart belowillustrates to America), and AmeriCorps. The chart into the structure of national Reading Service how Minnesota Reading Corps fits below illustrates how Minnesota service. Corps fits into the structure of national service. The Corporation for National & Community Service is based in Washington D.C. Its mission is to improve lives, strengthen communities, Corporation for and foster civic engagement through National & Community service and volunteering. It provides Service about 70% of the funding for MRC. Learn and Serve AmeriCorps National America Senior Corps AmeriCorps is often described as the “domestic Peace Corps.” It began in 1993. It is a network of local, state, and AmeriCorps*VISTA national service programs that engages Americans each year in intensive service to meet our country’s critical needs in education, public safety, health, and the environment. AmeriCorps*NCCC . AmeriCorps*State and National Minnesota Reading Corps is an AmeriCorps*State program. It is a direct service program that is currently only in Minnesota Minnesota. It is one of the largest Reading Corps AmeriCorps*State programs in the country.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 7
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsSupporting Roles and ResponsibilitiesMinnesota Reading Corps has a support system in place so that members are success-ful in helping students develop their literacy skills. This pyramid of support reflects thefoundational support that is provided by the Master Coach and Program Coordinatorto the Internal Coach. In turn, the Internal Coach provides the most direct support tothe member.8 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading Corps The Master Coach and Program Coordinator work together to provide support toto Internal The Master Coach and Program Coordinator work together to provide support thethe Internal Coach and members to ensure everyone has a successful experience. Coach and members to ensure everyone has a successful experience. Member has a concern or question. Member asks Internal Coach. (And cannot find the answer in the handbook or website) Internal Coach knows Internal Coach does NOT the answer! know the answer, but figures out who can help. Support System: Who to Contact Support System: Who to Contact Master Coach Program Coordinator Program Notification of consistent member performance issues X Master Coach Coordinator Support in managing member hours & requirements Notification of consistent member performance issues X X Support in managing member hours training Clarification of time, date, location of & requirements X X Clarificationof not being able to attend training Notification of time, date, location of training X X Notification of not of absence to attendthan 1 week Approval for leave being able for more training X X Approval for leave ofmember on-site Report an injury of a absence for more than 1 week X X Report an injury ofof term of service (full-time to part) Discuss a change a member on-site X X Discuss a changetime sheets service (full-time to part) Questions about of term of X X Questions about time sheets X Question about OnCorps X Question about OnCorps X Questions about in-kind (Internal Coaches only) X Questions about in-kind (Internal Coaches only) X Questions about civic engagement activities X Questions about civic engagement activities X Clarification of literacy content covered at training X Clarification of literacy content covered at training X Support / clarification of interventions or assessments X Support / clarification of interventions or assessments X Support in creating a tutoring schedule Support in creating a tutoring schedule X X Questions about AIMSweb (K-3 only) Questions about AIMSweb (K-3 only) X X Questions about OnCorps Tutor Logs Questions about Tutor Logs X X X X Anything else … Anything else … X X Program Coordinators and Master Coaches are here to help! Program Coordinators and Master Coaches are here X X to help!Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 9
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsNotes and Reflections:10 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 1 | Introduction to Minnesota Reading CorpsNotes and Reflections:Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 11
  • Section 2Personnel Policies and Procedures 13
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresMember ContractMember Code of ConductThe MRC disciplinary procedure will be enacted if a member does not adhere to thecode of conduct.AttendanceMembers are expected to: • Arrive and depart from their service site on time everyday following their set schedule • Call their Internal Coach if they will be late or absent • Get approval from their Internal Coach for scheduled absences • Notify their Program Coordinator of a scheduled or unscheduled absence of longer than one week • Attend each scheduled coaching session or meeting with their Internal or Master Coach • Attend any relevant trainings or meetings at their service site • Abide by their site’s schedule and policy regarding breaks and lunch Members serving a full-day are allowed a 30-minute lunch, which counts toward their hours • Arrive on time to each required MRC training • Notify their Program Coordinator immediately upon knowing they will be unable to attend a scheduled MRC training • Serve an average of 40 hours (full-time) or 20 hours (part-time) a week as reported on their approved timesheet in OnCorps Note: Minnesota Reading Corps reserves the right to withhold a member’s livingallowance if a member does not show up to his or her service site for three consecutivedays without notifying his or her Internal Coach or Program Coordinator.Functions of the positionMembers are expected to: • Perform satisfactorily the essential functions as described in the position descriptionMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 15
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures • Submit timesheets for approval once every two weeks • Complete a bi-annual online program survey • Submit student data in OnCorps and AIMSweb (if applicable) each week by FridayService site policies and proceduresMembers are expected to adhere to the policies, procedures and code of conduct oftheir service site, including, but not limited to child confidentiality, Internet policies,dress code, and classroom behavior.Child confidentialityMembers are expected to: • Treat any knowledge or information about children sensitively and confi- dentially • Store confidential student data in a secure location on-site – student data (including data from AIMSweb or tutor logs) may not be brought outside of the building • Discuss a student’s data only with the Master Coach, Internal Coach, class- room teacher, or other school employee working directly with the studentProfessionalismMembers are representative of their school, community, MRC and AmeriCorps duringtheir term of service and are expected to conduct themselves in professional manner. Members are expected to: • Wear appropriate attire, in line with the dress code at their site • Communicate professionally with staff and families ›› Respond to e-mail communication in a timely manner (1-3 business days) – members are expected to check their e-mail daily • Limit cell phone use to break-time at their site and break-time during trainings • Arrange for childcare during their service, including while attending training • Be respectful, engaged and responsive as a training participant16 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresInternet usageMembers’ activity on the Internet must remain professional during their term of ser-vice, as described below. Members are also expected to follow the Internet policy oftheir service site. • Members should set any social networking accounts to private (i.e. Face- Book/MySpace) and should not add students or parents/guardians as friends • Members may not chat with students or parents/guardians of students online • Members may not post inappropriate pictures of themselves on the Inter- net (i.e. pictures involving consuming alcohol and/or intoxication, sexually provocative photographs) • Members may not post blog entries or communicate online about stu- dents or parents/guardians of students in their school • Members should not forward e-mails to anyone within the MRC network that are not work-related and / or may be offensive to others (i.e. political or religious e-mails) • Members may not post pictures or videos of students on the InternetDiscipline ProcedureMembers are expected to follow the MRC code of conduct and adhere to the policiesof both Minnesota Reading Corps (MRC) and the service site in which they are placed.Members are expected to satisfactorily complete the duties outlined in their positiondescription. Failure to fulfill these expectations may result in the member facing thedisciplinary procedure outlined below. I. First offense: The member will receive a written warning. The member’s Program Coordinator, Master Coach and Internal Coach will be notified of the offense. Documentation of the offense will be placed in the member’s file. II. Second offense: The member will meet with the Program Coordinator and Internal Coach (Principal, optional) to discuss the offense. The member will receive written notice that she or he has been placed on a 30-day probationary period. The member’s Program Coordinator, Master Coach, and Internal Coach will be notified of the offense. Documentation of the second offense and probation will be placed in the member’s file.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 17
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures If the member violates any rules of conduct during the 30-day proba- tionary period, she or he may be released for cause immediately. III. Third offense: The member may be released from MRC for cause. Benefits will cease on the exit date and the member will not be eligible for any portion of the education award. Minnesota Reading Corps reserves the right to enact the MRC Disciplinary Proce-dure at its discretion. Dependent on the severity of the violation, Minnesota ReadingCorps will take appropriate and immediate action up to and including involuntarysuspension of service or release for cause from the program.Exiting From Minnesota Reading CorpsMRC members will be released or exited from Minnesota Reading Corps in one of threeways: 1) successful completion, 2) release for compelling personal circumstances, or 3)release for cause.1. Successful completionA member will be exited successfully from Minnesota Reading Corps and earn the fullamount of his or her education award if the requirements listed below are completeby 6/30/2011.Fulfilling the minimum hour requirementFull-time members must serve a minimum of 1720 hours by 6/30/2011. Part-timemembers must serve a minimum of 920 hours by 6/30/2011. A member must servean average of approximately 40 hours per week (full-time) or 20 hours per week (part-time) during his or her term of service. Members record their hours on timesheets, which are completed and approvedin an online database called OnCorps. A member must complete, submit, and obtainapproval for every timesheet between his or her official enrollment date and officialexit date. Only hours that are 1) approved in OnCorps and 2) completed between amember’s enrollment date and exit date will be counted towards the member’s totalservice hours. There is neither a penalty nor additional incentive for members who serve morethan the minimum number of hours required. With approval from his or her site, amember may reduce the number of hours served each week once 1) he or she has metthe minimum number of hours required and 2) the school’s calendar year has ended.18 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresA member must serve a minimum of 5 hours per week to continue to earn the livingallowance after he or she has served the minimum number of required hours. If the member plans to complete his or her service hours and program require-ments prior to the indicated end date of June 30, 2011, he or she must request andreceive approval from both the Program Coordinator and Internal Coach if it will inter-fere with the member’s ability to provide consistent services to the children during theschool’s calendar year. If the member will not complete all of his or her service hours and programrequirements by the indicated end date, an amendment may be added to this con-tract extending the member’s service year up to one calendar year from his or herenrollment date. The member’s term of service may be extended beyond one calendaryear if the member has been placed on suspension due to compelling personal cir-cumstances. The length of this extension is the equivalent of the length of the suspen-sion. Member benefits (including living allowance) are not guaranteed to a memberwho extends his or her service beyond 6/30/11.Completing all MRC program requirementsA member must complete the program requirements listed below: 1. Attend each required MRC training (or complete assigned make-up) 2. Complete five civic engagement activities 3. Complete three family involvement activities 4. Submit accurate and complete student demographic & literacy assess- ment dataCompleting end-of-year tasksA member must complete the following tasks 1. Submit an exit form in the My AmeriCorps online system 2. Return materials to MRC Staff, this includes K-3 Great Leaps binder, PreK Assessment kit, PreK Intervention Bag. (A fine of up to $150 will be imposed on any member who fails to return the materials).Serving a 2nd term of serviceIf a member exits the program successfully, he or she may be eligible to serve onemore term of service with Minnesota Reading Corps.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 19
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures The member must re-apply to the program and compete against other applicantsfor the position. The member must meet certain standards from his or her first term ofservice, which include, but are not limited to: a. Completing the required number of hours; b. Completing all program requirements; c. Submitting timesheets and other necessary paperwork in a timely fashion; d. Receiving satisfactory performance reviews from his or her Internal Coach; and e. Receiving satisfactory references from Internal Coach and / or Master Coach. Mere eligibility for an additional term of service does not guarantee selection orplacement for a 2nd term.2. Release for compelling personal circumstancesMinnesota Reading Corps may release a member upon a determination by the pro-gram that the member is unable to complete the term of service because of compel-ling personal circumstances. A member who is released for compelling personal circumstances and who com-pletes at least 15 percent of the required term of service is eligible for a pro-ratededucation award. The member has the primary responsibility for demonstrating that compellingpersonal circumstances prevent him or her from completing the term of service. Theprogram must document the basis for any determination that compelling personalcircumstances prevent a member from completing a term of service. Compelling personal circumstances include those that are beyond the member’scontrol, such as, but not limited to: • A member’s disability or serious illness; • Disability, serious illness, or death of a member’s family member if this makes completing a term unreasonably difficult or impossible; • Conditions attributable to the program or otherwise unforeseeable and beyond the member’s control, such as a natural disaster, a strike, relocation of a spouse, or the nonrenewal or premature closing of a project or pro- gram, that make completing a term unreasonably difficult or impossible; • Military service obligations; or • Acceptance by a member of an opportunity to make the transition from welfare to work.20 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Compelling personal circumstances do not include leaving a program: • To enroll in school; • To obtain employment, other than in moving from welfare to work; or • Because of dissatisfaction with the program.3. Release for causeA release for cause encompasses any circumstances other than compelling personalcircumstances that warrant an individual’s release from completing a term of service. A member who is released for cause may not receive any portion of the Ameri-Corps education award or any other payment from the National Service Trust. Livingallowance payments will end immediately. A member will be released for cause if he or she has not met the minimum hourrequirement and / or not completed the program requirements by his or her end date. A member who is convicted of a felony or the sale or distribution of a controlledsubstance during a term of service will be released for cause. A member who has committed a third offense in accordance with MRC’s Disciplin-ary Procedure or has violated a policy that constitutes cause for immediate dismissalwill be released for cause. An individual who is released for cause must disclose that fact in any subsequentapplications to participate in an AmeriCorps program. Failure to do so disqualifies theindividual for an education award, regardless of whether the individual completes aterm of service.Suspension Of ServiceA member’s service may temporarily be suspended for the reasons listed below. Amember may not receive a living allowance or other benefits and may not accrueservice hours during a period of suspension.Extended leave of absenceA member may request to take an extended leave of absence during his or her term ofservice; this would include a planned or unplanned leave that is longer than one week.The member should complete a Leave of Absence Form.Disciplinary actionA member may be placed on temporary suspension as a result of disciplinary action.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 21
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresCriminal charges & convictionsMinnesota Reading Corps must suspend the service of a member who faces an officialcharge of a violent felony (e.g., rape, homicide) or sale or distribution of a controlledsubstance. It is the responsibility of the member to inform his or her Program Coor-dinator within 48 hours of facing charges or being arrested on specific charges. Themember may be reinstated if he or she is found not guilty or if the charge is dismissed. Minnesota Reading Corps must suspend the service of an individual who is con-victed of possession of a controlled substance. The member may be reinstated only ifthe individual demonstrates the following: • For an individual who has been convicted of a first offense of the posses- sion of a controlled substance, the individual must have enrolled in a drug rehabilitation program; • For an individual who has been convicted for more than one offense of the possession of a controlled substance, the individual must have suc- cessfully completed a drug rehabilitation program.Minnesota Reading Corps PoliciesMileage ReimbursementMinnesota Reading Corps (MRC) members may receive reimbursement for mileageaccrued for traveling to and from required MRC trainings*. Mileage is reimbursed at$0.30 per mile**. Mileage will be reimbursed for the round-trip distance between themember’s service site and the training location. If a member departs from or returnsto his or her home instead of their service site, only the miles in excess of the normaldaily commute can be reimbursed. Mileage is not reimbursed for optional trainings,site trainings, or civic engagement activities. Mileage forms must be completed electronically, printed and signed by the mem-ber. Mapquest or Google Map directions should be attached showing the miles traveled.Mileage is verified and approved by MRC staff using Mapquest or Google Maps. Addi-tional requests for mileage reimbursement must be approved by the Program Director.* Reimbursement for mileage accrued by a member traveling to another region to attend a required training (because the member did not attend the scheduled regional training) is subject to approval from the Program Coordinator.** A member from greater Minnesota who elects not to ride the bus transportation provided by MRC for Summer Institute (August 11 -13) will not receive mileage reimbursement at $.30 per mile, and will instead receive a travel payment. Mileage forms must be completed electronically, printed and signed by the member. Mapquest or Google Map directions should be attached showing the miles traveled. Mileage is verified and approved by MRC staff using Mapquest or Google Maps. Additional requests for mileage reimbursement must be approved by the Program Director.22 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresOvernight AccommodationsIf a member qualifies for overnight accommodations as described below, MRC willpay for the entire cost of the hotel room assuming the member 1) agrees to sharea room with another member and 2) requests the accommodation in advance. If amember would like a private room, or would like to share a room with a non-member,the member will be responsible for paying for half of the cost of the room. An invoicewill be sent to the member for the cost of the room. MRC will only pay for the cost ofthe room, not for additional charges (i.e. phone calls). MRC will only pay for the cost ofaccommodations in a hotel approved by MRC.Member InstituteMembers traveling a distance exceeding 60 miles (or 1 hour) from his or her service site areeligible for hotel accommodations.Regional Training and EventsMembers may be eligible for hotel accommodations on the evening prior to a requiredtraining. Program Coordinators have final discretion about who is eligible, but will fol-low the general guideline that travel before 7 a.m. warrants overnight accommoda-tions. Overnight accommodations are typically not provided for optional trainings andother events. If overnight accommodations will be available, the invitation to the eventwill state who qualifies.Meal ReimbursementMembers who are eligible to receive overnight accommodations for a required Min-nesota Reading Corps training may receive reimbursement for dinner up to $15.00for each night overnight accommodations are needed. Alcohol is not reimbursed. Anoriginal, itemized receipt is required for reimbursement.Sick Leave & HolidayMembers are not granted sick or holiday leave. Members may follow the holiday &break schedule of the school and take time off when the school is not in session. How-ever, it is the responsibility of each member to ensure he or she maintains a sufficientnumber of hours each week to earn the minimum number of hours required by his orher end date. A member must complete a Leave of Absence form if he/she plans to beabsent for more than one week.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 23
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresVotingMembers are encouraged to register and vote. Members who are unable to vote beforeor after service hours are allowed to do so during their service time without incurringany penalties. The Internal Coach may determine the length of absence.Jury DutyMembers may serve on a jury without being penalized for doing so. During the timemembers serve as jurors, they continue to receive credit for their normal service hours,a living allowance, health care coverage and, if applicable, child care coverage regard-less of any reimbursements for incidental expenses received from the court.Unemployment InsurancePursuant to the AmeriCorps Provisions, Section B.11.div. (page 25) “The U.S. Depart-ment of Labor ruled on April 20, 1995 that federal unemployment compensation lawdoes not require coverage for members because no employer-employee relationshipexists.” In the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, Congress included thefollowing provision: “(B) RULE. A participant shall not be considered to be an employeeof the program in which the participant is enrolled.” 42 U.S.C. 12511(17)(B). Therefore,an AmeriCorps participant is not an employee of the program for purposes of the FairLabor Standards Act. Further, Minnesota Economic Security law, Section 268.04 Subd. 12 (10)(d). pro-vides that the term “employment” does not apply to service performed (d)”as part ofan unemployment work relief or work training program assisted or financed in wholeor in part by any federal agency or an agency of a state of political subdivision thereof,by an individual receiving such work relief or work training.” The provision applies toparticipants who perform the services for the state of Minnesota or an instrumentalityof the state, including a charitable or educational organization. Therefore, according to the provisions and laws stated above, the members under-stand that they are not eligible to receive unemployment compensation benefits fromtheir AmeriCorps term of service, regardless of exit status.Injury ReportA member who is injured during MRC service should immediately report the injury tohis or her Program Coordinator & Internal Coach. The member may be asked to com-plete a First Report of Injury for Worker’s Compensation, which is provided by MRC. Thereport must be filed within 14 days of the injury.24 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresMilitary LeaveGenerally, the Reserves of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps,U.S. Coast Guard, the Army National Guard, and the Air National Guard require reserv-ists to serve one weekend a month plus 12 to 15 days a year (hereafter referred to asthe two-week active duty service). To the extent possible, MRC will seek to minimizethe disruption in members’ AmeriCorps service as a result of discharging responsibili-ties related to their reservist duties. If members have a choice of when to fulfill theirannual two-week active duty requirement, they should do so when it will not disrupttheir AmeriCorps service. In instances where the dates of active duty are inflexible andconflict with AmeriCorps service, members will be granted a leave of absence for thetwo-week period of active duty service in the Reserves. Members may not receive time-off for additional Reserves-related service beyondthe two-week active duty service. No AmeriCorps service credit is earned for the once-a-month weekend service in the Reserves. MRC will credit members for AmeriCorpsservice hours during their two weeks of active duty service in the Reserves if it occursduring their AmeriCorps service. The member would receive credit for the number ofhours he or she would have served during that period had there been no interruption.For example, if a full-time member is signed up to serve 30 hours of AmeriCorps serviceone week and 40 hours of AmeriCorps service on the following week, she or he wouldreceive 70 hours of AmeriCorps service credit for the two weeks of active duty serviceregardless of the actual number of hours served in the Reserves. Reservists in the U.S. Armed Forces receive compensation for their mandatory twoweeks of active duty service. The compensation regulations governing the Army andAir National Guard may vary by state. MRC will continue to pay the living allowanceand provide health care and childcare coverage for the two-week period of active duty.Family & Medical LeaveMembers are considered eligible employees under the Minnesota’ Parental Leave Act ifthe member has served for at least 12 months and 1,250 hours during the year precedingthe start of the leave. Members that qualify as eligible employees are entitled to take upto 12 weeks of unpaid leave during a 12 month period for any of the following reasons: 1. The birth of a child to a participant; 2. The placement of a child with a participant for adoption or foster care; 3. The serious illness of a participant’s spouse, child or parent; or 4. A member’s serious health condition that makes that participant unable to perform his or her essential service duties (a serious health conditionMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 25
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures is an illness or condition that requires either inpatient care or continuing treatment by a health care provider). Employees requesting this leave are asked to notify their Program Coordinatorthree weeks in advance or as soon as the need for the leave is known. A medical prac-titioner’s statement may be required. Personal leave may be granted beyond 12 weekswith an individual review of such request by the Program Coordinator.Prohibited Activities For AmeriCorps MembersAs a private citizen, individuals may exercise his/ her rights as a private citizen to participate in theactivities below on their initiative, on non-AmeriCorps time. Members should not wear the Ameri-Corps logo when involved in these activities as a private citizen. AmeriCorps is a federally-funded program that places restrictions on the activitiesof its members. As defined by the Corporation for National and Community Service,prohibited activities for AmeriCorps members include: • Attempting to influence legislation. • Organizing or engaging in protests, petitions, boycotts or strikes. • Assisting, promoting or deterring union organizing. • Impairing existing contracts for services or collective bargaining agree- ments. • Engaging in voter registration drives. • Engaging in partisan political activities or other activities designed to influ- ence the outcome of an election to any public office. • Participating in, or endorsing, events or activities that are likely to include advocacy for or against political parties, political platforms, political candi- dates, proposed legislation or elected officials. • Engaging in religious instruction, conducting worship services, providing instruction as part of a program that includes mandatory religious instruction or worship, constructing or operating facilities devoted to religious instruction or worship, maintaining facilities primarily or inherently devoted to religious instruction or worship, or engaging in any form of religious proselytization. • Providing a direct benefit to a for-profit entity; a labor union; a partisan political organization; a non-profit entity that fails to comply with the restric- tions contained in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 except that nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent participants from engaging in advocacy activities undertaken at their own initiative; or an organization engaged in the religious activities described above, unless Corporation assistance is not used to support those religious activities.26 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures • Such other activities as the Corporation may prohibit. Fundraising Limitations: Members may not raise funds for living allowances nor foran organization’s general operating expenses or endowment. Members may not writea grant application to the Corporation or to any other Federal agency. Members mayspend no more than 10 percent of their service performing fundraising activities.Member BenefitsLiving AllowanceThe first pay date is 8/27/10 (for members enrolled in timesheet period August 1 –August 14). Members may choose to have their paychecks direct deposited; however,the first check will be mailed to all members. The pay schedule is located later in thissection. Members will receive biweekly living allowance payments of $490 for full-timemembers and $245 for half-time members (before taxes) for the pay periods in whichthey are actively serving. The amount of the bi-weekly living allowance does not fluc-tuate based on 1) the number of hours served in a pay period or 2) the member’sofficial enrollment date. Minnesota Reading Corps reserves the right to withhold a member’s living allow-ance if he or she does not show up to his or her service site for three consecutivedays without notifying his or her Internal Coach or Program Coordinator. Members arerequired to complete a minimum of 5 hours per week to continue to earn their livingallowance after they have completed the minimum hour requirement.Forbearance & Interest PaymentMRC members are eligible for forbearance for most federally-backed student loans. Itis the responsibility of the member to request forbearance on his or her loan using theMy AmeriCorps system. If a member places a student loan on forbearance, and she orhe successfully completes the term of service, the National Service Trust will repay aportion or all of the interest that accrued on the loan during the term of service.Education AwardUpon completion of the term of service and all program requirements, membersreceive an education award of $5,350 (full-time) or $2,675 (half-time). Members canuse the education award to pay educational expenses at qualified institutions of highereducation, for educational training, or to repay qualified student loans. A member mayonly receive an education award for his or her first two terms of AmeriCorps service. AMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 27
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Proceduresmember has seven years after completion of service to use his or her award. Resourcesare listed below.Online tutorialView this tutorial to learn the basics about how to use the education award. http://encorps.nationalserviceresources.org/edaward/index.shtmlGeneral InformationRead the general information on the AmeriCorps website about the education award. http://www.americorps.gov/for_individuals/benefits/benefits_ed_award.aspFASFA InformationRead this important information about how to get a better financial aid package. http://encorps.nationalserviceresources.org/edaward/college-workc.shtmlUsing the Education Award:Log-in to your AmeriCorps account to request payment for using your education award. https://my.americorps.govQuestions:Contact the National Service Trust at 1-800-942-2677. The Trust is staffed by live opera-tors from 8:00-6:00 EST.Health CareAll members serving in a full-time capacity must be covered by health insurance and areeligible to enroll in a limited benefits health insurance plan through Minnesota Read-ing Corps. Health insurance is available to full-time members who are not otherwisecovered by a healthcare policy at the time they begin their service. Health insurance isalso available to members serving on a full-time basis who lose coverage during theirterm of service as a result of service or through no deliberate act of their own, such assuch as parental or spousal job loss or disqualification from Medicaid. There will be nomonthly premium charge to members, however, a co-pay, deductibles, and any otherpayments as outlined in the health insurance policy will be the responsibility of themember. A member is only covered while actively serving in the AmeriCorps program– it begins with the member’s first day of service and ends the last day of the member’sfinal month of service. This benefit does not provide insurance for family members.28 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Before accepting coverage, members should determine if this plan will meet theirhealth needs by educating themselves about the plan by using the resources providedin the MRC website: http://www.minnesotareadingcorps.org/get-involved/become-member/benefitsChild CareIf a member qualifies, a childcare allowance will be provided by the National Associa-tion of Child Care Resources and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) directly to the member’schild care provider. A member is eligible for child care benefits if s/he: • Is a serving in a full-time capacity; • Is the parent/custodian of a dependent under 13 years of age who resides with her/him; • Needs child care in order to participate in the AmeriCorps program; • Is not receiving childcare from another available source at time of accep- tance into MRC; • Has a family income that does not exceed the state’s income eligibility guidelines; and • Is not receiving other childcare subsidies.Equal Opportunity Employment & Non-DiscriminationStatementMinnesota Reading Corps (MRC) does not discriminate on the basis of race, color,creed, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, status with regard to public assis-tance, membership or activity in a local commission, disability, sexual orientation, age,or any other statutorily protected class. It is unlawful to retaliate against any person who, or organization that, files a com-plaint about such discrimination. In addition to filing a complaint with local and stateagencies that are responsible for resolving discrimination complaints, you may bringa complaint to the attention of the Corporation for National and Community Service.If you believe that you or others have been discriminated against, or if you want moreinformation, contact: Minnesota Education Corps Debbie Cushman, Human Resources Director dcushman@mnedc.org orMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 29
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Office of Civil Right and Inclusiveness Corporation for National and Community Service 1201 New York Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20525 (202) 606-7503 (voice); (202) 565-2799 (TTY) (202) 565-3465 (fax); eo@cns.gov (e-mail) Service sites are expected to adhere to the same standards. Member with ques-tions or concerns about any type of discrimination in their service site are encouragedto bring these issues to the attention of their Master Coach, Internal Coach, and/orMRC program staff. If the service site is found to be engaging in such activities, removalof current member(s) and denial of future members at that site may result. Discrimination on the part of fellow MRC members will also not be tolerated. Any-one found to be engaging in any type of unlawful or harassing discrimination will besubject to disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal from the program.Workplace Harrassment And Offensive Behavior PolicyMinnesota Reading Corps is committed to providing an atmosphere that is open andwelcoming to all. Every member, applicant, volunteer, professional associate and pro-gram participant is entitled to a workplace free of discrimination, harassment or offen-sive behavior. All such behaviors are therefore prohibited during Minnesota ReadingCorps service.DefinitionHarassment and offensive behavior includes verbal or physical conduct that denigratesor shows hostility or aversion towards an individual because of such considerations asrace, color, creed, religion, national origin or ancestry, sex, marital status, status withregard to public assistance, membership or activity in a local commission, disability,sexual orientation, age, or other status protected by law where such conduct has thepurpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance.Harassment may include but is not limited to: epithets, slurs, negative stereotyping,threats, intimidation, hostile acts and denigrating or hostile written or graphic materialposted in the workplace.Examples • Threats or other forms of intimidation; • Persistent intrusion or disturbance;30 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures • Use of offensive or demeaning terms, remarks, jokes, gestures, or pictures; • Spreading offensive or demeaning materials (pictures, cartoons, maga- zines, etc.); • Accessing Internet sites containing such materials; • Unwelcome jeers or personal comments. Note that these actions may be unacceptable even if they are not in the directpresence of the harassed party.Sexual HarassmentIncluded under the category of offensive behavior is sexual harassment. Sexual harass-ment is any deliberate, repeated, unwanted sexual behavior (comments, looks, sug-gestions, physical contact, etc.) that a person finds objectionable or offensive and thatcauses discomfort on the job. This may include unwelcome sexual advances, requestsfor sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature where: • Submission to the conduct is or is threatened to be a condition of employ- ment; • Submission to or rejection of the conduct is used, or is threatened to be used, as the basis for employment decisions; • The conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance; or • The conduct has the purpose or effect of creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.Examples • Any request or pressure to grant sexual favors; • Use of offensive or demeaning sexual terms, remarks, jokes, gestures or pictures; • Spreading offensive or demeaning materials of a sexual nature (pictures, cartoons, magazines, etc.); • Accessing Internet sites containing such materials; • Objectionable physical proximity or physical conduct. Note that these actions may be unacceptable even if they are not in the directpresence of the harassed party.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 31
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresReportingMembers have the responsibility to immediately report all incidents of harassmentor offensive behavior to their Program Coordinator, MRC Program Director or HumanResources Program Director. It is not sufficient to report a complaint of sexual or otherharassment or discrimination to any person other than one of these designated indi-viduals. Members should also report instances of harassment or offensive behavior bythird parties (vendors, volunteers, students, etc.) in the same manner.Investigation and ActionAll reports of harassment or offensive behavior will be thoroughly investigated asquickly as possible and appropriate action will be taken. The investigation may include,but will not be limited to, discussion with both parties and witnesses. Anyone foundto have engaged in discrimination, harassment or offensive behavior will be subject todisciplinary action up to and including immediate release for cause.Non-Retaliation PolicyMRC prohibits retaliation against anyone for having raised a complaint of harassmentor for cooperating with an investigation of such a complaint. Any member determinedto have knowingly made false statements during the investigation will be subject todiscipline up to and including release for cause.Individuals with DisabilitiesMRC provides an inclusive service environment for its members, as well as providesreasonable accommodations for members with disabilities.Inclusive service environmentAn inclusive service environment ensures the respect and dignity of individuals withdisabilities. The built environment - paths, doors, rooms, restrooms, kitchens – of aninclusive service environment meet current accessibility standards to the greatestextent possible. An inclusive service environment willingly and proactively providesaccommodations.Definition of a disabilityUnder Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, aperson with a disability is one who:32 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures 1. has a physical or mental impairments that substantially limits one or more major life activities; or 2. has a history of such an impairment; or 3. is perceived or “regarded as” having such an impairment, even when the impairment does not exist. It is important to remember that disabilities can be either physical or mentalimpairments.Requesting accommodationsAccommodations refer to all of the technology, services, and changes in policy, pro-cedures, and the built environment that enable individuals with disabilities to performessential functions of their service or to equally participate in events and program. Upon request from the member, Minnesota Reading Corps will make reasonableaccommodations for members with disabilities who are capable of performing theessential functions of their position with such accommodation, unless this wouldplace undue hardship on the program. To request an accommodation be made, the member must first disclose his orher disability to MRC program staff. He or she must then request an accommodation.At this point, MRC program staff and the individual will engage in an open dialogueregarding the accommodation request.Drug-Free Workplace ActMinnesota Reading Corps (MRC) is committed to providing a workplace free of drugand alcohol use and abuse. The unlawful manufacture, distribution, possession oruse of a controlled substance, the use of alcohol, and the abuse of an uncontrolledsubstance is strictly prohibited on MRC’s premises and the service site’s premises dur-ing AmeriCorps time. Members and volunteers are also prohibited from serving whileunder the influence of such substances. Any member found to be in violation of thispolicy may be subject to discipline up to and including being released for cause. All members are required to notify the Program Coordinator of any criminal drugstatute conviction for a violation occurring in the workplace within 5 days of suchconviction. Within 30 days after receiving notice of the conviction, MRC will either dis-cipline the convicted member or require the member to satisfactorily complete a drugtreatment program. Minnesota Reading Corps (MRC) members are not allowed to consume alcoholicbeverages during AmeriCorps hours. In addition, members should not wear the Amer-iCorps logo when consuming alcohol as a private citizen.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 33
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures MRC’s health insurance provides coverage of certain expenses associated with thetreatment of drug and alcohol addiction.Grievance ProcedureThe member understands the grievance procedure as outlined below: a. In general, all aggrieved parties such as members, applicants or any other interested parties should attempt to resolve any problems or disputes with the other party on a one-to-one basis. The issues should be clearly stated and understood by both parties. b. The member understands that MRC has a grievance procedure to resolve disputes concerning the member’s suspension, dismissal, service evalua- tion or proposed service assignment. c. If a grievance is filed regarding a proposed placement of a member in a program or project, such a placement must not be made unless the place- ment is consistent with the resolution of the grievance. d. In the event that informal efforts to resolve disputes are unsuccessful, the member understands that, as a participant of the program, he/she may file a grievance in accordance with the program’s grievance procedure: 1) Purpose: the purpose of this process is to resolve disputes involving AmeriCorps* Minnesota Reading Corps members (MRC), labor unions, and any other interested individuals, such as AmeriCorps member applicants, in a fair and expedi- tious manner. In general, disputes must pertain to service related issues such as a proposed service assignment or evaluation; or a member’s suspension or dismissal. A dispute also may concern an applicant protesting the reason he/ she was not selected as an AmeriCorps member; or a labor union’s claim that a member is displacing its union members. 2) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): ADR is available, but must be requested in writing within 45 days of the underlying dispute. If a member chooses ADR as a first option, a neutral party designated by the program will attempt to facilitate a mutually agreeable resolution. The neutral party must not have participated in any previous decisions concerning the issue in dispute. ADR is confidential, non-binding and informal. No communications or proceedings of ADR may be34 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures referred to at the grievance hearing or arbitration stages. The neutral party may not participate in subsequent proceedings. If ADR is chosen by the member, the deadlines for conveying a hearing and of a hearing decision, 30 and 60 days respectively, are held in abeyance until the conclusion of ADR. At the initial session of ADR, the neutral party must provide written notice to the aggrieved party of his/her right to request a hearing. If the ADR does not resolve the matter within 30 calendar days, the neutral party must again notify the aggrieved party of his/her right to request a hearing. At any time, the aggrieved party may decline ADR and proceed directly to the hearing process. 3) Grievance Hearing: While grievances may be filed no later than one year after the date of the alleged occurrence, except for a grievance that alleges fraud or criminal activity pursuant to 45 CFR Section 2540.230, it is preferred that they be filed no later than 60 days after the date of the alleged occurrence. Allegations of fraud or criminal activity must be reported immediately to the Corporation for National Service’s Inspec- tor General. If the grievance pertains to discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, age or disability, the member will be immediately notified in writing of his/her right to file a discrimination complaint with the Corporation’s Equal Opportunity Office. The member may request a grievance in writing to MRC program staff. The written complaint should state the facts of the situation, the program’s policy or procedure involved, and ideas or suggestions for resolution of the problem. The pro- gram will arrange for one or more pre-hearing conferences at a time mutually convenient to the parties. Pre-hearing confer- ences are not a substitute for a hearing. They are intended to facilitate a mutually agreeable resolution of the matter to make the hearing unnecessary or to narrow the issues to be decided at the hearing. The format of the pre-hearing confer- ence may be flexible, involving meetings with one party at a time and/or with both parties together. Pre-hearing confer- ences are conducted by MRC program staff.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 35
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures The hearing will be conducted by MRC program staff, Minnesota Education Corps Human Resource Director, or other individual designated by MRC Program Director. The person conducting the hearing may not have participated in any previous decisions concerning the issue in dispute. A hearing must be held no later than 30 calendar days after the filing of the grievance and a written decision must be made no later than 60 calendar days after filing. 4) Binding Arbitration: An aggrieved party may request binding arbitration if a grievance hearing decision is adverse or if no decision is made within 60 days of the filing of the griev- ance. The arbitrator must be independent and selected by agreement of the parties. If the parties cannot agree on an arbitrator, the Corporation’s Chief Executive Office (CEO) will appoint one within 15 calendar days after receiving a request from one of the parties. An arbitration proceeding will be held no later than 45 calendar days after the request for arbitration or no later than 30 days after the appointment of an arbitrator by the Corporation’s CEO. An arbitration decision will be made no later than 30 calendar days after the commencement of the arbitration proceeding. The cost of arbitration will be divided evenly between the parties, unless the aggrieved party prevails, in which case the program will pay the total cost of the proceedings as well as the prevailing party’s attorney fees. 5) Remedies: Remedies for a grievance filed under a procedure established by the Grantee include: a) Prohibition of the placement of a member; and b) In grievance cases where there is a violation of non-duplication or non-displacement requirements and the employer of the displaced employee is the Grantee: I Reinstatement of the employee to the posi- tion he/she held prior to the displacement; II Payment of lost wages and benefits;36 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures III Re-establishment of other relevant terms, conditions, privileges of employment; and IV Any other equitable relief that is necessary to correct any violation of non-duplication or non-displacement requirements or to make the displaced employee whole.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 37
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresMember Time SheetsCompleting Time SheetsMembers should report their hours served each day in OnCorps. Each First time sheettime sheet is submitted for approval once every two weeks, following must be approvedthe schedule on the next page. This is a requirement. by August 20, 2010.Categories on the TimesheetsMembers will report hours each day in one of the following categorieson the time sheet. “Service – Literacy tutoring” includes: • Tutoring, benchmarking and / or progress monitoring MRC children • Collecting student data and analyzing it to inform instruction • Entering student data into tutor logs / AIMSweb • Conducting home visits (PreK only) • Meeting with Internal Coach / Master Coach / Program Coordinator “Service – Additional service” includes: • Planning lessons or activities to use with children or families • Participating in after-school programming or other non-tutoring activities at the site • Attending families nights or other activities at the service site • Attending MRC events • Completing book report for MRC “Service – Civic Engagement” includes: (maximum of 100 hrs [FT] or 50 hrs [PT]) • Participating in community service activities / volunteering • Participating in other civic engagement activities (i.e. attending a city council meeting) “Training” includes: • Attending MRC training • Attending site training / meetings or other workshops or training • Travel time to MRC training “Fundraising” includes: • Soliciting anything of value (ex: book drive, clothing drive)38 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Time sheet & Payroll Schedule Minnesota Reading Corps Biweekly Biweekly Period Start Period End Timesheet amount: amount: Date Date Due Date Pay Date Full-time Part-time 8/1/2010 8/14/2010 8/20/2010 8/27/2010 $491.67 $245.83 8/15/2010 8/28/2010 9/3/2010 9/10/2010 $491.67 $245.83 8/29/2010 9/11/2010 9/14/2010 9/24/2010 $491.67 $245.83 9/12/2010 9/25/2010 10/1/2010 10/8/2010 $491.67 $245.83 9/26/2010 10/9/2010 10/15/2010 10/22/2010 $491.67 $245.83 10/10/2010 10/23/2010 10/29/2010 11/5/2010 $491.67 $245.83 10/24/2010 11/6/2010 11/12/2010 11/19/2010 $491.67 $245.83 11/7/2010 11/20/2010 11/26/2010 12/3/2010 $491.67 $245.83 11/21/2010 12/4/2010 12/10/2010 12/17/2010 $491.67 $245.83 12/5/2010 12/18/2010 12/24/2010 12/31/2010 $491.67 $245.83 12/19/2010 1/1/2011 1/7/2011 1/14/2011 $491.67 $245.83 1/2/2011 1/15/2011 1/21/2011 1/28/2011 $491.67 $245.83 1/16/2011 1/29/2011 2/4/2011 2/11/2011 $491.67 $245.83 1/30/2011 2/12/2011 2/18/2011 2/25/2011 $491.67 $245.83 2/13/2011 2/26/2011 3/4/2011 3/11/2011 $491.67 $245.83 2/27/2011 3/12/2011 3/18/2011 3/25/2011 $491.67 $245.83 3/13/2011 3/26/2011 4/1/2011 4/8/2011 $491.67 $245.83 3/27/2011 4/9/2011 4/15/2011 4/22/2011 $491.67 $245.83 4/10/2011 4/23/2011 4/29/2011 5/6/2011 $491.67 $245.83 4/24/2011 5/7/2011 5/13/2011 5/20/2011 $491.67 $245.83 5/8/2011 5/21/2011 5/27/2011 6/3/2011 $491.67 $245.83 5/22/2011 6/4/2011 6/10/2011 6/17/2011 $491.67 $245.83 6/5/2011 6/18/2011 6/24/2011 7/1/2011 $491.67 $245.83 6/19/2011 7/2/2011 7/8/2011 7/15/2011 $491.67 $245.83             Living allowance is subject to income tax. All hours must be complete by June 30.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 39
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresGuidelines and clarifications for counting hoursLunch timeMembers serving a full-day are allowed a 30-minute lunch, which counts toward theirhours.After-School Programs / Other school eventsMembers may participate in after-school programming or other events/activities atthe school and count that time towards their hours.Sick leave & holiday timeMembers are not granted sick or holiday leave. A member must submit a “Leave ofAbsence” form to his or Internal Coach and Program Coordinator for any planned orunplanned absence of longer than one week. Members may follow the holiday and break schedule of the school and take timeoff when school is not in session. However, it is the responsibility of each member toensure he or she maintains a sufficient number of hours each week to earn the mini-mum number of hours required by his or her end date.Travel time to trainingMembers may count time spent traveling to Reading Corps training, if the travel islonger than the member’s regular daily commute. Travel time is reported as “training”on the member’s time sheet. Travel time may not be counted for a member’s dailycommute.Working from homeMembers may be allowed to accrue hours for working on special one-time projects athome - working from home should not be part of their regular schedule. A member must get approval from his or her Internal Coach before counting hoursfrom working at home. The Internal Coach has authority to decide how he or she wantsto verify the member completed these hours. For example, if the member is making aliteracy activity to send home to families – the Internal Coach may request to see thefinished product before approving the hours.40 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresHours spent outside the service siteIt is the responsibility of the Internal Coach to approve all of the time on the time sheet,even those hours that did not occur at the site. This will be mostly civic engagementactivities. The Internal Coach has authority to decide how he or she wants to verify themember completed the hours. For example, if the member is volunteering at a nursinghome for his or her community service project, the Internal Coach may request themember obtain a signature of someone at the nursing home verifying the time spentvolunteering.Summer hoursMembers have until June 30, 2011 to finish their hours. The member and InternalCoach should work in collaboration with the Program Coordinator to develop a planfor the member to continue to earn hours during the summer. If a member’s site isclosed in the summer, he or she may exceed the limit of hours for civic engagementwithout approval.VotingMembers are encouraged to register and vote. Members who are unable to vote beforeor after service hours are allowed to do so during their service time without incurringany penalties. The Internal Coach may determine the length of absence.Prohibited ActivitiesAmeriCorps is a federally-funded program that places restrictions on the activities of itsmembers. Members may not count AmeriCorps hours for participating in prohibitedactivities listed earlier in this manual.Steps to Complete Time Sheets 1. Go to OnCorps at http://mn.oncorpsreports.com. 2. Select “2010-11” and “AmeriCorps Members” under Minnesota Reading Corps. There will be two different options for the MRC program – the Program Coordinator will notify you of which option to select. 3. Type your username and password. Click ‘log-in.’ 4. Note: If you forget or don’t know your username or password, enter your email address on this screen. 5. Click “Time Tracking” 6. Click “Enter Timesheets”Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 41
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures 7. Select the period and click “choose.” 8. Select the appropriate ‘Site Supervisor’ (this step may not First time sheet appear for everyone). must be approved by August 20, 2010. 9. Record time in the appropriate category (as described on the above page). Enter a description if you feel it will be helpful to the Internal Coach when he or she is approving hours (for ex., “went home sick”). Hours should be recorded to the nearest .25 hour. Record to the nearest .25 hour, for example: 9:00 – 10:15 = 1.25 9:00 – 10:30 = 1.50 9:00 – 10:45 = 1.75 9:00 – 11:00 = 2 10. Click “save” if you want to save, but NOT submit. 11. Click “authorize and submit” if you want to submit to your Internal Coach for approval.Activity: Time Sheet Exercise 1. You serve at your site from 8:00 – 4:15. You take a 1 hour lunch. During your day you tutor children, enter student data into the computer, and meet with your Internal Coach. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 2. You attend CPR training at your site from 8:00 – 12:00. You tutor children from 12:00 – 2:15. You help out at the after-school program from 2:15 – 5:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement42 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures 3. You tutor children at your site from 8:30 – 4:00. In the evening, you attend a city council meeting from 7:00 – 8:30. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 4. It is an early release day at your site. You spend 8:00 – 11:30 working with the children. From 11:30 – 2:30 you plan lessons for the upcoming week. From 2:30 – 4:30 you meet with your Internal Coach. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 5. For your community service project, you spend 3 hours one day soliciting book donations. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 6. You tutor children at your site from 8:00 – 3:00. You analyze the results of your students’ data from 3:00 – 4:00. You participate in parent conferences from 4:00 – 6:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 7. You attend a rally to protest the war. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic EngagementMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 43
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures 8. You travel to a MRC training from 8:00 – 10:00 to get to the training. You attend training from 10:00 – 3:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 9. You tutor children at your site from 8:00 – 4:00. You help at a family night from 4:00 – 6:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 10. You attend a training at your site from 9:00 – 3:00. Your meet with your Master Coach and Internal Coach from 3:00 – 4:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement44 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresANSWERS: Time Sheet Exercise 1. You serve at your site from 8:00 – 4:15. You take a 1 hour lunch. During your day you tutor children, enter student data into the computer, and meet with your Internal Coach. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 7.75 2. You attend CPR training at your site from 8:00 – 12:00. You tutor children from 12:00 – 2:15. You help out at the after-school program from 2:15 – 5:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 4 2.25 2.75 3. You tutor children at your site from 8:30 – 4:00. In the evening, you attend a city council meeting from 7:00 – 8:30. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 7.5 1.5 4. It is an early release day at your site. You spend 8:00 – 11:30 working with the children. From 11:30 – 2:30 you plan lessons for the upcoming week. From 2:30 – 4:30 you meet with your Internal Coach. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 5.5 3 5. For your community service project, you spend 3 hours one day soliciting book donations. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 3Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 45
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures 6. You tutor children at your site from 8:00 – 3:00. You analyze the results of your students’ data from 3:00 – 4:00. You participate in parent conferences from 4:00 – 6:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 8 2 7. You attend a rally to protest the war. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 8. You travel to a MRC training from 8:00 – 10:00 to get to the training. You attend training from 10:00 – 3:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 7 9. You tutor children at your site from 8:00 – 4:00. You help at a family night from 4:00 – 6:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 8 2 10. You attend a training at your site from 9:00 – 3:00. Your meet with your Master Coach and Internal Coach from 3:00 – 4:00. Service Fundraising Training Literacy tutoring Additional Service Civic Engagement 6 146 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSteps to Approving Member Time Sheets(Internal Coaches only)It is the responsibility of the Internal Coach to review and approve time reported onthe member’s online time sheet in OnCorps once every two weeks.How to Approve Time SheetsOption One 1. When your MRC member submits a time sheet for your approval, the database will automatically send you an e-mail asking you to approve the time sheet. 2. Click on the link in this e-mail. 3. Log-in If you forget your username and password, enter your email address on this screen. 4. If you agree with the member’s time sheet information, check the box, “I have reviewed and approve this time sheet” at the bottom of the page. Click submit.Option Two 1. Go to: http://mn.oncorpsreports.com/ 2. Under “Log into your account” – select ‘2010-11’ and click ‘submit’ 3. There will be two different “Minnesota Reading Corps” accounts – ask the Program Coordinator which account you need to use. 4. Click “Site Supervisor” and enter your username and password. If you forget your username and password, enter your email address on this screen. 5. Under “Time Tracking”, click “Member Timesheets” 6. Select the period. 7. If you agree with the member’s time sheet information, check the box, “I have reviewed and approve this time sheet” at the bottom of the page. Click submit.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 47
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresInternal Coach Role ExpectationsLiteracy coaching is a critical element to the success of Minnesota Reading Corps (MRC)and its students. The ability to provide adequate coaching support must be carefullyconsidered and planned by your school. This document outlines the expectations ofthe MRC Internal Coach. Role The Internal Coach is trained by MRC to provide on-site literacy support and oversight to the MRC member. Center managers, supervisors, mentors, education coordinators, or literacy specialists are excellent candidates for Internal Coaches. It is difficult for lead teachers who have full-time teaching responsibilities to become Internal Coaches. Time Commitment 6-9 hours per classroom per month & 64 hours of training (new coaches) or 40 hours of training (returning) Training Summer Institute (St. Paul) • ew Internal Coaches – August 9-11; Returning – August 11 N Year-long Trainings (held regionally) • ew Internal Coaches – September, October, November, December, February N • eturning Internal Coaches – October, November, December, February R SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Train the Trainer (if applicable) • ew Trainers: June 21 – 25 @ Minnesota Literacy Council in St. Paul N Responsibilities • rovide an on-site orientation for the member to introduce him/her to your P school • et a daily schedule with the member that includes the ability to serve 40 S hours per week (full-time members) or 20 hours per week (part-time members) • rovide support to allow the member to develop professionally throughout P the year, including inviting the member to participle in professional development opportunities at the service site and in the community • bserve classrooms and facilitate coaching sessions two times each O month with each member and the classroom teaching team to provide guidance and support as it relates to literacy • ssist in the implementation of literacy assessments A48 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Responsibilities • elp Minnesota Reading Corps member and teaching team implement a five H step data-based instructional decision-making model, including: 1) identify potential children in need of services; 2) define competencies and needs of identified children; 3) explore potential solutions for supporting identified children’s developmental growth; 4) implement these solutions and monitor children’s progress; and 5) evaluate and modify services in order to optimize children’s developmental trajectories • onduct integrity checks of the assessments (three times / year) and C teaching strategies (monthly) used by the member to ensure accuracy. This is conducted during coaching observations. • se the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) tool U in the fall and spring to provide objective feedback and suggestions to the teaching team to improve the literacy environment • nsure the member is accurately reporting student data, including E assessment scores and demographic information by the deadline • eet with the Master Coach* in conducting integrity checks and reviewing M student progress. The Master Coach is a literacy consultant paid by MRC. The frequency of Master Coach visits ranges from once a month to three times per year, depending on the site’s experience with MRC. * A site that has been part of MRC for over 3 years does not typically receive any on-site support from a Master Coach. • ork closely with the Program Coordinator and site administration if W disciplinary action is needed. MRC members are expected to adhere to site policies regarding issues such as confidentiality, safety, dress code, attendance, etc. • ubmit monthly in-kind reports to record expenses donated by your site to S • innesota Reading Corps (i.e. staff time dedicated to coaching, space used by M • RC) M • omplete a bi-annual online program survey and participate in a bi-annual C site visit with the MRC Regional Program Coordinator • pprove member timesheets once every two weeks A • omplete a member performance evaluation two times per year CMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 49
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSite Orientation for the MemberIt is the responsibility of the Internal Coach to welcome and orient the member to thesite. This plan can be used a guide for an on-site orientation for the member. Site Orientation Plan Before the member’s service begins … Prepare the member’s work space & computer space Get a computer username / log-in set-up for the member (if necessary) Get a school e-mail address for the member (not required, but can be helpful) Contact your member to notify him / her what day and time to arrive for the first day During the member’s first week of service … Greet the member at the door on his or her first day Introduce the member to staff, especially those he or she will be working closely with Tour the facility, including his or her classroom or work area Discuss basic terms of work as well as your school’s policies and procedures, including: • ember performance expectations specific to your service site. M • ode of conduct for your site (i.e. what rules do all staff need to abide by) C • ember’s work schedule – what time to arrive, lunch break and time to leave M This schedule must allow for 40 hrs/wk (full-time) or 20 hrs/wk (part-time) • chool calendar & staff training days S • ember sign-in procedure M • ommunication procedures used on-site (e-mail, bulletins, mailbox, etc.) C • reak and lunch policy B • se of telephone, mail services, copier, fax machine and classroom supplies U • ress code D • rocess for reporting absence or illness (give member your contact information) P • afety procedures S Help member become accustomed to the site through job shadowing Check in regularly, especially during the first month of service Members are available to start serving at the site on Monday, August 16.50 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSetting a Weekly ScheduleIt is the responsibility of the Internal Coach to set a daily schedule with the member. This daily schedulewill outline the following items: 1. What time the member is expected to arrive each morning 2. What time the member may take a lunch break (Members may count a 30-minute lunch towards their hours). 3. What time the member may leave school for the day 4. What the member should be doing from the start of day through the end of day The weekly schedule should allow a full-time member to serve 40 hours or a part-time member toserve 20 hours. This is critical.Sample ScheduleInternal Coaches should establish a system for the member to sign-in/out of the building each day. Thiswill help hold the member accountable & provide documentation of attendance.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 51
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresMid-Year Member Performance EvaluationMinnesota Reading Corps – 2010-11Member name: _________________________________________________Internal Coach name: ____________________________________________Instructions: 1. Internal Coach completes the evaluation. 2. Internal Coach meets with member to discussion evaluation – this is a time communicate about the member’s strengths and areas in need of improvement. 3. Member & Internal Coach sign evaluation. 4. Internal Coach submits to Program Coordinator by due date.Submission:Submit to Program Coordinator by Friday, December 17, 2010SECTION 1: Progress in meeting requirementsInformation to complete this section can be found in OnCorps. Requirements Progress Number of hours served _______ total hrs completed _______ avg. hrs needed/wk Number of Civic Engagement Activities Completed ________ out of 5 All time sheets are submitted & approved ________ Yes ________ NoSECTION 2: Member performanceRating ScaleExcellent: Regularly exceeds expectations, goes above and beyond standards.Good: Meets expectations, a job well done.Needs Improvement: Does not consistently meet expectations, must improve.Unsatisfactory: Meets very few of the expectations, improvement seems unlikely.52 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Procedures Needs Improvement Unsatisfactory Excellent Good The MRC member... Abides by the code of conduct of the site and MRC Presents self in appropriate attire, demeanor and attitude Arrives to the site on time and returns from breaks on time Abides by weekly schedule, serving the minimum # of required hours Signs-in and signs-out daily Communicates with site in advance to arrange for scheduled absences Provides sufficient notice if he/she will be late or absent Attends scheduled meetings with the Internal & Master Coach Demonstrates responsibility and dependability Demonstrates good judgment – reacts appropriately to potential problems Submits data by the due date (timesheets, tutor logs, etc.) Demonstrates concern for the quality and accuracy of tutoring Follows the Reading Corps model with integrity Responds to suggestions and feedback from his or her coach Shows respect for and sensitivity to the children’s / family’s needs Gives children / volunteers positive feedback and affirmations Has a professional working relationship with other staffMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 53
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresComments • Provide specific examples or observations for those areas rated as “needs improvement” or “unsatisfactory.” Determine an action plan if necessary. • Provide affirmations in areas where the member is excelling.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________By signing below, I certify that I am the Internal Coach for this member and have preparedthis evaluation based on my own observations and by incorporating feedback from othersas applicable.Coach __________________________________ _____________ Signature DateBy signing below, I acknowledge the receipt of this performance review.Member __________________________________ _____________ Signature DateMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 55
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresEnd-of-Year Member Performance EvaluationMinnesota Reading Corps – 2010-11Member name: _________________________________________________Internal Coach name: ____________________________________________Instructions: 1. Internal Coach completes the evaluation. 2. Internal Coach meets with member to discussion evaluation – this is a time communicate about the member’s strengths and areas in need of improvement. 3. Member & Internal Coach sign evaluation. 4. Internal Coach submits to Program Coordinator by due date.Submission:Submit to Program Coordinator by Friday, April 15, 2011SECTION 1: Progress in meeting requirementsInformation to complete this section can be found in OnCorps. Requirements Progress Number of hours served _______ total hrs completed _______ avg. hrs needed/wk Number of Civic Engagement Activities Completed ________ out of 5 All time sheets are submitted & approved ________ Yes ________ NoMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 57
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSECTION 2: Member performanceRating ScaleExcellent: Regularly exceeds expectations, goes above and beyond standards.Good: Meets expectations, a job well done.Needs Improvement: Does not consistently meet expectations, must improve.Unsatisfactory: Meets very few of the expectations, improvement seems unlikely. Needs Improvement Unsatisfactory Excellent Good The MRC member... Abides by the code of conduct of the site and MRC Presents self in appropriate attire, demeanor and attitude Arrives to the site on time and returns from breaks on time Abides by weekly schedule, serving the minimum # of required hours Signs-in and signs-out daily Communicates with site in advance to arrange for scheduled absences Provides sufficient notice if he/she will be late or absent Attends scheduled meetings with the Internal & Master Coach Demonstrates responsibility and dependability Demonstrates good judgment – reacts appropriately to potential problems Submits data by the due date (timesheets, tutor logs, etc.) Demonstrates concern for the quality and accuracy of tutoring Follows the Reading Corps model with integrity Responds to suggestions and feedback from his or her coach Shows respect for and sensitivity to the children’s / family’s needs Gives children / volunteers positive feedback and affirmations Has a professional working relationship with other staffMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 59
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresComments • Provide specific examples or observations for those areas rated as “needs improvement” or “unsatisfactory.” Determine an action plan if necessary. • Provide affirmations in areas where the member is excelling.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Summer HoursDiscuss the plan for the member to accrue hours during the month of June (if necessary).________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________By signing below, I certify that I am the Internal Coach for this member and have preparedthis evaluation based on my own observations and by incorporating feedback from othersas applicable.Coach __________________________________ _____________ Signature DateBy signing below, I acknowledge the receipt of this performance review.Member __________________________________ _____________ Signature DateMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 61
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSteps to Handling Member Performance IssuesInternal Coaches are responsible for handling member performance issues. The Pro-gram Coordinator is a person who can support the Internal Coach when performanceissues arise. Internal Coaches have authority to enact the discipline procedure whenthey feel it is necessary. However, Internal Coaches do not have the authority to termi-nate a member. An Internal Coach and Program Coordinator should work together indisciplining a member.Step 1 – Communicate about performanceCommunicate openly with your member about his or her performance. If his or herperformance is not meeting your expectations, it is your responsibility to inform yourmember. Document communication you have with your member about his or herfailure to meet expectations. If you need to have a conversation about performance, you may try to follow thesteps outlined below. This sequence is intended to be brief and take approximatelytwo minutes. 1. State what you’ve observed. Share the facts. 2. Wait for a response. 3. Remind the member of the goal and impact of his or her actions. 4. Ask for a specific solution. 5. Agree on the solution.Step 2 – Gather documentationGather documentation about the incident leading to the offense, preferably objectivedocumentation. For example, if a member is being disciplined for chronic tardiness,ensure documentation (sign-in sheet) exists to show the number of times the memberhas arrived late.Step 3 – Consult with Program CoordinatorCommunicate with the Program Coordinator about the incident.Step 4 – Enact the Discipline ProcedureFirst offense: Write a disciplinary letter to the member outlining the offense (sample let-ter on proceeding pages). The letter should include a clear explanation of the offenseMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 63
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and Proceduresand where the member stands in regards to the Discipline Procedure. Provide a copyof the letter to the Program Coordinator to put in the member’s file. Second offense: Call a meeting with the Program Coordinator and member to dis-cuss performance and form an action plan. Write a disciplinary letter to the memberoutlining the offense (sample letter on proceeding pages). You can decide with yourProgram Coordinator if the letter will come from both of you together or just fromone of you. The letter should include a clear explanation of the offense and where themember stands in regards to the Discipline Procedure. Provide a copy of the letter tothe Program Coordinator to put in the member’s file. Third offense: Consult with the Program Coordinator. Internal Coaches do not havethe authority to “fire” or terminate someone from his or her position. The Program Coor-dinator will write a letter to the member to release the member.Step 5 – DocumentationSubmit documentation about the member’s performance to the Program Coordinatorto put in the member’s file.64 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSAMPLE WARNING LETTER – 1st OFFENSEDecember 2, 2010Jane Jones123 Literacy St.Anywhere, MN 12345Dear Jane,Over the past month, I have observed that you are not following our school’s dresscode policy, which includes the following: “Inappropriate attire is defined, but not limited to: flip flops, halter tops, shorts, mid- riff tops, T-shirts with offensive slogans or pictures, beach costumes, see-through or mesh clothing, and ragged, torn or dirty clothing.” I have contacted you previously regarding this issue: On Monday, November 1st, Inoticed you were wearing a t-shirt with an alcoholic beverage logo and I reminded youthat this clothing is inappropriate for working with young children. On November 24th,your t-shirt displayed an offensive slogan, and I spoke with you about the unprofes-sional nature of your attire. Further, I have notified your coach and MRC staff of this issue. Abiding by member expectations and site code of conduct is extremely important,as was discussed at your member orientation and subsequent trainings. Please con-sider this your first official warning. If you do not comply with the code of conductimmediately, you will be placed on a 30-day probation period, and may risk losingyour education award. Please note that your “Member Contract” states that failure to comply with the codeof conduct could result in temporary suspension or even release from the program. Let’s work together to make sure this doesn’t happen. As we have seen by theexcellent work you have done with our volunteer appreciation event last week, youare an extremely valuable Minnesota Reading Corps member and are doing fantasticthings for children and families. Thanks in advance for your cooperation! If you have any questions about this,please contact me at (612) 555-5151 or contact your Program Coordinator, John Doe,at 651-555-5555. Sincerely, Sarah Hassan, Education Coordinator Minnesota State ElementaryCc: John Doe, Program Coordinator Mike Washington, Internal CoachMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 65
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresSAMPLE WARNING LETTER – 2nd OFFENSEJanuary 2, 2011Jane Jones123 Literacy St.Anywhere, MN 12345Dear Jane,One month ago, you were sent your first official warning regarding your noncompli-ance with our school’s dress code policy. In this letter I stated that if you did not com-ply with the program requirements effective immediately, you would be placed on a30-day probation period, and would risk losing your education award. Since this time,I have observed that you have continued to violate our school’s dress code policy: LastTuesday your t-shirt displayed an offensive slogan. Because you have not complied with our school’s dress code policy afterrepeated warnings, you are being placed on a 30-day probation period. If youviolate any rule of conduct during your 30-day probationary period, you may bereleased for cause. I advise reviewing the code of conduct section in your Member Handbook so youare fully aware of the behaviors that could lead to you being released for cause. Your probationary period will begin January 2, 2011 and will end February 2, 2011.Your Internal Coach and Program Coordinator will be notified of your probation. Pleasenote that you are considered to be on your second offense according to the MRC disci-plinary actions and the next offense is cause for immediate release from the program. Please contact me at (612) 555-5151 if you have any questions regarding the dis-ciplinary action. Sincerely, Sarah Hassan, Education Coordinator Minnesota State ElementaryCc: John Doe, Program Coordinator Mike Washington, Internal Coach66 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 2 | Personnel Policies and ProceduresMaster Coach Role ExpectationsLiteracy coaching is a critical element to the success of Minnesota Reading Corps (MRC)and its students. This document outlines the expectations of the PreK Master Coach. Role The Master Coach provides literacy coaching to site teachers, administrators, Internal Coach and MRC members(s). The Master Coach has regular on-site visits to support, model, and guide the site and its members in fulfilling the MRC literacy goals and to ensure integrity to MRC program model. * A site that has been part of MRC for over 3 years does not typically receive any on-site support from a Master Coach Training Summer Institute (St. Paul) • ew Internal Coaches – August 9-11; Returning – August 11 N Master Coaches’ Training – August 16 Year-long Trainings (held regionally) • ew Master Coaches – September, October, November, December, February N • eturning Master Coaches – October, November, December, February R Responsibilities • rovide general literacy support to the Internal Coach in providing direction P to the member and teaching team regarding literacy-related issues or questions (i.e., intervention implementation, student assessment, data entry, etc.) • nsure site’s compliance to the MRC Response to Intervention (RTI) model by E conducting integrity checks • nsure site’s compliance to the MRC program model E • articipate in the RTI data decision making team to best meet the literacy P needs of individual children and / or groups of children • upport the Internal Coach in completing the ELLCO in the fall S • eet with the administration and / or teaching staff at the site to ensure the M administration and teaching staff understands and supports the MRC program modelMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 67
  • Section 3 A Year in the Life of aReading Corps Member 69
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberA Day in the Life of a Literacy TutorIntroduction to Literacy Literacy Emergent Literacy Definition: The ability to talk, read and The view that literacy begins at birth and write, leading to the ability to is encouraged through participation with communicate and learn. adults in meaningful activities. Your thoughts about literacy: Literacy Tutors make a direct and important impact on children’s literacy skills dur-ing their 11 months of service with Minnesota Reading Corps. Very simply, the job of thetutor is to find fun and meaningful ways to talk, read and write with children every day.Meaningful Differences The differences in the quantityIt is well documented that there are meaningful differ- and quality of children’s earlyences in the abilities of children arriving in our kinder- interactions and oral languagegartens every year. Minnesota Reading Corps is training experiences predict early school success.Literacy Tutors to equalize the opportunity gap of chil- —Dickenson & Tabors,dren throughout the state. 2001; Hart & Risley, 1995 The table outlines the differences in three childrenentering kindergarten who are coming from differentfamilies.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 71
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 # words heard 13 million 26 million 45 million # words per hour 616 1,251 2,153 # questions per hour 5 20 40 # affirmations / prohibitions 5 / 11 12 / 7 32 / 5 # words in vocabulary* 2,000 12,000 20,000 Children need to know 10,000-12,000 words to become successful readers. Hart and Risley, 1995Activity: Your Meaningful Difference Instructions: Draw a picture that represents you, the children, and your interactions as a Preschool Literacy Tutor. Identify what you think child #1 might need from you when he arrives in your preschool classroom so that he can be ready for school.72 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberMinnesota Reading Corps in PreschoolMinnesota School Readiness study shows that 56% of children do not have the pre-literacy skills needed for kindergarten readiness. Minnesota Reading Corps trains andsupports Literacy Tutors to effectively help more children be ready for kindergarten.Very simply, this is how Reading Corps works in a preschool classroom: • A tutor is assigned to a classroom for one school year • The tutor is trained • The tutor is coached • The tutor works with all the children • The tutor collects data on all the children in the classroom • The tutor collects monthly data on a few children • The tutor leads a small group daily • The tutor helps children sign-in daily • The tutor talks to children during meal times • The tutor leads Tier 2 and Tier 3 instruction • The tutor helps create a literacy-rich environment Each tutor receives a Goal Setting Book, which is a guide to what the tutor isexpected to do each month.Types of Preschool ClassroomsTutors are typically assigned to one classroom. The tutor is expected to be present inthe classroom whenever children in the classroom are present. It is not acceptable fora site to have a tutor move around to multiple classrooms to help teachers do smallgroups, collect data, or to help cover times when the program needs help. Tutors can not be counted into the student-teacher ratio (unless the tutor is a Pro-fessional Corps member). This is convenient when tutors need to leave the classroomto attend a required training or meet with their Internal Coach. There are many different types of preschool classrooms. Identify the characteristicsof classroom in which you will be serving. What does my classroom look like? Half-day †† 3-year-olds †† Head Start †† †† days/week 2 Full-day †† 4-year-olds †† School district †† †† days/week 3 5-year-olds †† Community based †† †† days/week 4 †† days/week 5Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 73
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberExpectations for Tutors in a Minnesota Reading CorpsClassroomThe list below outlines the basic expectations fortutors serving in a Minnesota Reading Corps class- Excellent preschools can make a difference for at-risk children:room. Tutors will use their Goal Setting Book as their excellent in this case implies providingguide to what is expected of them each month. rich opportunities to learn and to practice 1. Tutors help set-up a literacy-rich language and literacy related skill in a playful and motivating setting. Substantial environment research confirms the value of such ›› Make a letter / name chart preschools in preventing or reducing ›› Make a sign-in system reading difficulties for as-risk children. ›› Make the writing center more fun and —Snow, 1998 interesting ›› Put theme-related books in centers ›› Put theme-related props in centers ›› Put writing props in centers ›› Each day make sure that: hhProps and books are in the centers and are usable hhToys are ready to play hhSmall group materials are gathered in a bin, ready to use 2. Tutors greet children at the bus Tutors may be expected to help bring children in from the bus. Every- day when the bus arrives, the tutor is present to help children stand in line and walk inside. This is important in transitioning the children from school to home. The tutor welcomes the children – a smile is very important when the day begins. If the children need to wait, the tutor may use this as a talking, reading, writing opportunity: ›› Sing a MRC transition song with the children ›› Teach the children a familiar rhyme ›› Play ‘Simon Says’ (Ex. Put your hands by your side, Put your eyes on Miss Kate) 3. Tutors help children transition into the day during Arrival or Departure Time Tutors help children transition into their classroom through rituals and routines. Rituals and routines help children predict what will happen74 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member and who they can expect to be there to help them. Tutors will help with these rituals and routines: ›› Greet children at door, “Hi, I am glad you are here today.” ›› Help children put backpacks and coats away ›› Help children sign-in or write their name ›› Read one-on-one or with a small group of children ›› Help child select his/her activity from a limited group of choices (i.e. puzzles, whiteboard) ›› Get children ready to leave, say goodbye at the end of the session 4. Tutors help children sign-in Sign-in is an important part of the daily routine. Watch the video and respond to these questions. What did you see the tutor saying to the child? What did you hear her say to the children? How would it feel to a child if the tutor was standing over the child, instead of getting down at the child’s eye level? How does sign-in currently work in my classroom? 5. Tutors read with children “If there is anything you choose to Tutors will find times during the day to read get good at, it would be to learn with children. Reading will help the tutor build how to engage children in book reading.” his or her relationship with children. Every —Kate Horst time a tutor reads a book with a child, he or she is feeding them with vocabulary, expres- sive language, and new learning about the world in which they live.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 75
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member 6. Tutors participate in large group / circle time There are different expectations for Community Corps and Professional Corps during large group / circle time. The differences are outlined below. ›› Community Corps: hh Sit on the floor with the children hh Watch the children’s actions and encourage children to listen hh Help children who have a hard time hh Help children who are disruptive or upset – quietly go to the child, rub his/her back with a smile and eye contact to help children listen and participate hh Sing along with the teacher ›› Professional Corps: hh Lead children in greeting hh Lead a daily message hh Lead Repeated Read Aloud 7. Tutors (Professional Corps only) lead a daily message The daily message occurs daily during Large Group. The daily message lasts between 2-5 minutes, depending on the time of year and atten- tion span of the children. Here are some descriptors about the daily message and its importance: ›› It is written text that creates a message that contains predict- able text. ›› All children in the group should be able to see the text. ›› The teacher builds it into the daily routine and uses it to teach about print concepts, to model, and to provide opportuni- ties for children to participate in talking, reading and writing about meaningful print. ›› It provides children with the opportunity to connect print with oral language. ›› It reminds teachers to embed explicit instruction about print concepts into their daily instruction. ›› It is an opportunity for children to actively participate as lead- ers in the learning (pointing to the words as they are read, finding and circling letters, printing missing letters, sharing their ideas for what should be written on the message.)76 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member ›› It is an opportunity for teachers to summarize a question for the day, a concept around their new learning, or use new vocabulary in a meaningful way. 8. Tutors lead Repeated Read Alouds with children A Repeated Read Aloud is a reading of one theme-related book for three - five consecutive days. It is well documented that when a teacher reads the same book for consecutive days and builds one reading upon the last, children are better able to use the vocabulary and concepts being taught in the book. Children are then better able to use higher level thinking related to the story, its characters, problems, and ele- ments. Repeated Read Alouds can occur during Large Group and Small Group time. When it is done in a small group, it makes it possible to individual- ize the vocabulary and print concepts for children. 9. Tutors play with children during choice time / discovery time Choice time occurs daily for all children. It is recommended that choice time lasts for 45-60 minutes. Children develop through experiences and independent play is a powerful way for children to experience new learning. Choice time allows children to play and develop their social- emotional skills, cognitive skills, language and literacy skills, math and logic skills, and self-help skills. Children make choices and pursue their own interests, questions, and ideas with the materials that are organized into conceptually related groups. For example, a dramatic play area may have materials that lead children to talk, read and write about the area of study or theme. If the area of study or theme is ‘zoo animals’, the dramatic play area may have the zoo animals in cages, a bus for going to the zoo, a veterinarian dress for sick animals, a shirt for the zoo keeper, etc. It is important for the ‘SEEDS Quality’ Tutor to be noticing children and responding in order to promote learning. For example, if you know a child in your classroom has no expressive language you could be close to the child, watch and wait for the child to communicate with you through gestures or language and give them the words for their actions. Ways to get involved during choice time:Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 77
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member ›› Be a play partner (i.e. You drink the tea at the tea party) ›› Be a play leader (i.e. You say, “let’s have a tea party”) ›› Watch children a few minutes and join in. 1) Take on the role the children assign you; or 2) Be the person who needs help, e.g., the customer, the clerk, the baby, the patient; or 3) Pose a problem, e.g., you don’t have enough money to pay for the flowers from the flower shop. ›› Read a theme-related book with a child (choose a child with limited vocabulary) ›› Encourage children to add print to their play. ›› Model for children how to do activities in the writing center. Do explicit instruction on how to write a word, write a letter, write a letter to a friend, or trace letters. ›› Play a board game with children. Talk about sharing, taking turns, and rules. ›› Lead a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention group Choice Time Situations – How do you respond? If a child is wandering around and not engaging in play, a tutor can … If a child is playing in the dramatic play area and there is no talking, a tutor can… If a child takes a toy from another child and the first child starts to cry, a tutor can … If a child wants to be on the computer and another child is on it, a tutor can… If a child is running around and dumping out blocks, a tutor can…78 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member 10. Tutors lead a Tier 1 Small Group Every classroom served by Minnesota Reading Corps is expected to have a daily Tier 1 Small Group as part of the daily schedule. This means that all children in the classroom get the opportunity to learn in a small group. Here are the characteristic of a Tier 1 Small Group: ›› 3 - 6 children per group ›› Last no more that 10- 20 minutes ›› Give children the opportunity to talk, read and write in meaningful ways * Use the Goal Setting Book for expectations about Tier 1 Small Group time. 11. Tutors lead literacy-rich transitions The lead teacher will most likely lead a transition activity as children transition from one area or activity to another. Tutors who are not the lead teachers should follow the plan of the lead teacher, but can lead transitions during the following times: ›› When they start a Tier 1 Small Group ›› When they lead children into the classroom from the bus ›› When they help children take off jackets ›› When they walk children outside at the end of the day ›› When they take children to the bathroom (sing ABCs as you wash hands) ›› When they help children clean-up toys * Use the MRC Transition Activities in this handbook. 12. Tutors build a “Strive for 5” conversation during meal time Meal time is an opportunity for children to develop vocabulary, oral language, and friendship skills. The tutor is present to model family- style eating, speaking, listening and learning about friends, food, and even the “Big 5.” A “Strive for 5” conversation is when an extended conversation is built between two or more people and each partner has five turns to talk. Here are some tips for meaningful meal time conversations: ›› Sit at the table with children and help distribute food ›› Make and use a Conversation Can to encourage conversationMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 79
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member ›› Relate the conversation to the theme of the classroom. Talk about what children have been learning in the classroom, in field trips, on the bus, or books they have read. ›› Model conversation – make a comment, ask a question, watch-wait-listen for a response, and build on what the child says 13. Tutors are sensitive and responsive to children Tutors will be sensitive and responsive to the needs of children in their class. They will use observation information to help become aware of a child’s abilities, needs, behaviors, or feelings. Tutors will follow the guidance in their Goal Setting Book about completing observations of children in the fall. SEEDS Observation Form Example ›› Describe exactly what you see and hear the child do or say. ›› Observe a specific child or group of children for 5 – 10 min- utes (or longer if relevant) ›› Write down what you see and hear, not how you feel Sensitive: What do you see and hear? Encourage: How do you feel? How does the child feel? Educate: What is developmentally appropriate for the task you watched? How do other children perform the same task? What is a realistic expectation for this child related to the observed task? Develop through Doing: What are two ways you might scaffold or support this child to the next developmental level?80 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member 14. Tutors collect data Tutors will assess the literacy skills of all of the children in the classroom. This is called benchmarking and will occur during the fall, winter and spring. The following skills will be assessed: ›› Rhyming (Spring Target = 12 correct) ›› Letter Names (Spring Target = 14 correct) ›› Picture Naming (Spring Target = 26 correct) ›› Alliteration (Spring Target = 8 correct) ›› Letter Sounds (Spring Target = 8 correct) 15. Tutors lead Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions After the tutor has completed the fall benchmark assessment on all children, he or she is able to identify which children in the class need more intense help (Tier 2). The tutor will lead an additional Tier 2 small group with these children each day for 5 – 10 minutes to provide them with supplemental practice – mean- ing these children will receive additional instruction for a specific skill (ex. rhyming). If a tutor is working with a child in a Tier 2 small group and the child is still not progressing, the tutor will provide even more intense instruction by using “Tier 3” interventions. Tier 3 instruction lasts 3 – 5 minutes each day and is done one-on-one. Tier 2 Tier 3 Explicit supplemental instruction using Explicit & more intense supplemental instruction MRC Interventions using MRC Interventions Additional small group instruction Additional one-on-one instruction 5 – 10 minutes daily 3 – 5 minutes daily Focus on targeted skill (ex. rhyming) Focus on targeted skill (ex. rhyming) Monitor progress of children monthly Monitor progress of children frequently Minimum of 5 children # of children identified with Internal CoachMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 81
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member 16. Tutors plan with others Tutors work with a classroom teacher: ›› Discuss lesson plan daily ›› Suggest ideas for early literacy ›› Discuss children’s progress ›› Watch and listen – teacher is a model for the tutor Tutors work with an Internal Coach: ›› Observed by Internal Coach biweekly ›› Meet biweekly ›› Receive feedback ›› Set goals for self and for the children Tutors work with other adults: ›› Program Coordinator ›› Master Coach ›› Classroom assistants 17. Tutors use Reading Corps materials Each tutor receives a MRC Intervention Bag. It is a bag that has tools / materials that will help the tutor be intentional about vocabulary, book and print concepts, sound awareness, letter names and letter sounds, and about building extended conversations with children. The Intervention Bag has materials that can be used during all of the daily routines. The Intervention Bag has materials the tutor is expected to use once Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions begin. The Intervention Bag must be returned at the end of the year. 18. Tutors are trained and coached Training and coaching provided to tutors help ensure that the Reading Corps model is being implemented with integrity. Integrity is defined as the quality of possessing and steadfastly adhering to the high profes- sional standards or principles. The Internal Coach observes the tutor using an Integrity Observation Checklist, which is a: ›› List of clear expectations based on science ›› Guide to what to do with children that need extra instruction ›› List of actions that will give children the support they need to understand a targeted skill82 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps Member 19. Tutors complete all service requirements Literacy Tutors should plan for how they will complete the additional service requirements of their position. Detailed information about these requirements is on the next pages. ›› Planning & managing hours to meet minimum hours requirement by June 30th ›› Participating in required training and professional develop- ment ›› Engaging families in literacy by completing three family involvement activities ›› Becoming civically engaged by completing five civic engagement activities ›› Engaging children in a worldwide day of reading on Read for the Record ›› Engaging families in literacy through three Literacy Home Visits (Professional Corps only)Closing Activity You are a Minnesota Reading Corps PRO! Privilege ~ Responsibility ~ OpportunityMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 83
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberService Requirements for Literacy TutorsPlanning and Managing HoursIt is important for members to begin planning hours at the beginning of the year! Themost common advice experienced members have to give new members is – startplanning your hours early to ensure you’re on track for the year! School districts within the state of Minnesota average 172 days per school year. Allschool districts schedule non-school days as a part of their calendar year (ex. springbreak, winter breaks, teacher work days, snow days, and holidays). Members must con-tinue to earn hours on non-school days in order to meet the minimum number ofrequired hours. Full-time Part-time Hours earned during school days: 1376 688 (approx. 172 days per year) (8 hr days) (4 hr days) Hours needed during non-school days: 344 232 (approx. 71 days per year) Hours needed by 6/30/2010: 1720 92084 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberTips for Planning Hours on Non-School DaysTip #1: Earning hours on the days that school is not in session is anecessity.There are roughly 71 days when school is not in session that members can and MUSTuse as opportunities for service. Service opportunities, to start next week! • Complete civic engagement activities alone or with a group of fellow members • Complete a book report(s) • Read the member handbook • Review and practice interventions • Plan how to get involved with Read for the Record (www.Readforthe Record.org) • Write a letter of introduction to parents using template on MRC website • Watch MRC online tutorials to review and learn more about your position • Review the ‘August Tasks’ in the Goal Setting Book for more ideas Also, consider finding a consistent volunteer opportunity for the days that school isnot in session. For example, contact a Boys and Girls Club and ask about volunteeringfor each of the days that school is not in session.Tip #2: PLANNING days NOW will save many headaches later! Use a blank calendar to: • Block out the days school is not in session, plan how to earn hours on each day • Ask the Internal Coach for additional projects on non-school days • Serve more than 8 hours or 4 hours every day or a few days each week • Work ahead! Earning more hours than necessary at the beginning of the program year is beneficial in the event that unforeseen circumstances limit a member’s ability to make up for a shortage of hours later.** Members must complete all hours by June 30th. There will not be additional opportunities to make up the hours**Successful planning and implementation = SUCCESS!Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 85
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberTrainings & Professional DevelopmentRequirement: Each member must participate in eachrequired MRC training. If a member is unable to attend, he Training provides membersor she must notify the Program Coordinator who will give with the opportunity to learn,instruction about how to make-up the training. connect with one another, and share ideas and resources.Training TopicsThe topics chosen for training will vary for each region.Trainings are thought to be part of a member’s professional development and growth.Some training will be directly related to literacy and some training will be geared moretowards a member’s personal growth.Required Training for Members and Internal CoachesSeptember: MRC Assessment (new members and new coaches only)October: Response to Intervention-Progress MonitoringNovember: Response to Intervention-Tier 2 Interventions for Visual DiscriminationDecember: Response to Intervention-Tier 2 Interventions for Phonological AwarenessFebruary: Response to Intervention-Tier 2 and 3 Interventions and Family InvolvementOther Months: Schedule and topics determined by Program Coordinator As part of their professional development, members are encouraged to seek outand attend additional training, workshops, or continuing education courses that arerelevant to their service. The Internal Coach must give pre-approval for any professional developmentsought out independently by the member. A maximum of 10% of a member’s time may be earned through professionaldevelopment not sponsored by MRC. MRC will not pay any registration fees.86 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberFamily InvolvementPurpose: Families play a critical role in a child’s education. MRC members will engagefamilies by providing resources, information and/or strategies for families to use athome in an effort to improve their child’s literacy skills.Guidelines: All members are required to complete a minimum of 3 family involve-ment activities. The member should discuss ideas for family involvement with his/ herInternal Coach. Members should be sensitive to communicating with parents and should followthese guidelines. • Internal Coaches are direct contact for a parent who wants information about MRC or his/her child’s progress • Any written communication to a family member must be reviewed by the Internal Coach • Communication about a student’s performance may be written by the MRC member, but should be reviewed by the Internal Coach and sent on behalf of both the Internal Coach and member Members must complete and submit a “Family Involvement Form” (found on MRCwebsite) upon completion of the requirement.Examples of Family Involvement Activities • Introduce yourself to the families of students you work with at the site. *A template for an introductory letter can be found on the MRC website. • Communicate with families about the progress of their child • Attend school conferences • Train families in literacy strategies they can use at home • Provide information to families about the public library and/or how to get a library card • Plan and / or participated in a family literacy event(s) at your site • Organize and / or supported a book drive for the students at your site • Send literacy activities home with children • Provide literacy opportunities / activities for children to do in the summer • Note: Professional Corps members may count Literacy Home Visits as one activity.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 87
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberCivic Engagement AmeriCorps PledgeDefining Active Citizenship I will get things done for America -You have been called to action as an AmeriCorps member to to make our people safer,serve your community. smarter, and healthier. As an AmeriCorps member your primary service will includethe daily work you do to ensure children have the literacy skills I will bring Americans togetherthey need to be successful in this world. However, your service to strengthen our communities.also includes things you do as a citizen outside of your service Faced with apathy,site that strengthen your community. I will take action. You community is defined as the world you live in – yourneighborhood, your city, your county, your state, your country, Faced with conflict,your world. I will seek common ground. You are required to complete 5 civic engagement activitiesto spark your involvement in your community. Faced with adversity, I will persevere.Civic Engagement Requirement: Each member must completea minimum of five Civic Engagement Activities during his or her I will carry this commitmentterm of service following the guidelines listed below. The activi- with me this year and beyond.ties are self-directed. I am an AmeriCorps member,Purpose: The purpose of this requirement is to enable members and I will get things done.to become more connected to their community. For this reason,there are two guiding principles in fulfilling this requirement- 1) most civic engagement activities should happen outsidethe walls of the service site and 2) members should challengethemselves to try something new or expand the activities theydid prior to their service with Reading Corps.Possibilities!: Because this requirement is self-directed, thereare many possibilities! Members are encouraged to: • First think about what they want to get out of this experience • Challenge themselves • Engage family, friends, or fellow members to join them Everybody can be great... because anybody in completing an activity can serve. You don’t have to have a college degree to serve. You don’t have to make • Consider joining in a national day of service (ex. 9/11 your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul Day of Service) generated by love. • Think outside the box; don’t feel limited by the exam- — Martin Luther King, Jr. ples listed in this handbook!88 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberGuidelines: • Minimum of 5 activities, maximum of 10 activities • Maximum of 100 total hours (full-time), 50 total hours (part-time) * • Members must complete at least one activity in 3 out of the 4 categories listed below * Approval needed from Program Coordinator to exceed maximum during the school year.Categories and examples: 1. Community service project ›› Volunteering at a local non-profit or other organization in need of volunteers ›› Developing a service project based on an unmet need in your community 2. Grassroots involvement ›› Joining a committee ›› Getting involved in your neighborhood group to address issues in your community 3. Community event (Participating in an event that educates you about your community) ›› Attending a city council meeting ›› Attending a school board meeting ›› Attending a candidate forum or debate 4. Advocating for your cause ›› Voting ›› Contacting your legislators ›› Writing a letter to the editor ›› Attending a rally ›› Signing a petitionMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 89
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberParticipation in your Local CommunityReflect on your participation as an active citizen in your community. In the space below, list your activities including: • What was the organization? • What did you do? • Why did you choose participate in these activities? • How did this activity affect you or others?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________90 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberLevels of Active Citizenship Personally Responsible Participatory Citizen Justice Oriented Citizen Citizen Description • cts responsibly in his/ A • ctive member A • ritically assesses C her community of community social, political, and • orks and pays taxes W organization and/or economic structures • beys laws O improvement efforts to see beyond surface • ecycles, gives blood R • rganizes community O causes • olunteers to lends a V efforts to care for • eeks out and S hand in times of crisis those in need, promote addresses areas of economic development injustice or clean-up • nows about social K environment movements and how to • nows how government K effect systemic change agencies work • nows strategies K for accomplishing collective tasks Sample Contributes to food drive Helps to organize food Explores why people are Actions drive hungry and acts to solve root causes To Solve Social Problems and Improve Society Citizens Must: Core Have good character; be Actively participate and Question and change Assumptions honest, responsible, and take leadership positions established systems and law-abiding members of within established structures when they the community. systems and community reproduce patters of structures. injustice over time.In the spaces below, record how you have been an active citizen. Personally Responsible Participatory Citizen Justice Oriented Citizen CitizenMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 91
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberCounting Hours for Civic EngagementCivic engagement activities may be counted for hours, IF the activity does not violateany of the prohibited activities for AmeriCorps members. Participating in any of the activities below is considered to be prohibited while serv-ing on AmeriCorps time. However, members can participate in the activities listed belowand count the activity for civic engagement, but cannot count it for AmeriCorps hourson their time sheet. A full list of prohibited activities can be found earlier in this manual. 1. Attempting to influence legislation. 2. Organizing or engaging in protests, petitions, boycotts or strikes. 3. Engaging in voter registration drives. 4. Engaging in partisan political activities or other activities designed to influ- ence the outcome of an election to any public office. 5. Participating in, or endorsing, events or activities that are likely to include advocacy for or against political parties, political platforms, political candi- dates, proposed legislation or elected officials. 6. Engaging in religious instruction, conducting worship services, providing instruction as part of a program that includes mandatory religious instruc- tion or worship, constructing or operating facilities devoted to religious instruction or worship, maintaining facilities primarily or inherently devoted to religious instruction or worship, or engaging in any form of religious proselytization.Examples Activity Does this count for Does this count for hours? a Civic Engagement Activity? Voting in presidential Yes No - it influences the outcome of an election to election public office (#4 above) Attending a political Yes Yes – it is education, there typically is not advocating debate at debates Attending a rally Yes No – the purpose of rallies are most often to advocate for a cause (#5 above) Teaching Sunday Yes No – it is engaging in religious instruction (#6 above) School Writing to your Yes No – it is attempting to influence legislation Senator asking him (#1 above) to support school funding92 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberRecording Civic Engagement in OnCorpsUpon completion, record each civic engagement activity in OnCorps. 1. Log-in to OnCorps. 2. Click “Reporting” 3. Click “Civic Engagement Activity” 4. Click “Add a New Civic Engagement Activity” 5. Complete the following fields: a) Name of Civic Engagement: Write the “category” of the activity. b) Date: Record the date of the activity. c) # of hours: This number does not transfer to your timesheet. d) Description: Provide a brief description. 6. Click “Update.”Example Grassroots Involvement 11/1/2010 Name of Civic Engagement:  Date:   3 # of Hours:   Description of Civic Engagement Activity: School board meeting. I attended my first ever school board meeting at my site. It w as very interesting to listen to the discussion of the school board. I have a new appreciation for the issues that they are dealing w ith that affect so many aspects of our school. Update Cancel  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 93
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberExamples of Civic Engagement ActivitiesThis is a sample of the civic engagement activities completed by former members.Bundles of LoveBundles of Love is a non-profit organization that creates “bundles” for infants in need.The bundles include hand-made baby blankets, quilts and clothing. As a memberof this organization, I will be making baby quilts that will in turn be donated. I haveenjoyed working with this lovely group of women since last winter.School Board MeetingI attended an Albert Lea School Board Meeting. They discussed current action items,non-resident agreements, food service, retiree health insurance and some other misc.topics. I was welcomed there and enjoyed meeting the school board members. I amencouraged to return to these meetings on a regular basis to learn more about impor-tant topics in this school district.Blood DriveWent to Hinckley to donate blood for Memorial Blood Centers. It was a good experi-ence for me to help out like that.National Night OutNational Night Out is a nation-wide observation designated for first Tuesday in Augustto include neighborhood activities designed to strengthen neighborhoods. I orga-nized a tour of seven neighborhood gardens followed by socializing and refreshmentson our patio. Discussion included neighborhood safety issues, proposed solutions, andlots of comments on who had the “best” weeds!Project ReadI went to a project read meeting and listened to the updates that have been doneduring this past year. The woman who is heading the project is very energetic and wasinteresting to listen to. My concern is how do we reach the people who truly need thisservice effectively?94 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberFood PantryI volunteered at the Great Plains Food Bank in Fargo preparing food box’s for peoplein need. We assembled boxes and filled according to the packing slips. Each box con-tained non-perishable food items for families in need to pick up!PTA MeetingI attended my very first PTA meeting. It was very informative. In addition to the regularinformation that they share they had the Superintendent of Schools as a special guest.I found his presentation on the school district’s pending operating levy to be veryinformative.Divided We Fall movie eventI viewed “Divided We Fall” at Macalister College. The documentary focuses on the dis-crimination against Sikh post 9-11 and the hate crimes that have been committed. Itwas a moving story and one that needed to be told. Afterwards there was a discus-sion on how individuals can create social change and social understanding. We alsodiscussed the emotions we had during the movie and the questions it left us to ask.Piano LessonsI will be teaching piano for Community Education. I have 5 students from 3:15- 5:45. Ivolunteered for one hour’s worth of piano lessons each week, which means two les-sons can now be scholarships.Forum of School Board membersI attended forum of new elects for the school board. Each member spoke about them-selves and how they intend to create change and improvements in the district.Serving as election judgeServed whole day as election judge for primary elections at Harriet Bishop school.Town Meeting on state budgetAttended Town Meeting on governor’s proposed budget sponsored by Minnesotastate representatives and senators and held at the Heinz Center at RCTC.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 95
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberComplex Leadership TeamI went to a meeting of the Andersen Complex Leadership Team. This group, made upof school staff, parents and community members, is the overall decision-making groupfor the Andersen complex. It approves the work that other teams do (coming up witha budget or a new school improvement plan, for instance), and also talks about otherissues that are of concern to parents or community members. It was interesting to seehow the perspectives of staff members compare to the perspectives of parents.Peace, Power and Unity ConferenceI participated in the Peace, Power, and Unity Conference as a Child Care Volunteer,so that family members could attend the workshops - which focused on communityissues such as education reform, tenants rights, LGBT issues, immigration concerns, etc.Earth DayOn Saturday my family and I cleaned up our community. Next to our house there is aboulevard between our street and a city park. Many people look this part over becauseit is public housing that divides our side of the road to the park, so my kids and I tookthe initiative to clean the street ourselves.United Way MascotI dressed up as a Lama for two “shows” - one was in the morning and one in the after-noon. I put on this huge, hot, heavy costume and went out to meet the waiting chil-dren. I gave hugs, shook hands and had my picture taken with the kids. It was a funactivity to do.Early Childhood Education Awareness MeetingI went to a meeting to learn about the legislative side of early childhood education.Speakers from the group Ready4K talked about the need for work support for familiesand quality early childhood education for children, and the issues involved with get-ting funding for ECE from state legislatures around the country.96 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberCivic Engagement ResourcesFinding Volunteer Opportunities Did you know?www.serve.gov Minneapolis-St. Paulwww.HandsOnTwinCities.org has the highest rate ofwww.volunteermatch.org volunteerism in the country.www.1-800-volunteer.orgwww.volunteersolutions.orgwww.liveunited.orgNational Days of ServiceNational Day of Service & Remembrance: September 11, 2010: http://911dayofservice.org/Make a Difference Day October 23, 2010: http://www.usaweekend.com/diffday/King Day of Service January 17, 2011: http://www.mlkday.gov/Global Youth Service Day April 15-17, 2011: http://gysd.org/ Contacting LegislatorsFind the legislators that represent you and their contact information. http://geo.commissions.leg.state.mn.us/districts/start.htmlTips & Tactics for Contacting Legislators http://www.mncn.org/doc/tipstactics.pdfVotingFind out where you go to vote http://pollfinder.sos.state.mn.us/Register to vote http://www.sos.state.mn.us/home/index.asp?page=204Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 97
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberRead for the Record EventMinnesota Reading Corps members will be expected to participate in Jumpstart’s“Read for the Record” event on Thursday, October 7 by reading the story The SnowyDay to children at their site.About the eventRead for the Record is a worldwide campaign to celebrate the joy of reading withchildren. This campaign brings children together with caring adults to read the samebook (The Snowy Day), on the same day (October 7), in communities all over the world.The event is sponsored by Jumpstart.Get involved!Members are encouraged to use this day as an opportunity to get children excitedabout reading and think of creative ways to take this event “to the next level.” Wouldthe Mayor read to children at your school? Could the WHOLE school be reading thesame book at the same time? Could you secure donations to be able to give a copy ofthe book to each of your students? The possibilities are endless!Information and resources online: http://www.readfortherecord.org Check out the website for more details and resources for getting involved: • Get ideas for how to plan an event • Download a brochure to share with other staff members • Download a media release to notify your community newspaper • Find activities to go along with the book • Print stickers to give to children • Sign-up to get e-mail updates98 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberLiteracy Home VisitsRequirement: Professional Corps members are required to complete three literacyhome visits with one family throughout the year.Purpose: The purpose of this requirement is to 1) engage families by sharing specific,simple, and meaningful activities they can do with children that will help their childget ready for kindergarten, 2) provide another avenue of support to help a child reachspring target.Structure: The visit should involve the family and child and contain the following ele-ments: • Discussion with family about child’s progress – celebrate successes! • Sharing of simple, meaningful, specific activities the family can do to help child • Do an activity focused on targeted skill area for child (ex. rhyming, picture naming, etc.) • Do dialogic reading with family and child, followed by a journaling activityGuidelines: • Minimum of one family to participate in three visits throughout the year • If unable to conduct the visit in the home, a one-on-one family visit at school is acceptable • Family is selected by Literacy Tutor & Coach – should be a child who needs extra support • Length of visit is determined by Literacy Tutor (approximately 30 minutes) • Dates for the visits are determined by Literacy Tutor • Visit should engage both the child and familyReportingMembers should report each literacy home visit using the Literacy Home Visiting Logfound on the Reading Corps website.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 99
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberBook ReportsPurpose: Book reports are optional. Members are given the opportunity to read a bookthat is relevant to their service in an effort to provide another avenue of learning andpersonal development, while also providing an opportunity to earn hours to make-upfor sick days, vacation days, etc.Guidelines: Members must complete a “Book Report Form” to receive credit. Thisform can be found on the MRC website. Members serving a 2nd term of service mustchoose different books than those they read during their first term of service. Memberswill earn 10 hours for each book. There is a limit of 3 books per member per year.Process:Download the “Book Report Form” for specific instructions in following the processbelow: 1. Select a book. A list of approved books can be found with the Book Report Form on the MRC website. If a member would like to read a book that is not on the “approved list” but is relevant to his/her service, he or she may ask the Program Coordinator for approval. 2. Get verbal approval from Internal Coach. 3. Read the book. 4. Write a reflection paper. 5. Submit the Book Report Form on MRC website. 6. Record hours (1 book = 10 hours) on the time sheet.100 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 3 | A Year in the Life of a Reading Corps MemberNotes to Self:Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 101
  • Section 4Literacy Rich Classroom 103
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomIntroduction to the ELLCOIn addition to SEEDS quality teachers, children need a literacy rich environment orclassroom in order to learn. Minnesota Reading Corps has chosen the Early Language& Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO, 2008) to assess and monitor the quality oflanguage and literacy in the classroom. This ELLCO is used to: • Gather data • Measure the quality, quantity and frequency • Observe literacy activities, teacher practices, and use of materials The measurements of the ELLCO include: • Rating on a scale of 1 to 5 • Objective observation about what the room looks like • Objective observation about what the observer sees the children and teachers doing The ELLCO assesses five key elements of the literacy environment: 1. Classroom structure 2. Curriculum 3. Language environment 4. Books and book reading 5. Print and early writing In addition, the tool includes a teacher interview to clarify questions that may comeup during the observation, such the use of a particular curriculum, the familiarity of thechildren with the book, or the teaching methods. The Internal Coach will complete an ELLCO in each Reading Corps classroom inthe fall and spring. Tutors will also be asked to observe their own classrooms with theirteaching teams, using the ELLCO as their lens. After that, the teaching team will meetwith the Internal Coach to discuss it together and set goals to make improvements tothe literacy environment.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 105
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomELLCO Element (#1): Classroom StructureThe first element of a literacy rich environment is classroom structure. This refers to fourmain areas: 1. The physical organization of the classroom 2. Children’s access to and use of materials 3. Management practices 4. The role of adults When teachers … Then children … • rganize the classroom daily O • ind the materials they need to learn F • nsure materials are always ready E • ave less conflicts H • ave routines within a daily schedule H • re relaxed as they play A • xplain how to use materials E • lay with purpose P • iscuss what kids can do D • se talk in play U • ive new ways to use materials G • hink about learning T • sk questions about their play A • evelop expected skills D • ncourage kids to try E • ave more fun H • et clear rules S • earn more! L • ave a plan H • ork well together W • alk, read, and write with children T • re sensitive and responsive ALiteracy Rich Daily ScheduleIt is very important to follow a daily schedule that is filled with embedded literacyopportunities for children, both formal and informal. We call this a literacy rich sched-ule. The schedule consists of routines. A routine is a predictable learning time that isintegrated into the day, allowing for efficient and effective instruction. For example, if“sign-in” happens every day at the same time, when the children first arrive, the chil-dren learn quickly to anticipate it. They come in the door, are greeted, and go to yourtable to sign their name. This predictable routine is educational because they learn torecognize and write the letters of their name everyday. It is also enjoyable, becausethey expect it and are relaxed about it.106 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich Classroom Literacy Rich Daily Schedule Daily Schedule Which Big 5 skill areas Which Big 5 skill Comments & Notes Routine are embedded? areas are explicit? Greet children Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† Arrival Sign-in Oral Language †† Oral Language †† Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† ‘Big 5’ Transition Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† Awareness ‘Strive for 5’ Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Conversation Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† Meal time Oral Language †† Oral Language †† ‘Big 5’ Transition Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† Awareness Daily Message Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Large Group Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† Repeated Read Oral Language †† Oral Language †† Aloud Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† ‘Big 5’ Transition Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† Awareness Repeated Read Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Aloud w/ Journal Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† Small Group Oral Language †† Oral Language †† Tier 1 Rhyme w/ Journal Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† ‘Big 5’ Transition Awareness Theme-related Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Choice Time props in 5 Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† centers Oral Language †† Oral Language †† Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† ‘Big 5’ Transition Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† Awareness MRC Intervention Vocabulary †† Vocabulary †† Script used Letter Knowledge †† Letter Knowledge †† Tier 2 or Tier 3 Oral Language †† Oral Language †† Book & Print Concepts †† Book & Print Concepts †† Phonological Awareness †† Phonological †† Awareness MRC Intervention Materials usedMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 107
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich Classroom Quality Classroom Structure What does it look like?108 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomELLCO Element (#2): CurriculumThe second element of a literacy rich environment is the curriculum. This refers to howwell the activities are integrated into a theme or a project, the instructional strategiesused by the adults, the opportunities that children have for choice and initiative andthe responsiveness to and reflection of the diversity of cultures, languages, and fami-lies. The curriculum used in the classroom is planned by the lead teacher, sometimeswith the assistance of other colleagues. If the tutor prepares activities to complement the curriculum, they should berelated to the theme. This is important in order to ensure consistency of learning forthe children. When teachers … Then children … • each around a comprehensive theme T • nderstands how to use materials U • ut concrete theme-related items in multiple P • ntegrate the new concepts and ideas I learning centers • ecome more independent learners B • ead interesting and meaningful activities L • nvestigate over time I • elate the curriculum to children’s experiences R • se new vocabulary U • nlarge children’s prior experiences E • ractice playing with new vocabulary and P • ive choices G concepts • lan time to allow for in-depth learning P • eel capable F • earn about the world and human relationships L through repeated play What we know: What we want to know: What we learned:Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 109
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomELLCO Element (#3): LanguageEnvironmentThe third element of a literacy rich environment is the language environment. Thisrefers to the opportunities for informal and formal extended conversations, vocabularydevelopment, and phonological awareness. We often interpret the term “conversation” to mean casual small talk (Hi Joey, howare you today? Did you see your grandma last night? She has a new cat, that’s nice! ).This kind of friendly conversation is very important to build rapport with the childrenand to encourage them to talk, but it usually does not accomplish the goal of develop-ing vocabulary. The ELLCO uses the term extended conversations to mean talking about experi-ences, ideas and activities at a deeper level by analyzing, predicting, problem solving,or reflecting on learning. This can happen at formal times, such as in small group teach-ing, or at informal times such as lunch (Let’s see, what did we learn about in the storythis morning?) Or during dramatic play (Sir, I would like to buy these tomatoes, howmuch do they cost? 100 dollars! I am sorry this is too expensive. “Expensive” means theycost too much, 100 dollars is too much. ) When teachers … Then children … • ngage children in extended conversations E • se more complex vocabulary U • ait, watch, listen and make sure all children W • ave more to say H are included • sk more questions A • elect topics and vocabulary that relate to S • re more curious A children’s ideas and to the curriculum • lay with language, make jokes, tell stories P • elp children predict, analyze, solve problems, H • uild a strong background knowledge B and reflect on learning • ave tools for getting along with others H • alance individual, small group and large group B • uild their imagination B instruction • ractice pretend play P • each new words explicitly and continue to use T • hyme and alliterate R them throughout the day • ave more fun H • lay word games P • earn more! L • each sound discrimination, rhyming and T alliteration110 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomELLCO Section 4: Books and BookReading OpportunitiesThe fourth element of a literacy rich environment is the books and book readingopportunities. This includes the organization and the use of the book area, the types ofbooks available, the use of books for learning in all areas of the room and the quality ofbook reading in large and small groups. When teachers … Then children … • rganize the books in the library and in other O • an find books easily C centers daily • se books more often U • hoose books relevant to children’s C • re more interested in books and reading A experiences and to the curriculum • nderstand the stories and information better U • alance fiction and non-fiction books B • ook to books for information L • se books for enjoyment, learning to read, U • dentify with the characters more I solving problems, sparking imagination • earn to value books L • elect books reflecting the diversity of children S • ecome more curious B and families • ave more fun H • now the books K • earn more! L • o Repeated Read Aloud D • o dialogic reading D • ead with expression and fluency R • ead in a large group, small group and R individually Quality Classroom Structure What does it look like?Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 111
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomChecklist GuideELLCO Section 4: Books and Book Reading OpportunitiesPay attention to the quantity, quality, and condition of books. The books should beon shelves, side-by-side, with the cover facing out so children can easily find them.The shelves need to be re-organized before each new group of children arrives inthe classroom. Books with human characters should reflect the diversity of children & †† adults in classroom. †† more than 20-25 books should be in the main book area or classroom No library. One-third of the books should relate directly to the current theme, one third to the previous theme, and the last third can be a random assort- ment. †† books need to range in difficulty level (no words, few words, para- The graphs). One-third of all the books should be nonfiction. †† Each center should contain 3-4 books (blocks, science, housekeeping, †† dramatic play). If they migrate during the session, as children and adults use them, they need to be put back in place, at least once a day. †† books in the centers should relate to both the theme and the purpose The of the center. For example, if your theme is “The Body”, you would have books about healthy cooking in the house, books about the anatomy in science, books about going to the doctor in dramatic play, and books about different buildings, including hospitals, or different vehicles such as ambulances in the block area. †† listening center (books on tape with headphones) should have The theme-related books. The equipment should be in working order, and properly reset after each child uses it.112 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomELLCO Element (#5): Print and EarlyWriting SupportsThe fifth element of a literacy rich environment is the print and early writing supports.This includes the availability of writing materials, the opportunities for awareness andpractice of print, and developmentally appropriate writing instruction. When teachers … Then children … • rganize the writing center daily O • an find the materials easily C • ave written materials in other centers daily H • earn and understand the meaning of print L • nclude writing in daily routines, such as I • ractice scribbling and writing often P daily sign-in when the children arrive • re motivated to write A • odel writing in large group and small M • rite with a purpose W groups (stories, lists of ideas, charts, songs) • earn the alphabet better and faster L • ake dictations for individuals or groups T • rite with the children for a purpose W • rovide explicit instruction for letters, P names, and other meaningful words • isplay the writing on the walls, make D books, write letters and chart ideasJournalingJournaling is a routine that helps children get the daily opportunity to practice print.Tutors should make a journal for every child in the classroom. At the beginning of the year, tutors should teach children how journals will beused (using these steps for guidance). 1. Show children the journals 2. Model the “thinking process” that will occur before writing 3. Encourage children to write about personal experiences 4. Explain children will write on one page at a time 5. Model that the tutor will put a date on each journal entry 6. Tell children they can decorate their own journalsMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 113
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomTutor’s Role in Journaling • Build a routine for journaling • Provide a “spark” to help children think about what to draw or write ›› Connect journal drawing to classroom theme, vocabulary, book, or event ›› Model “thinking process” before writing: “I wonder what I should write about today, think, think, think, how did I feel when the little boy shared?” “I think I will draw a happy face, because he made me smile.” • Accept whatever the child draws, writes without judging • Take dictation (more information below) • Teach about print (more information below) • Date the journal entries, until the child is able to write the date by him or herselfChild’s Role in Journaling • Choose what to draw or write about • May decide to share their journal entry with a friend • May ask the teacher or tutor to write his or her words on the page • May read their words aloud with teacher or tutor • Has fun!Ideas for Teaching Children ‘Concepts Of Print’: • Point to or circle a letter • Point to or circle 2 letters that are the same • Point to a letter and write it. • Start on the left and go to the right • Find all the: s’s…. Circle them, write one • Find a short/long word and count the letters • Find the longest/shortest word • Find a word that begins with the same letter as their name • Point to the first/last letter in the word • Find a capital or lower case letter • Point to the space between words • Point to the letter that makes the sound of/k/…114 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich Classroom • Write a word as you listen to the each sound. “Let’s write ball, what’s the first sound: ball /b/,/b/ as child listens and thinks about the sound.Taking DictationDictation demonstrates for children that what we think/say can be written. It providesa model for writing and it provides an opportunity for children to think and use lan-guage. The procedure includes talking, writing and reading. This strategy can include allthe “Big 5” learning in span of one–four minutes!Demonstrate:TALK: Tutor connects with a child and talks about a child’s drawing • Tutor says: “I see a blue circle” • Tutor watches, waits for child to initiate, and listens • Tutor says: “Tell me about your blue circle”WRITE: Tutor writes what the child says (try to keep it to 1 – 4 words) • Tutor says: “Would you like me to write about you drawing?” • Tutor says: “What would you like me to write?”READ: Tutor and child read what was written • Tutor tracks the print with his/her finger he/she reads read together with childENJOY: Children can share their drawings / writing with one another! What we know: What we want to know: What we learned:Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 115
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomChecklist GuideELLCO Section 5: Print and Early Writing SupportsPay attention to the quantity and condition of writing materials. The notepads andclipboards need to always have usable paper, and the pencils need to be writable. Thematerials and the writing center need to be re-organized before each new group ofchildren arrives in the classroom. Have a writing center that is orderly with enough materials for children to †† use. Check condition and replenish daily. †† alphabet is clearly visible and at eye level for the children, not cluttered An with other posters. There are at least 5 examples of each type of environmental print (posters, †† group dictation, charts, graphs, children’s writing), relating to the current theme.The writing center should include: Word cards and templates to form letters. †† †† least 3 kinds of blank writing paper (ex., construction, white lined, At unlined, 3x5 cards). †† least 3 kinds of writing tools (ex., pens, markers, crayons, pencils). All the At writing tools need to be in working order. Each learning center in the room (blocks, science, housekeeping, dramatic †† play) should have 3-4 notepads or clipboards with pencils in each center. If these materials migrate during the session, as children and adults use them, they need to be put back in place at least once a day.116 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomObservation: Subjective versus Objective Definition of Objective Definition of Subjective Treating or dealing with facts without distortion Of, relating to, or arising within one’s self or mind by personal feelings or prejudices. A mirror of in contrast to what is outside. A picture of how what is occurring you feel about what is occurring Objective Observation Subjective Observation Many toys are on the floor in the housekeeping The room is a mess. The children are climbing the area and the block area. The children and adults walls. The teacher looks exhausted. She seems trip over them. Five children move from area to oblivious. area without focusing. Four children are at the sand table. The teacher sits in the reading corner for 15 minutes, reading to two children. She does not look up to the rest of the room. Observation Practice #1 Observation Practice #2Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 117
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich ClassroomWriting SMART Goals for the ELLCO • Goal: broad scope and timeline • Objective: specific behavior or action that will take place within a specific timeline • Goals and objectives must be: • Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and include a TimelineExample Measurable Not Measurable Goal: Angèle will write and implement a Goal: Angèle will engage children in reading Repeated Read Aloud for each week of the in fun and predictable ways year based on the theme Objective: Angèle will schedule the Repeated Objective: Angèle will do the Repeated Read Read Aloud 4 days each week, starting on Aloud October 15 Angèle will follow the Repeated Read Aloud Angèle will include the suggested activities Integrity ChecklistInternal Coaches: Next Steps for Administering the ELLCO • Schedule the observation for fall and spring. It will take approximately 2 hours. ›› Schedule the visit with the teacher to make sure the class- room will be following the regular routine on that day. ›› Schedule the observation during a time that will include formal teaching times such as circle time and small group, and informal times such as meals and discovery time. ›› If you are a new coach, your Master Coach will do the first ELLCO with you to practice and ensure integrity. • Conduct and score the ELLCO ›› Read the ELLCO carefully to become familiar with the rubrics. Note the differences between high and low scores are not just whether you see one example of the item or not, but whether you see none, one, a couple, several or many examples. It will also depend if you see how many children118 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 4 | Literacy Rich Classroom are actively responding and initiating. If all the activities are teacher directed with minimal or no child engagement, the score would be lower than if there is evidence that several children are engaged actively. ›› Be sure to complete the teacher interview (p. 40-42). • Discuss ELLCO scores as a team ›› Note similarities and differences in scores from ELLCOs completed by Coach and teaching team ›› Provide the team with five objective affirmations throughout the discussion • Set and write a goal in the tutor’s Goal Setting Book ›› The Goal Setting Book lists the area the tutor should focus on each month. Follow these expectations when setting a goal. • Submit a copy of the Observation Record (pg. 1) and the Score Form (pg. 43) for each MRC classroom to the Program Coordinator. Do not submit the entire ELLCO. ›› Fall due date: Friday, October 29 ›› Spring due date: Friday, May 27Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 119
  • Section 5Benchmark Assessments 121
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsInroduction to AssessmentDefinition of Benchmark AssessmentBenchmark assessment: A standardized assessment given to all students three timesper year (fall, winter, spring) to measure progress against grade level benchmarks andstandards.Benchmark: An expected grade level of progress.Measures and Spring Benchmark TargetsThe benchmark assessment is given to each child and is made up of five short assess-ments, listed in the table. The progress of students is measured in their progress towardmeeting the benchmark score. The goal is that each student going to kindergartenachieves the benchmark target score during the spring – meaning the student willenter kindergarten prepared to succeed. Research tells us that this score is correlatedto a child’s ability to read proficiently by the end of 3rd grade. Assessment: Spring Benchmark Target Score: Rhyming 12 Letter Name Fluency 14 Picture naming 26 Alliteration 8 Letter Sound Fluency 8Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 123
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsBenchmark Schedule Fall Benchmark Winter Benchmark Spring Benchmark October 4 -15, 2010 January 17-28, 2011 May 2 -13, 2011 Age 3 • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I on or before • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I Sept 1st • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I Age 4 • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I on or before • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I Sept 1st • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I • etter Naming Fluency L • etter Naming Fluency L • etter Naming Fluency L • etter Sound Fluency L • etter Sound Fluency L • etter Sound Fluency L Age 5 • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I • GDI Rhyming I on or before • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I • GDI Picture Naming I Sept 1st but • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I • GDI Alliteration I not enrolled in • etter Naming Fluency L • etter Naming Fluency L • etter Naming Fluency L Kindergarten • etter Sound Fluency L • etter Sound Fluency L • etter Sound Fluency L The tutor should give the benchmark assessment to children who enter class out-side of the benchmark windows, however, this benchmark data should not be enteredinto OnCorps.Description of AssessmentsThe assessments used in Reading Corps are considered General Outcome Measures. AGeneral Outcome Measure provides direct assessment of a child’s growth and devel-opment over time. General Outcome Measures answer the question, “Is the studentlearning and making progress toward the long-term goal?” The General Outcome Measures used by Reading Corps are listed in the table.These tools are valid and reliable tools that measure and monitor growth of individualchildren over time. Benchmark Assessment Tool: Outcome measured: IGDI: Rhyming Rhyming fluency Letter Name Fluency Letter Name fluency IGDI: Picture naming Oral Language fluency IGDI: Alliteration Beginning Sound fluency Letter Sound Fluency Letter Sound fluency124 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsCharacteristics of General Outcome MeasurementGeneral Outcome Measures are evaluated along six broad characteristics, includingthe extent to which they: • Predict a child’s reading ability • Can be used efficiently and economically • Are standardized and replicable • Rely on generalized or “authentic” child behaviors • Are valid and reliable forms of measurement • Are sensitive to growth and change over time and the effects of interventionGrowth over timeBenchmark assessments are a key part of the Response to Intervention (RtI) decisionmaking model for monitoring growth of children—identifying children in need ofintervention, planning the intervention explicitly, and monitoring the effects of theintervention services over time. Benchmark assessments are often compared to taking a child’s tem-perature. It is an indicator that things are okay or that they are not okay. Itcan tell a teacher which children are on track to reach the target score (areokay) and which children are not developing at an adequate rate (are notokay). Just as a child’s physical growth is measured and charted, the bench-mark assessments help teachers to chart a child’s language and literacygrowth. They give us a snapshot of how the child is developing over time.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 125
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsConducting the AssessmentIntegrity: Standardization MattersIt is essential that tutors administer the assessments exactly as the instructions arewritten. This is called standardization. When the assessments are administered in astandard way, one can rely on the scores to be an accurate reflection of the students’literacy skills. Each tutor will be observed by his or her Internal Coach as he or she administers apractice round of the assessments to ensure it is being administered in a standard way.During this observation the Internal Coach will be completing an Integrity Checklist.Before a tutor can administer the assessments with children, the tutor must score 100%on each of the Integrity Checklists. This observation can be nerve-wracking the firsttime, but remember that the Internal Coach is there to provide support and ensure thetutor is successful! Follow the BOLD print! Timing Appropriate Prompting • lways begin with the A Each assessment should • o not provide corrected D Sample Items be administered using the feedback during • f child meets criteria, I stopwatch according to the administration move to administration exact time specified • nly give corrective O • iscontinue criteria D feedback during Sample are provided for all 5 Rhyming = 2 min. Items assessments Letter Name = 1 min. • ive positive non-verbal G Picture Name = 1 min. and verbal feedback during Alliteration = 2 min. administration Letter Sound = 1 min.The materials in the assessment kit are for assessment use only. The assessment materi-als should NOT be: • Used as teaching tools in the classroom • Used as flashcards • Sent home with children to use with parents • Copied and distributed to other teachers126 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsAssessment MaterialsThe tutor will need the following items to administer the assessment. Most of theseitems are in the assessment kit. • Standard Assessment Directions • Timer • Dry erase marker & eraser • Pencil or pen • 3 stacks of cards: ›› 1) Rhyming, 2) Picture Naming, 3) Alliteration • 2 laminated sheets for letter names and letter sounds: ›› 1) Teacher Copy with numbers, 2) Student Copy with no numbers • Group Recording FormTesting EnvironmentTutors should work with their Internal Coach and lead teacher to identify a specificplace where they can administer the assessments with the children. Here are someconsiderations: • Outside the classroom with few distractions is best. • If inside the classroom, create an area where the children are visually blocked from other children and teachers playing and having fun. • The space should have a small table where the tutor can fluently show the child the pictures. For rhyming, picture naming and alliteration it is best to be across the table. For letter names and letter sounds, it is best to be next to the child.Common ErrorsThere are some common errors tutors make in performing the assessments for the firsttime. Watch out for these errors! • Member is slow to flip the cards • Member provides affirmation, not praise • Member provides corrective feedback during administration, not just during sample items • Member is not sitting directly across from the child • Member covers up the picture while pointing to it • Member does not start immediately after setting the timerMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 127
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsRecording and Submitting DataTutors are responsible for recording and submitting data as described below.Group Recording FormThe Group Recording Form is a paper form that tutors use to write down the students’score right after the assessment is complete. • A copy of this form should be given to the lead teacher • A copy of this form should be given to the Internal Coach • This form should be stored in the progress monitoring notebook • This form is not submitted • This form should be used when entering the data into OnCorpsDemographic InformationTutors need to report demographic information in OnCorps for each student. Planahead, and begin gathering this information before the benchmark period begins.Internal Coaches and/or lead teachers should assist tutors in gaining access to accu-rate demographic information. Tutors should NOT guess about any of this information.The information includes: • Student first name and last name • Gender • Date of birth • Ethnicity • Primary language • MARSS number (if available) – This is a unique number assigned to the student. Instructions for entering this information are posted on the website.Benchmark Data in OnCorps Due Dates:Tutors will report benchmark data for all children in Fall October 22OnCorps by the due dates. Instructions are posted on Winter February 4the website. Spring May 20128 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 5 | Benchmark AssessmentsNext Steps for Benchmark AssessmentsTutors should prepare for the benchmark assessments to be sure they are ready to startassessing on the first day of the benchmark window!Before the benchmark window • Prepare MRC materials and environment ›› Do you have your MRC Assessment Kit? ›› Does your timer work? (Do not use a watch or wall clock) ›› Does your dry erase marker work? ›› Do you have your Group Recording Form? ›› Do you have your ‘testing location’ picked out yet? ›› Are you in the same room as another MRC tutor? Have you determined who will test which students? (Tutors can decide to split the students, or have one tutor assess all students – either way, it should stay consistent in the fall, winter and spring.) • Practice each of the five assessments while the Internal Coach observes ›› Has your Internal Coach observed you practicing each of the five assessments? ›› Have you achieved 100% integrity on all five measures for the current period?During the benchmark window • Conduct the assessment with each child in your classroom ›› Use the assessment tools in the MRC Assessment Kit. You may not substitute other assessments used at your site. ›› Follow the Benchmark Schedule to know what assessments to give 3-year-olds and 4- and 5-year-olds. ›› Administer the assessment in the order below. You may consider splitting the assessments over several days. 1) Rhyming 2) Letter names 3) Picture names 4) Alliteration 5) Letter soundsMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 129
  • Section 6Progress Monitoring 131
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringResponse to Intervention (RtI)in Early ChildhoodResponse to Intervention (RtI) is designed to help early childhood teachers recognizechildren who show signs of learning difficulty in targeted areas and respond in waysthat help them experience early school success.Things to remember about RtI: What do you know about RtI? What questions do you have about RtI?Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 133
  • SECTION 6 | Progress Monitoring Steps in Response to Intervention (RtI)     Steps in Response to Intervention (RtI)           Step 1: Collect benchmark data     on all children.     Step 2: Step 3: Analyze data. Plan for and implement interventions for identified children. Step 4: Monitor the progress of identified children. 134 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringStep 1: Collect benchmark dataCollect benchmark data on all children in the class in the fall, winter and spring. Children who enter your class outside of the benchmark windows should be bench-marked within six weeks – this benchmark data should not be entered into OnCorps. Age: Benchmark Assessments Given: Children who are 3-years-old by September 1, 2010 • hyming R • icture Naming P • lliteration A Children who are 4- or 5-years-old by September 1, • hyming R 2010 • etter Names L • icture Naming P • lliteration A • etter Sounds LMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 135
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringStep 2: Analyze data A. Identify where children are at in relation to the spring target by color cod- ing each student’s score on the Group Recording Form. Above Far from Target On Target Near Target Target Green Yellow Red Rhyming 13+ 12 7 – 11 0–6 Letter 15+ 14 8 – 13 0–7 Names Picture 27+ 26 16 – 25 0–15 Naming Alliteration 9+ 8 5–7 0–4 Letter 9+ 8 5–7 0–4 Sounds B. Meet with the data decision making team (Internal Coach and other involved team members) to evaluate the data and current instruction. ›› Analyze classroom data: (Use information on following pages about Embedded & Explicit Instruction to analyze instruction) hhIdentify the areas of need for all children in Tier 1 instruction. hhIdentify how children get to practice picture naming (oral language), letter names, rhyming/alliteration and letter sounds every day through Tier 1 instruction. ›› Analyze individual student data: hhSelect five children to receive daily Tier 2 Small Group interventions or Tier 3 individualized interventions. This is in addition to the Tier 1 Small Group that all children receive daily. Priorities for Selection of Children 1. Which children are going to kindergarten next year? 2. Which children are not meeting target in picture naming (oral language), letter naming, rhyming, alliteration, letter sounds.136 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress Monitoring 3. Which children are already getting extra help (and therefore selecting these students is not the best use of Reading Corps time and resources)? 4. Which children could use extra practice to help them participate more actively in Tier 1 classroom activities? 5. Which children will work well together in a small group? 6. How close in ability are the children in your group?Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 137
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringStep 3: Plan for and implement interventions for identified children A. Set-up your progress monitoring notebook to include: ›› Group Recording Form ›› Copy of the Intervention Scripts and Integrity Observation Checklists ›› Section for each child that includes: 1. Student Progress Graph and 2. Individual Progress Monitoring Form B. Select appropriate MRC Intervention activities to use with identified chil- dren (See ‘Intervention’ section of handbook for complete list of interventions) ›› Determine with the Internal Coach what MRC Intervention activities the child will receive and when it will occur during the daily schedule ›› Record the MRC Intervention being used on the Individual Progress Monitoring Form C. Implement MRC Intervention activities with identified children daily. ›› Determine when the intervention will occur during the daily routine ›› Determine how long the intervention will occur (Tier 2 = 5-10 min; Tier 3 =3-5 min) ›› Bring a timer to time your session ›› Document session on student’s Individual Progress Monitor- ing Form in your progress monitoring notebook138 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringStep 4: Monitor the progress of identified children A. Identify the intervention start date – the date you first begin providing Tier 2 or 3 interventions. Record this date on the Individual Progress Monitor- ing Form. B. After the child has received four weeks of intervention services, progress monitor the child’s growth. Only assess (or progress monitor) the targeted skill area (ex. picture naming). The assessment tools used for progress monitoring are the same as what is used for benchmarking - picture nam- ing, rhyming, alliteration, letter sounds, and letter names. C. In your progress monitoring notebook, record the student’s progress monitoring score on the student’s Individual Progress Monitoring Form. D. In your progress monitoring notebook, record the student’s progress monitoring score and use that score to graph the student’s progress on the Student Progress Graph. E. Each week enter the total number of minutes that each student received Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions into the OnCorps Tutor Logs. F. Determine if the child is making adequate progress using the Guide to Data Decision Making Table.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 139
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringGuide to Data Decision Making If a child … Then you… Use last data point(s) plotted A Scores at or above spring • top providing Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention services for that skill S target area. • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I B Has one data point below • ontinue to provide intervention services for four more weeks C the aimline and progress monitor after the four weeks. • onsider changing the intervention to better meet the needs of C the child. • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I C Has one data point at or • ontinue to provide intervention services for four more weeks C above the aimline and progress monitor after the four weeks. • se the same intervention; however, consider changing the U materials used for variety. • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I D Has two data points • ontinue to provide intervention services for four more weeks C below the aimline and progress monitor after the four weeks. • hange the intervention to better meet the needs of the child. C • onsider moving the child to Tier 3 for more individualized C instruction. • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I E Has three (or more) • rovide Tier 3 individualized instruction for four more weeks and P below progress monitor after the four weeks. • onsider changing the intervention to better meet the needs of C the child. • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I F Has two points at or • top providing Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention services for that skill S above the aimline area • dentify how to enhance Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. I140 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringExample A: Scores at or above TargetExample B: Scores one data point below aimlineMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 141
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringExample C: Scores one data point at or above aimlineExample D: Scores two data points below aimline142 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringExample E: Scores three (or more) data points below aimlineExample F: Scores two data points at or above aimlineMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 143
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringEmbedded and Explicit InstructionEmbedded and explicit instruction is an important part of Tier 1 instruction. It shouldbe examined during Step 2B of ‘Steps to Progress Monitoring’.Embedded Instruction is when a targeted skill is added or builtinto daily routines and activities. It can be used throughout the Children at risk for learningday with both child-and-teacher initiated interactions. difficulties require repeated and systematic opportunities toExplicit Instruction is a teacher-directed activity that helps chil- develop skills and concepts.dren pay attention to the explanation of a specific targeted skill — (Justice & Kadevarek, 2004)and the steps needed to master it. • Show and tell child what and how to do a task • Develop through Doing: allow child to participate in practicing the task • Teacher provides scaffolding based on child practice Video Observation What did the teacher want the children to learn? How did she know that they were learning it? Did she have to do anything for those that did not know how to do the activity?144 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringEmbedded Learning ActivitiesPut a check box next to the activities that happen in your classroom as part of Tier 1instruction.Phonological Awareness: Have child sit next to you during songs or rhyming games to hear the †† different sounds of words †† soft music or recordings of environmental sounds during rest time Play Speak slowly during rhymes and finger plays to allow time for processing †† Repeat rhymes and songs and finger plays used during Large Group in †† Small Group and with individual children †† books that involve alliteration and rhyming and emphasize the allitera- Use tion and rhyming as you read †† songs and recite rhymes, chants to signal the beginning of the transi- Sing tion and to facilitate learning while children are waiting. †† songs and chants while children play outside (One, Two…as they Sing climb stairs) †† rhymes and alliterative games to dismiss to children form activities. Use Build in rituals that help children pay attention to sounds during the day: †† clap out the syllables of children that are helpers, guess the child’s name by hearing the beginning sound, give a password that rhymes with a child’s name to leave small groupConcepts about Print: Provide reading materials for children to use in play areas and demonstrate †† how to use them (menus, checkbooks, traffic signs, song charts (Happy Birthday) †† Repeated Read Aloud use Big Book or provide sentence strips with book In related text for shared reading Create child/family/classroom books and draw attention to words, letters, †† or concepts about print Build a Daily Message into daily schedule and embed concepts of print †† into ritual (find letter/word/sound, write a letter/word/sound, circle a letter/word) Embed print into daily small group lessons †† Provide daily sign-in with scaffolding Letter Identification; Visual Discrimi- †† nation Continuum.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 145
  • SECTION 6 | Progress Monitoring Create choice boards for highly preferred play areas. Children use names to †† indicate their choices. Display songs, rhymes, finger plays that are being learned. Use as a shared †† reading activity. Prepare name cards to use when dismissing children from activities †† Have children tell you when you see their names †† †† a ‘Need a Turn, Had a Turn’ can for classroom involvement, have the Use children identify whose name was pulled †† letter songs for daily rituals in Large Group, repeat in Small Group for Use children needing additional support (Ex. Letters, Letters, Letters, Letters have names…)Writing: Display children’s writing and read back to them what they wrote †† Build times to do teacher dictation with children in their drawings †† Allow children to print their own name (have name cards always present †† for any form of art or print) Build journal time into daily routine (be present to scaffold print) †† †† auditory scripts in all modeling and print practice Use Place sign-up sheets in interest areas that are popular †† Make writing center fun and meaningful (demonstrate how to use materi- †† als and be present to extend activities) Share print that children have done with the large group ††Oral Language: †† the ‘What is it?’ song and build “Strive for 5” feedback loops to pro- Sing mote thinking and sharing about theme-related concepts and items Include theme-related literacy props in 5 or more centers so that children †† can play with what they have read about, talked about and written about in Large Group and Small Group Teachers are present to build on child initiated talk, to extend and add a †† little more to child talk during Meal time, Center Time, Small Group, and Large Group Teachers practice Watch-Wait-Listen (3-5 seconds or more based on child) †† to create multiple language feedback loops146 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 6 | Progress Monitoring Repeated Read Aloud Lesson is followed day by day to build vocabulary †† and concepts to a point where children are confident to express their thoughts and opinions †† explicit expressive language strategies in daily routines for children Use needing expressive language practice (Show and Tell child what a word is and add something about it. Ask child to say the word and add something about the word. Repeat vocabulary over multiple days to build to expres- sive languageMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 147
  • SECTION 6 | Progress MonitoringActivity: Literacy Rich Schedule in Tier 1 Instruction Literacy Rich Daily Schedule Describe how you use explicit Daily Schedule Describe the targeted skill instruction to scaffold child Routine embedded into Tier 1 instruction. learning during Tier 1 instruction. Greet children Sign-in Arrival ‘Big 5’ Transition ‘Strive for 5’ Conversation Meal time ‘Big 5’ Transition Daily Message Large Group Repeated Read Aloud ‘Big 5’ Transition Repeated Read Aloud w/ Small Group Journal Tier 1 Rhyme w/ Journal ‘Big 5’ Transition Theme-related Choice Time props in 5 centers ‘Big 5’ Transition MRC Tier 2 or Tier 3 Intervention Script used MRC Intervention Materials used148 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • Section 7Interventions and Integrity Observations 149
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity ObservationsIntroduction to InterventionsThe tutor will use one of the interventions in this section when he or she providesadditional practice with the student each day during Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction time. The Internal Coach will use the Integrity Observation Checklist to observe thetutor using the intervention with children, to ensure the tutor is doing the interventioncorrectly, or with integrity. The schedule of observations is listed in the Goal SettingBook. When providing Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions, the tutor must: • Follow the intervention script exactly as it is written. • Use the MRC materials for each of the intervention sessions (listed on follow page). • Bring a timer to time the number of minutes in the session. • Record the minutes of Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction each day on the child’s MRC Progress Monitoring Form. Record the total number of minutes in OnCorps each week.Guide to Tiered Instruction Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 How? Explicit and embedded Explicit supplemental Explicit & more intense instruction using core instruction using MRC supplemental instruction curriculum, following a Interventions using MRC Interventions Literacy Rich Schedule When? Whole group instruction, Additional small group Additional one-on-one following routines of a instruction – 5-10 min/day instruction – 3-5 min/day Literacy Rich Schedule Who? All children in the class Minimum of 5 children Number of children identified with Internal Coach What? Focus on targeted skills Focus on targeted skill Focus on targeted skill needed by all children needed by individual child needed by individual child (ex. rhyming) (ex. rhyming) Monitor? Monitor progress of Monitor progress of Monitor progress of children three times per children monthly children more frequently yearMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 151
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity ObservationsMRC Interventions & Materials List Intervention Level MRC Materials Sign-in (Tier 1) -- -- Repeated Read Aloud (Tier 1 or 2) -- Repeated Read Aloud: Activities & Lesson Plan Oral Language (Tier 2 or 3) Level 1: Naming objects - What is it Bag To increase skill in vocabulary and - Cube: Vocabulary expressive language while providing a - Theme-Related Picture model and practice in correct grammar and Level 2: Naming and Cards syntax. Children will be able to expressively saying something about say identified objects through Random objects Automatic Naming over time. Visual Discrimination (Tier 2 or 3) Level 1: Matching items - Color cards To increase skill in visual discrimination and that look the same - Shape cards letter sounds while providing practice that Level 2: Pointing to a - Letter name cards leads to automaticity so that children will be letter when a tutor says it able to expressively say identified objects, Level 3: Saying the colors, letters or sounds through Random letters by themselves Automatic Naming over time. Level 4: Pointing to a Letter sound cards letter sound card when a tutor says it Level 5: Saying the letter sound Phonological Awareness (Tier 2 or 3) Level 1: Matching Shakers To increase skill in auditory discrimination environmental sounds while providing practice that leads to Level 2: Matching - Rhyming cards automaticity so that children will be able to rhyming or beginning - Alliteration cards expressively identify sounds over time. sounds / alliterative words Level 3: Pointing to - Cube: Rhyming rhyming or beginning - Cube: Alliteration sounds / alliterative - Rhyming Cards words using pictures - Alliteration Cards152 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Sign-­‐in   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  during  sign-­‐in:     YES   NO   1. Sign-­‐in  is  embedded  into  daily  routine  for  children  to  do  independently.       2. Name  cards  for  children  are  present  for  name  identification  and  as  a  model  for  print.       3. Tutor  is  available,  waits  expectantly,  and  notices  that  child  communicates  about  print  using  gestures,  talking       or  expressions.   4. Tutor  acknowledges  the  child‘s  act  by  describing  or  commenting  on  what  the  child  has  shown  or  said  to  the       tutor.  Examples:     You  made  a  straight  line  down  and  across  to  make  your  T.     You  found  your  name  and  a  pencil  -­‐  would  you  like  me  to  show  you  how  to  start?   5. Tutor  watches,  waits  and  listens  with  an  expectant  look  (3-­‐5  seconds)  for  another  response  from  child.       6. Tutor  explains  the  sign-­‐in  activity  every  session.       7. Tutor  models  how  the  sign-­‐in  activity  is  done  using  auditory  script.  Models  letters:  1    2    3    4       8. Tutor  requests  child  try  making  a  stroke  (line,  curve  or  diagonal)  or  letter  as  tutor  provides  auditory  script.       9. Tutor  scaffolds  child  using  at  least  one  of  the  following  strategies.  Circle  all  that  apply.         model  with  auditory  script                                                                                               auditory  script  as  child  prints             trace  over  tutor  letters                                                                             turtle  write  (child’s  hand  rides  on  tutors  hand  as  they  write  together)     write  strokes  for  starters  (big  line,  little  line,  curve,  diagonal)       10. Upon  completion  of  printing  activity,  the  tutor  points  to  the  word  and  says,  “This  word  is  _______.  It  is  the       word  for  your  name”.  Requests  that  the  child  read  it  with  the  tutor.   11. Tutor  embeds  one  Book  and  Print  Concept  into  the  interaction.         letter  name          letter  shape          capital  or  lower  case  word          left-­‐right  orientation          spacing          letter  sound   SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   12. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  session.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   13. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1  2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       14. Tutor  engages  child  in  conversation  before,  during  or  after  the  interaction  through  questions.      1    2    3    4    5           15. Tutor  ends  the  session  by  allowing  child  to  be  successful!  Describe  tutor  action  that  led  to  child  being  proud.         Comments  and  Observations:      Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 153
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Repeated  Read  Aloud  (Day  1)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Day  1  of  Repeated  Read  Aloud.   YES   NO   1. Tutor  sets  up  environment  that  allows  children  to  pay  attention.       2. Tutor  reads  a  book  related  to  current  classroom  theme.    Theme  _______________________       3. Tutor  introduces  story,  central  characters,  and  /  or  main  problem.       4. Before  reading,  tutor  explicitly  introduces  2-­‐3  vocabulary  words  unlikely  in  children’s  oral  language.       1    2    3    4    5   5. Tutor  uses  the  strategies  listed  below  five  or  more  times  to  teach  identified  vocabulary  words:                  Points  to  illustration:    1    2    3    4    5              Use  gesture  to  demonstrate  the  word  :    1    2    3    4    5              Use  the  target  word  in  a  sentence:    1    2    3    4    5   Use  a  synonym:    1    2    3    4    5     6. Tutor  uses  closed-­‐ended  questions  to  keep  students  interested  in  the  story.                                                  In  the  beginning:    1    2    3    4    5                                              In  the  middle:    1    2    3    4    5                                              In  the  end:    1    2    3    4    5     7. Tutor  uses  “Strive  for  5”  conversation  between  tutor  and  children.  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       8. Tutor  uses  open-­‐ended  questions  to  engage  children  in  analytic  thinking.                                                  In  the  beginning:    1    2    3    4    5                                              In  the  middle:    1    2    3    4    5                                              In  the  end:    1    2    3    4    5     9. Tutor  quickly  reviews  new  vocabulary  when  story  is  done.       10. Tutor  models  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy  and  encourages  children  to  use  new  vocabulary.       11. Tutor  models  print.         SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   12. Tutor  uses  Watch-­‐Wait-­‐Listen  strategy.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  Read  Aloud.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   14. Tutor  responds  and  extends  child  talk.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       15. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       Comments  and  Observations:     154 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Repeated  Read  Aloud  (Day  2)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Day  2  of  Repeated  Read  Aloud.   YES   NO   1. Tutor  sets  up  environment  that  allows  children  to  pay  attention.       2. Tutor  reads  a  book  related  to  current  classroom  theme.    Theme  _______________________       3. Before  reading,  tutor  explicitly  reviews  2-­‐3  vocabulary  words  unlikely  in  children’s  oral  language  and       introduces  2  new  words.      1    2    3    4    5   4. Tutor  uses  the  strategies  listed  below  five  or  more  times  to  teach  identified  vocabulary  words:                   Points  to  illustration:    1    2    3    4    5               Use  gesture  to  demonstrate  the  word  :    1    2    3    4    5               Use  the  target  word  in  a  sentence:    1    2    3    4    5    Use  a  synonym:    1    2    3    4    5     5. Tutor  uses  closed-­‐ended  questions  to  keep  students  interested  in  the  story.                                                                          In  the  beginning:    1    2    3    4    5                                                                      In  the  middle:    1    2    3    4    5                                                                      In  the  end:    1    2    3    4    5     6. Tutor  uses  “Strive  for  5”  conversation  between  tutor  and  children.  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       7. Tutor  uses  open-­‐ended  questions  to  engage  children  in  analytic  thinking  about  characters,  feelings,       beginning-­‐middle-­‐end  of  book  events,  or  problem-­‐solve.                                                                    In  the  beginning:    1    2    3    4    5                                                                    In  the  middle:    1    2    3    4    5                                                                    In  the  end:    1    2    3    4    5     8. Tutor  models  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy  and  encourages  children  to  use  new  vocabulary.       9. Tutor  models  print.    1    2    3    4    5       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   10. Tutor  uses  Watch-­‐Wait-­‐Listen  strategy.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       11. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  Read  Aloud.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   12. Tutor  responds  and  extends  child  talk.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       Comments  and  Observations:     Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 155
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Repeated  Read  Aloud  (Day  3-­‐4)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Day  3  or  Day  4  of  Repeated  Read  Aloud.   YES   NO   1. Tutor  sets  up  environment  that  allows  children  to  pay  attention.       2. Before  reading,  tutor  explicitly  reviews  previous  vocabulary  words  and  introduces  2  new  words.      1    2    3    4    5       3. Tutor  tells  children  that  he/she  knows  they  have  read  this  book  before  and  asks  open-­‐ended  questions       about  concepts  taught  from  the  book  that  were  highlighted  on  Day  2.   4. Tutor  asks  open-­‐ended  questions  to  build  analytic  thinking  about:  characters,  feelings,  book  events,  or       problem-­‐solve.  1    2    3    4    5   5. Tutor  asks  at  least  one  time  during  the  story  before  going  onto  the  next  page,  “who  remembers  what       happens  next?”  and  then  waits  for  2  to  3  children  to  confirm.  1    2    3    4    5   6. Tutor  pauses  to  encourage  children  to  chime  in  to  supply  predictable  text.  1    2    3    4    5       7. Tutor  allows  children  to  share/read  written  text  together  (text  is  read  from  the  book,  sentence  strip,  or  on       the  easel).   8. Tutor  explicitly  teaches  3  concepts  of  print:       1. Shows  /  tells  the  front  of  the  book   2. Shows  /  tells  the  first  page  of  the  book   3. Shows  /  tells  where  to  start  reading   4. Shows  /  tells  how  to  move  left  to  right   5. Shows  /  tells  return  sweep   6. Shows  /  tells  the  difference  between  words/letters     9. Tutor  explicitly  teaches  letters,  words,  and/or  sounds  by  using  1  or  more  of  the  following  strategies:       1. Locates  and  teaches  about  rhyming  words   2. Locates  and  teaches  about  alliterative  words   3. Talks  about  word  chunks  (ex.  –at)   4. Claps  out  or  counts  syllables  and  words   5. Identify  letter  names  or  sounds  (may  tie  it  to  the  Letter-­‐Sound  Chart)     10. Tutor  models  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy  and  encourages  children  to  use  new  vocabulary.       11. Tutor  models  print.  1    2    3    4    5       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   12. Tutor  uses  Watch-­‐Wait-­‐Listen  strategy.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  Read  Aloud.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   14. Tutor  responds  and  extends  child  talk.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       15. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       Comments  and  Observations:    156 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Repeated  Read  Aloud  (Day  5)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Day  5  of  Repeated  Read  Aloud.   YES   NO   1. Tutor  sets  up  environment  that  allows  children  to  pay  attention.       2. Tutor  reviews  new  vocabulary  before  reading  the  book.    1    2    3    4    5       3. Read  for  enjoyment  and  concept  development  by  asking  at  least  1  question  related  to:         • Link  current  story  concepts  with  previous  related  learning.  1    2    3    4    5   • Ask  questions  to  apply  learning  to  child’s  life.    1    2    3    4    5     4. Tutor  discusses  words  and  their  meanings  and  allows  children  to  talk  about  the  words  and  their  meanings.           1    2    3    4    5     5. Tutor  re-­‐reads  parts  of  the  story  and  prompts  children  to  use  new  vocabulary.  Deliberately  pauses  and       allows  time  for  children  to  supply  the  word.  For  example:    “Some  of  Jerry’s  ________  came  to  visit.”   1    2    3    4    5     6. Tutor  uses  1  of  the  following  strategies  to  encourage  children  to  retell  the  story:       • Dramatize   • Retell  the  story:  children  use  their  words  to  explain  the  beginning/middle/end  of  story     • Model  how  to  retell  a  story     7. Tutor  talks  less  on  Day  5  than  he  or  she  did  on  Day  1  in  order  to  increase  children’s  talk  about  the  story  or       informational  text.    Number  of  times  children  talk:  1    2    3    4    5    6       8. Tutor  models  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy  and  encourages  children  to  use  new  vocabulary.       9. Tutor  models  print.  1    2    3    4    5       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   10. Tutor  uses  Watch-­‐Wait-­‐Listen  strategy.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       11. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  Read  Aloud.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   12. Tutor  responds  and  extends  child  talk.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       Comments  and  Observations:    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 157
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations  Repeated  Read  Aloud:  Activities  &  Lesson  Plan  Day  1:  Activities   Day  1:  Lesson  Plan   Introduce  story,  characters  and/or  main  problem    Vocabulary  Words:     Explicitly  teach  2-­‐3  words  before  reading   Introduction:       Use  these  strategies  when  reading  to  teach   vocabulary:     Questions  for:          -­‐  Point  to  Illustrations   beginning,  middle,  &  end        -­‐  Use  gestures        -­‐  Use  a  word  in  a  sentence   Summary  I  will  use:            -­‐  Use  a  synonym   Ask  questions  to  engage  children   Focus  of       Summarize  the  story   Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share:     Model  printing   Model  print  or  drawing:     Use  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy  Day  2:  Activities   Day  2:  Lesson  Plan   Explicitly  teach  2-­‐3  new  word,  review  previous   Vocabulary  Words:     Ask  questions  to  build  “Strive  for  5”  about:    -­‐  Characters   3  possible  close-­‐ended  ?s:      -­‐  Feelings    -­‐  Beginning-­‐middle-­‐end  events   3  possible  open-­‐ended  ?s:        -­‐  Problem-­‐Solve   Model  printing   Focus  of       Use  Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share  strategy   Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share:  Day  3:  Activities   Day  3:  Lesson  Plan   Explicitly  teach  2  new  words,  review  previous     Vocabulary  Words:     Ask  open-­‐ended  questions   Allow  children  to  chime  in  with  words  or  phrases     Chime  in:     Share/  read  written  text  together   Model  printing   Shared  text:     Focus  of       Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share:  Day  4:  Activities   Day  4:  Lesson  Plan   Explicitly  teach  2  new  words,  review  previous     Vocabulary  Words:     Explicitly  teach  3  concepts  of  print:   1. Show  front  of  book     2. Show  the  first  page  of  book   3  concepts  of  print  to   3. Show  where  to  start  reading   explicitly  teach:     4. Show  how  to  move  left  to  right   5. Show  return  sweep   6. Show  difference  between  letter  and  word     Letters,  words  and/or   Explicitly  teach  letters,  words,  and/or  sounds:   sounds  to  explicitly  teach:   1. Locate  and  teach  about  rhyming  words   2. Locate  and  teach  about  alliterative  words   3. Talks  about  word  chunks  (ex.  –at)     4. Claps  out  or  counts  syllables  and  words   Focus  of     Think-­‐Pair-­‐Share:   5. Identify  letter  names  or  sounds  Day  5:  Activities   Day  5:  Lesson  Plan   Play  Rapid  Automatic  Naming  with  new       vocabulary   Dramatize  /  Pretend  /  Use  storytelling  props      158 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Oral  Language   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  interventions  while  using  the  Script  for  Oral   YES   NO   Language  Intervention:  Level  1  or  Level  2   1. Tutor  has  identified  vocabulary  words.    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10           2. Tutor  has  concrete  object  or  picture  present  for  instruction  (uses  MRC  Intervention  Materials).       3. Tutor  explains  activity  and  vocabulary  every  session.       4. Tutor  models  activity  every  session.       5. Tutor  requests  child  to  respond.       6. Tutor  initiates  practice  by  repeating  activity  directions.       7. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  GROUP  practice  phase.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   8. Tutor  calls  on  children  for  individual  turns.       9. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  INDIVIDUAL  practice.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   10. Tutor  documents  the  intervention  on  the  MRC  Individual  Progress  Monitoring  Form.       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   11. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  session.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   12. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1  2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  engages  child  in  conversation  before  and  after  the  interaction  through  questions  and  comments.             1    2    3    4    5       14. Tutor  is  sensitive  (aware)  to  child’s  ability  and  adapts  the  lesson  so  that  child  succeeds  with  each  step  of  the       intervention.      1  2  3  4  5   15. Tutor  ends  the  session  by  allowing  child  to  be  successful!  Describe  tutor  action  that  led  to  child  being  proud.         Comments  and  Observations:    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 159
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Oral  Language  Intervention:  Level  1   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  vocabulary  and  expressive  language  while  providing  a  model  and  practice  in  correct  grammar  and   syntax.  Children  will  be  able  to  expressively  say  identified  objects  through  random  automatic  naming  over  time.   Materials:  1)  What  is  it  Bag,  2)  Cube:  Vocabulary,  or  3)  Theme-­‐Related  Picture  Cards   Choose  3-­‐10  theme-­‐related  objects  or  theme-­‐related  pictures.       Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  saying  the  names  of  objects.  I’ll  say  the  name  of   the  object.  Then  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you’ll  say  the  name  of  the  object.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for   children  who  have  experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game  with  two  objects.    I’ll  say  the  name  of  the   object.  Each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  object.  I’ll  show  you  first.  My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the   children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding.    An  adult  model  is  to  be   provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  the  name  of  the  object  and  something  about  it.  Each  time  I  hold  up   my  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  object.  Your  turn.”    Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor   maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Anytime  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  My  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the   correct  response,  then  says,  “your  turn”    and  has  children  respond  to  the  same  object,  backs  up  two  objects  and   continues  forward  so  that  the  object  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  say  the  objects  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to   take  turns.    I’ll  say  the  name  of  an  object  and  something  about  it.    If  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you   say  the  name  of  the  object.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  objects  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on   individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Anytime  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  an  object,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “My  turn”  and   demonstrates  the  correct  response,  then  says  “Your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  word,  backs  up  two   objects  and  continues  forward  with  another  child  so  that  the  object  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who   made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  objects  you  started  with   both  in  group  and  individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  objects  and  pull  three  mastered  objects  out  of  the  bag  so   you  are  back  to  three  known  and  two  unknown.    160 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Oral  Language  Intervention:  Level  2   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  vocabulary  and  expressive  language  while  providing  a  model  and  practice  in  correct   grammar  and  syntax.  Children  will  be  able  to  expressively  say  identified  objects  through  Random  Automatic  Naming   over  time.   Materials:  1)  What  is  it  Bag,  2)  Cube:  Vocabulary,  or  3)  Theme-­‐Related  Picture  Cards   Choose  3-­‐10  theme-­‐related  objects  or  theme-­‐related  pictures.       Intervention  Script:     1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  saying  the  names  of  objects  a nd  something  about   the  object.    I’ll  say  the  name  of  an  object  and  something  about  it.  Then  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you’ll  say  the  name   of  the  object  and  something  about  it.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this   intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game  with  two  objects.    I’ll  say  the  name  of  the   object  and  something  about  it.  Each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  object  and  something  about  it.  I’ll   show  you  first.  My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the   tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the   expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  the  name  of  the  object  and  something  about  it.  Each  time  I  hold  up   my  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  object  and  something  about  it.    Your  turn”.     Tutor  practices  with  children  responding   in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Anytime  a  child  responds  incorrectly  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “My  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  object,  backs  up  two  objects  and  continues   forward  so  that  the  object  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.   5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  say  the  objects  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to   take  turns.  I’ll  say  the  name  of  an  object  and  something  about  it.    If  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say   the  name  of  the  object  and  something  about  it.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  objects  practiced  as  a  group,   but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.  Children  may  choose  to  say  something  different  about  the   object  than  what  you  say  for  individual  practice.   6.  Correction:  Anytime  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  an  object,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “My  turn,”  demonstrates   the  correct  response  and  then  says,  “Your  turn”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  word,  backs  up  two  objects  and   continues  forward  with  another  child  so  that  the  object  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the   original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  objects  you  started  with   both  in  group  and  individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  objects  and  pull  three  mastered  objects  out  of  the  bag  so   you  are  back  to  three  known  and  two  unknown.    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 161
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Visual  Discrimination     (objects,  colors,  shapes,  letter  names,  letter  sounds)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  interventions  while  using  the  Script  for  Visual   YES   NO   Discrimination  Intervention:  Level  1,  2,  3,  4,  or  5     1. Tutor  sets  the  environment  so  that  child  can  pay  attention.       2. Tutor  has  identified  targeted  skill  (object,  color,  shape,  letter,  letter  sound).       3. Tutor  has  MRC  materials  present  for  instruction.       4. Tutor  clearly  explains  the  activity  that  the  child  is  expected  to  do.       5. Tutor  clearly  models  the  activity  the  child  is  expected  to  do.       6. Tutor  requests  child  to  respond.       7. Tutor  starts  child  group  practice  by  repeating  activity  directions.         (Mark  ‘N/A’  in  the  ‘yes’  column  for  individual  practice.)   8. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  GROUP  practice.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   9. Tutor  calls  on  children  for  individual  turns.       10. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  INDIVIDUAL  practice.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   11. Tutor  documents  the  intervention  on  MRC  Individual  Progress  Monitoring  Form.       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   11. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  session.         smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   12. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1  2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  engages  child  in  conversation  before  and  after  the  interaction  through  questions  and  comments.         1  2  3  4  5       14. Tutor  is  sensitive  (aware)  to  child’s  ability  and  adapts  the  lesson  so  that  child  succeeds  with  each  step  of  the       intervention.      1  2  3  4  5   15. Tutor  ends  the  session  by  allowing  child  to  be  successful!  Describe  tutor  action  that  led  to  child  being  proud.         Comments  and  Observations:        162 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Visual  Discrimination  Intervention     Level  1:  Matching  items  that  look  the  same   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  visual  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be  able   to  expressively  say  identified  objects,  colors  or  letters  through  Random  Automatic  Naming  over  time.   Materials:  Choose  the  precise  skill  area  you  will  focus  on:    objects,  colors,  shapes,  or  letters.  Materials  include  1)  color  cards,  2)   shape  cards,  or  3)  letter  cards.  The  tutor  will  need  two  sets  of  five  items.   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  finding  letters  that  look  the  same  -­‐  they  match.  I’ll  show  you   two  letters  that  match.  Then  I  will  put  my  thumb  up  because  they  are  the  same  -­‐  they  match.  Next  I  will  show  you  two  letters  that   are  not  the  same  -­‐  they  do  not  match.  I  will  put  my  thumb  down  because  they  do  not  match.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for   children  who  have  experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game.  I’ll  show  you  two  letters  that  match.  Then  I  will  say,   ‘ready,  think’  (point  to  brain)  ‘  go’.  When  I  say  go,  I  will  put  my  thumb  up  because  the  letters  match.    My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the   children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding  (children  are  watching).  Tutor  says,  “Now,  I’ll   show  you  two  letters  that  don’t  match.    I  will  say  ‘ready,  think,  go’.  When  I  say  ‘go’  I  will  put  my  thumb  down  because  they  don’t   match.”    Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult   model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  show  you  two  letters.  Then  I  will  say  ‘ready,  think,  go’  and  when  I  say  ‘go’  you  will   put  your  thumb  up  if  they  match  and  down  if  they  don’t  match.  Your  turn.”  Show  the  children  two  letters  and  say  “ready,  think,  go.”   Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”    and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  so  that  the  letter   identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  say  the  letters  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take  turns.    I   will  show  you  two  letters.    If  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  say  ‘ready,  think,  go’,  you  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  match  and  down  if   they  don’t.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  letters  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an   unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  letter,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  with   another  child  so  that  the  letter  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  letters  you  started  with  in  group  and   individual,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  letters  and  pull  three  mastered  letters  so  you  are  back  to  three  known  and  two  unknown.    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 163
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Visual  Discrimination  Intervention     Level  2:  Pointing  to  a  letter  when  a  tutor  says  it     (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  visual  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be  able   to  expressively  say  identified  objects,  colors  or  letters  through  Random  Automatic  Naming  over  time.   Materials:  Choose  the  precise  skill  area  you  will  focus  on:    objects,  colors,  shapes,  or  letters.  Materials  include  1)  color  cards,  2)   shape  cards,  or  3)  letter  cards.  The  tutor  will  need  two  sets  of  five  items.   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  pointing  and  saying  the  names  of  three  letters.  I’ll  point  to  a   letter,  and  say  its  name.  Then  each  time  I  hold  up  my  finger,  you’ll  point  to  the  letter  in  front  of  you  and  say  its  name.”  (Children  will   have  their  own  set  of  letters  in  front  of  them).  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this   intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game  using  three  letters.  I’ll  say  the  name  of  the  letter  and   then  each  time  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air  you  will  point  to  the  letter  I  said  and  say  the  name.  I’ll  show  you  first.  My  turn.”  Tutor   models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be   provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  the  name  of  a  letter,  each  time  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air  you  will  point  to  the   letter  and  say  the  name  of  the  letter.    Your  turn.”  Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,   with  little  pause  between  letters.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  so  that  the  letter   identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  point  to  the  letters  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take   turns.  I  will  say  the  name  of  a  letter.  If  I  call  your  name,  when  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air,  you  point  to  the  letter  and  say  the  name.   Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  letters  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  letter,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  with   another  child  so  that  the  letter  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  letters  you  started  with  in  group  and   individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  letters  and  pull  three  mastered  letters  so  you  are  back  to  three  known  and  two   unknown.              164 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Visual  Discrimination  Intervention     Level  3:  Saying  the  letters  by  themselves     (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  visual  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be  able   to  expressively  say  identified  objects,  colors  or  letters  through  Random  Automatic  Naming  over  time.   Materials:  Choose  the  precise  skill  area  you  will  focus  on:    objects,  colors,  shapes,  or  letters.  Materials  include  1)  color  cards,  2)   shape  cards,  or  3)  letter  cards.  The  tutor  will  need  two  sets  of  five  items.   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  saying  the  names  of  letters.  I’ll  point  to  a  letter  and  each  time   I  hold  up  a  finger,  you’ll  say  the  name  of  the  letter.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this   intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game  with  three  letters.  I’ll  say  the  name  of  the  letter.  Then   each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  letter.  My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure   described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding.    An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children   are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  the  name  of  the  letter  and  each  time  I  hold  up  my  finger,  you  say  the  name  of   the  letter.  Your  turn.”    Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between   objects.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”    and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  so  that  the   object  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  say  the  letters  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take  turns.    I’ll   say  the  name  of  a  letter  and  if  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say  the  name  of  the  letter.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes   through  the  same  letters  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  letter,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  with   another  child  so  that  the  letter  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  letters  you  started  with  in  group  and   individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  letters  and  pull  three  mastered  letters    so  you  are  back  to  three  known  and  two   unknown.      Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 165
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Visual  Discrimination  Intervention     Level  4:  Pointing  to  a  letter  sound  card  when  the  tutor  says  it     (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  letter  sound  awareness  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be   able  to  expressively  say  identified  letter  sounds  through  Random  Automatic  Naming  over  time.   Materials:  Letter  Sound  Cards   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  finding  and  saying  the  sounds  of  three  letters.  I’ll  point  to  a   letter  and  say  the  sound  it  makes.  Then  each  time  I  hold  up  my  finger,  you’ll  point  to  the  letter  in  front  of  you  and  say  the  sound  it   makes”  (Children  will  have  their  own  set  of  letters  in  front  of  them.)  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have   experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game  using  three  letters.  I’ll  say  the  sound  of  the  letter.  Each   time  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air  you  will  point  to  the  letter  I  said  and  say  the  sound  it  makes.  I’ll  show  you  first.  My  turn”.  Tutor  models   for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at   the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  the  sound  of  a  letter,  then  each  time  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air  you  will  point  to   the  letter  that  makes  that  sound  and  say  the  sound  of  the  letter.    Your  turn.”  Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.   Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  letters.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  so  that  the  letter   identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  point  to  the  letters  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take   turns.    I  will  say  the  sound  of  a  letter.  If  I  call  your  name,  when  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air,  you  point  to  the  letter  and  say  the  sound.   Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  letters  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  letter  sound,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the   correct  response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  letter,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward   with  another  child  so  that  the  letter  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  letter  sounds  you  started  with  in   group  and  individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  letters  and  pull  three  mastered  letters  so  you  are  back  to  three  known  and   two  unknown.                166 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Visual  Discrimination  Intervention  (Letter  Sounds)   Level  5:  Saying  the  letter  sound     (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  letter  sound  awareness  while  providing  a  model  and  practice  so  that  children  will  be  able  to   expressively  say  identified  letter-­‐sound  pairs  with  automaticity  over  time.   Materials:  Letter  Sound  Cards.  Start  with  2  –  5  letter  sound  cards  -­‐  three  should  be  letter  sounds  that  all  of  the  children  have   mastered  and  the  other  two  should  be  new  or  un-­‐mastered  letter  sounds.     Intervention  Script:     1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  saying  the  sounds  of  three  letters.  When  I  point  to  a  letter   think  of  the  sound  the  letter  makes.  When  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air,  say  the  sound  for  as  long  as  my  finger  is  in  the  air.”  This   explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the   start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  say  the  sound  of  the  first  three  letters  when  I  put  my  finger  in  the  air.       My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult   model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  point  to  the  letter.  Each  time  I  hold  up  my  finger,  you  say  the  sound  of  the  letter.   Your  turn.”    Tutor  practices  with  children,  going  through  the  three  cards  repeatedly  until  the  children  consistently  respond  correctly   and  immediately  in  unison  to  all  the  cards.    Each  time  through,  the  tutor  may  put  the  cards  in  a  different  order.  Tutor  maintains  a   brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  letters.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  object,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  so  that  the   sound  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.   5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  says  the  letter  sounds  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take   turns.  I’ll  point  to  the  letter.  If  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  hold  up  a  finger,  you  say  the  sound  of  the  letter.”  Tutor  goes  through  the   same  letter  sounds  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.     6.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  an  object,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn,”  demonstrates  the  correct   response  and  then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  letter  sound,  backs  up  two  letters  and  continues  forward  with   another  child  so  that  the  letter  sound  said  incorrectly  comes  up  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  letter  sounds  you  started  with  both  in   group  and  individual  turns,  substitute  two  un-­‐mastered  letter  sounds  with  three  mastered  letter  sounds.    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 167
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Phonological  Awareness   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Date:    ____________________________________     Observer:  _____________________________________   Site:  _____________________________________   Observe  the  tutor  conducting  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  interventions  while  using  the  Script  for   YES   NO   Phonological  Awareness  Intervention:  Level  1,  2,  or  3   1. Tutor  sets  the  environment  so  that  child  can  pay  attention.       2. Tutor  has  identified  targeted  skill.       3. Tutor  has  MRC  materials  present  for  instruction.       4. Tutor  clearly  explains  the  activity  that  the  child  is  expected  to  do.       5. Tutor  clearly  models  the  activity  the  child  is  expected  to  do.       6. Tutor  starts  child  group  practice  by  repeating  activity  directions.         (Mark  ‘N/A’  in  the  ‘yes’  column  for  individual  practice.)   7. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  GROUP  practice.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   8. Tutor  calls  on  children  for  individual  turns.       9. Tutor  follows  error  correction  procedure  immediately  for  every  error  in  INDIVIDUAL  practice.         (Also  mark  ‘yes’  if  the  children  did  not  make  any  errors  during  this  portion  of  the  observed  session.)   10. Tutor  documents  the  intervention  on  MRC  Individual  Progress  Monitoring  Form.       SEEDS  Quality  Interactions   11. Tutor  demonstrates  positive  non-­‐verbal  messages  throughout  the  session.                        smile          nod          caring  look          caring  voice          high-­‐5          wink          eye  contact          watch,  wait  &  listen          other   12. Tutor  gives  verbal  affirmation  for  encouragement.    1  2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10       13. Tutor  engages  child  in  conversation  before  and  after  the  interaction  through  questions  and  comments.         1  2  3  4  5       14. Tutor  is  sensitive  (aware)  to  child’s  ability  and  adapts  the  lesson  so  that  child  succeeds  with  each  step  of  the       intervention.      1  2  3  4  5   15. Tutor  ends  the  session  by  allowing  child  to  be  successful!  Describe  tutor  action  that  led  to  child  being  proud.         Comments  and  Observations:            168 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations   Script  for  Phonological  Awareness  Intervention     Level  1:  Matching  environmental  sounds   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  auditory  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be   able  to  expressively  identify  sounds  over  time.   Materials:  Use  three  shakers  with  items  that  sound  different  but  look  the  same  on  the  outside.    Start  with  items  that  sound  very   different  and  move  to  items  that  sound  very  similar.   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  finding  objects  that  make  the  same  sound.    I  will  shake  two   containers  and  I  want  you  to  listen  to  the  sound  and  decide  if  they  make  the  same  sound.    I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  then  I  will   shake  it.  When  I  say  ‘go’,  I  want  you  to  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  made  the  same  sound  or  your  thumb  down  if  they  do  not  make  the   same  sound.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation   must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game.  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  then  I  will  shake  two   containers  that  make  the  same  sound.  When  I  say  ‘go’,  I  will  put  my  thumb  up.  My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the   signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding  (children  are  watching  and  listening).    Tutor  says,  “Now,  I’ll   shake  two  containers  that  don’t  sound  the  same  and  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen,  go’  and  when  I  say  ‘go’,  I  will  put  my  thumb  down   because  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound.”    Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only   the  tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,  even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the   expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  shake  two  containers,  and  then  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  when  I  say  ‘go’  you  will   put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  and  down  if  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound.  Your  turn.”    Tutor  says,  “Ready,  listen”   then  shakes  the  containers  and  says,  “go”.      Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with   little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  sound,  backs  up  two  sounds  and  continues  forward  so  that  the   sounds  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  hear  the  sounds  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take  turns.     I’ll  shake  two  containers.    If  I  call  your  name,  each  time  I  say  ‘ready,  listen,  go’  you  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  and   down  if  they  don’t  sound  the  same.    Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  sounds  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual   children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  sound,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  sounds  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  container/sounds  you  started  with,   substitute  with  containers  that  have  sounds  that  are  more  similar.        Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 169
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Phonological  Awareness  Intervention   Level  2:  Matching  rhyming  or  beginning  sounds  /  alliterative  words   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  auditory  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be   able  to  expressively  identify  sounds  overtime.     Materials:     1)  Rhyming  Cards  (start  with  3  sets  of  pictures  for  which  children  know  the  vocabulary);  or   2)  Alliteration  Cards  (start  with  3  sets  of  pictures  for  which  children  know  the  vocabulary)   Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  finding  words  that  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  (or  sound   at  the  end/that  rhyme).  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  the  words.  When  I  say  ‘go’  I  want  you  to  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the   same  at  the  beginning  (or  at  the  end/that  rhyme),  or  your  thumb  down  if  they  do  not  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.”  This   explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have  experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the   start  of  every  session. 2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game.  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  the  words.  When  I  say   ‘go’  I  want  you  to  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  (or  at  the  end/that  rhyme),  or  your  thumb  down  if   they  do  not  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.    My  turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described   above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding  (children  are  listening).    Model  #2:  Tutor  says,  “Now,  I’ll  say  two  words  that  do  not  sound  the   same  at  the  beginning.  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  the  words  that  don’t  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.  When  I  say  ‘go’  I  want   you  to  put  your  thumb  down  because  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound  at  the  beginning.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the   signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,   even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  two  words.  When  I  say  ‘go’  you  will  put  your  thumb  up  if   they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  and  down  if  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound  at  the  beginning.  Your  turn.”    Tutor  says,   “Ready,  listen”  then  says  the  two  words  and  says  “go”.    Tutor  practices  with  children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk   pace,  with  little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  sound,  backs  up  two  words  and  continues  forward  so  that  the   words  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  hear  the  words  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take  turns.  I’ll   say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  two  words.  If  I  call  your  name,  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  and  down  if   they  don’t  sound  the  same.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  sounds  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on  individual  children   in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  word,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  sounds  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  words  you  started  with,  substitute   with  words  that  have  sounds  that  are  more  similar.      170 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Script  for  Phonological  Awareness  Intervention   Level  3:  Pointing  to  rhyming  or  beginning  sounds/alliterative  words  using  pictures   (To  be  used  for  Tier  2  or  Tier  3  Interventions)   Objective:    To  increase  skill  in  auditory  discrimination  while  providing  practice  that  leads  to  automaticity  so  that  children  will  be   able  to  expressively  identify  sounds  over  time.   Materials:    1)  Cube:  Rhyming;  2)  Cube:  Alliteration;  3)  Rhyming  Cards;  4)  Alliteration  Cards     Intervention  Script:   1.  Explain:    Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “Today  we  are  going  to  practice  finding  words  that  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  (or  sound   at  the  end/that  rhyme).  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  tell  you  the  names  of  the  two  pictures  (or  roll  2  dice  and  tell  you  the  names  of   the  2  pictures).  When  I  say  ‘go’  I  want  you  to  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  (or  at  the  end/that  rhyme),   or  your  thumb  down  if  they  do  not  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.”  This  explanation  may  be  shortened  for  children  who  have   experience  with  this  intervention,  but  some  explanation  must  be  given  at  the  start  of  every  session.   2.  Model:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  model  for  you  how  to  play  the  game.  I  will  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  tell  you  the  names  of  the   two  pictures  (or  roll  the  dice  and  tell  you  the  names  of  the  2  pictures).  When  I  say  ‘go’  I  want  you  to  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound   the  same  at  the  beginning  (or  at  the  end/that  rhyme),  or  your  thumb  down  if  they  do  not  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.    My   turn.”  Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the  signaling  procedure  described  above,  with  only  the  tutor  responding  (children  are   listening).    Model  #2:  Tutor  says,  “Now,  I’ll  say  two  words  that  do  not  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.  Ready,  listen.”  Say  the   names  of  the  two  pictures  (or  roll  the  dice  and  say  the  name  of  the  2  pictures)  that  don’t  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning.  Tutor   says  “go”  and  puts  thumb  down  because  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound  at  the  beginning.    Tutor  models  for  the  children  using  the   signaling  procedure  described  above  with  only  the  tutor  responding.  An  adult  model  is  to  be  provided  at  the  start  of  every  session,   even  if  the  children  are  familiar  with  the  expectations  of  the  task.   3.  Group  practice:  Tutor  says  to  the  children,  “I’ll  say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  the  names  of  the  two  pictures  (or  dice).  When  I  say  ‘go’   you  will  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning  and  down  if  they  don’t  make  the  same  sound  at  the  beginning.   Your  turn.”    Tutor  says,  “Ready,  listen”  then  says  the  names  of  the  two  pictures  (or  dice)  and  says  “go”.      Tutor  practices  with   children  responding  in  unison.  Tutor  maintains  a  brisk  pace,  with  little  pause  between  objects.   4.  Correction:  Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “  my  turn,”  and  demonstrates  the  correct  response,   then  says,  “your  turn”  and  has  the  children  respond  to  the  same  pictures,  backs  up  two  sets  of  pictures  and  continues  forward  so   that  the  pictures  identified  incorrectly  comes  back  again.    5.  Individual  Practice:  Once  the  children  consistently  hear  the  words  correctly  in  unison,  tutor  says,  “Now  it  is  time  to  take  turns.  I’ll   say  ‘ready,  listen’  and  say  the  names  of  the  pictures.  If  I  call  your  name,  put  your  thumb  up  if  they  sound  the  same  at  the  beginning   and  down  if  they  don’t  sound  the  same.  Your  turn.”  Tutor  goes  through  the  same  sounds  practiced  as  a  group,  but  calling  on   individual  children  in  an  unpredictable  pattern.   6.  Correction:    Any  time  a  child  responds  incorrectly  to  a  word,  the  tutor  immediately  says,  “my  turn”  and  demonstrates  the  correct   response,  then  says  “your  turn,”  and  has  the  child  respond  to  the  same  sounds  again  for  the  child  who  made  the  original  error.   7.  Substituting  Objects:    If  children  demonstrate  consistent  mastery  and  automaticity  with  the  words  you  started  with,  substitute   with  new  pictures.  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 171
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Benchmark  Assessment  (Rhyming)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Observer:    ____________________________________     Site:   ____________________________________________________________________________________________   Check  the  benchmark  period  being  observed  and  the  date  of  the  observation:            Fall,  Date:  _________________                Winter,  Date:  _________________            Spring,  Date:  __________________    Rhyming:  Indicate  all  procedures  completed  as  described.       =  Completed  accurately                                                =  Incorrect   1. Has  materials  out  and  ready:        Rhyming  Cards,  Administration  Instructions,  Stopwatch,  and  Recording  Form     2. Shuffles  cards  before  each  administration  (except  Sample  Cards).       3. Reads  bold  words  aloud,  exactly  as  written  in  instructions.       4. Starts  with  Sample  Cards.       5. Points  to  and  names  each  picture  on  Sample  Cards.       6. Begins  administration  by  starting  the  stopwatch  and  immediately  showing  the  first  card  to  the  child.       7. Continues  with  administration  of  rhyming  measure  only  if  the  child  gives  2  correct  responses  on     samples  3  through  6.     8. Does  give  periodic  praise  for  attention,  effort,  and  task  engagement.       9. Does  NOT  include  any  of  the  Sample  Cards  in  test  administration.       10. Does  NOT  provide  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  during  administration.       11. Does  NOT  provide  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  to  sample  cards  5-­‐6.       12. Follows  directions  as  written  on  instructions  if  child  does  not  respond  within  3  seconds.       13. Points  to  and  names  each  picture  during  administration.     14. Provides  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  to  Sample  Cards  3 -­‐4.       15. Separates  correct  and  incorrect  or  skipped  responses  into  two  piles.     16. Shows  next  card  if  the  child  does  not  respond  within  an  additional  2  seconds.       17. Stops  test  administration  after  exactly  2  minutes.       18. Writes  total  number  correct  on  the  recording  form,  excluding  correct  Sample  Card  responses.       Individual  Growth  and  Development  Indicators                 ©1996-­‐2002,  University  of  Minnesota   Comments  and  Observations:      172 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Benchmark  Assessment  (Letter  Names)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Observer:    ____________________________________     Site:   ____________________________________________________________________________________________   Check  the  benchmark  period  being  observed  and  the  date  of  the  observation:            Fall,  Date:  _________________                Winter,  Date:  _________________            Spring,  Date:  __________________    Letter  Naming  Fluency:       =  Completed  accurately                                                =  Incorrect   1. Has  materials  out  and  ready:          Letter  Name  card,  Administration  Instructions,  Stopwatch,  and  Recording  Form     2. Places  student  copy  in  front  of  child.     3. Places  examiner  copy  out  of  view  of  child.     4. Seated  appropriate  distance  from  child.     5. Says  complete  standardized  directions.     6. Says  “Begin”.  (Not  “start”  or  “go”).     7. Starts  stopwatch  at  correct  time  (immediately  after  saying  “begin”).     8. Marks  errors  on  examiner  copy.     9. Times  accurately  for  1minute.     10. Stays  “Stop”.     11. Stops  stopwatch.     12. Marks  last  letter  read  with  a  bracket.     13. Determines  number  of  Correct  Letters.     14. Writes  total  number  correct  on  the  recording  form.     ©AIMSweb   Comments  and  Observations:      Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 173
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Benchmark  Assessment  (Picture  Naming)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Observer:    ____________________________________     Site:   ____________________________________________________________________________________________   Check  the  benchmark  period  being  observed  and  the  date  of  the  observation:            Fall,  Date:  _________________                Winter,  Date:  _________________            Spring,  Date:  __________________    Picture  Naming:  Indicate  all  procedures  completed  as  described.       =  Completed  accurately                                                =  Incorrect   1. Has  materials  out  and  ready:          Picture  Naming  Cards,  Administration  Instructions,  Stopwatch,  and  Recording  Form       2. Shuffles  cards  before  each  administration  (except  Sample  Cards).       3. Reads  bold  words  aloud,  exactly  as  written  in  instructions.       4. Starts  with  Sample  Cards.       5. Points  to  and  names  each  picture  on  Sample  Cards.       6. Gives  child  opportunity  to  name  each  sample  card.       7. STOPS  administration  if  child  does  not  correctly  name  all  four  (4)  sample  cards.       8. Begins  administration  by  starting  the  stopwatch  and  showing  the  first  card  to  the  child.       9. Does  NOT  provide  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  during  administration.       10. Does  NOT  include  any  of  the  Sample  Cards  in  test  administration.       11. Provides  correct  response  in  English  if  child  responds  in  another  language.       12. Does  give  periodic  praise  for  attention,  effort,  and  task  engagement.     13. Follows  directions  as  written  on  Administration  Instructions  if  child  does  not  respond  within  3  seconds.         14. Shows  next  card  if  the  child  does  not  respond  within  an  additional  2  seconds.       15. Separates  correct  and  incorrect  or  skipped  responses  into  two  piles.       16. Stops  test  administration  after  exactly  1  minute.       17. Writes  total  number  correct  on  the  recording  form,  excluding  correct  Sample  Card  responses.     Individual  Growth  and  Development  Indicators                 ©1996-­‐2002,  University  of  Minnesota   Comments  and  Observations:      174 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Benchmark  Assessment  (Alliteration)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Observer:    ____________________________________     Site:   ____________________________________________________________________________________________   Check  the  benchmark  period  being  observed  and  the  date  of  the  observation:            Fall,  Date:  _________________                Winter,  Date:  _________________            Spring,  Date:  __________________    Alliteration:  Indicate  all  procedures  completed  as  described.       =  Completed  accurately                                                =  Incorrect   1. Has  materials  out  and  ready:          Alliteration  Cards,  Administration  Instructions,  Stopwatch,  and  Recording  Form     2. Shuffles  cards  before  each  administration  (except  Sample  Cards).       3. Reads  bold  words  aloud,  exactly  as  written  in  instructions.       4. Starts  with  Sample  Cards.       5. Points  to  and  names  each  picture  on  Sample  Cards.       6. Begins  administration  by  starting  the  stopwatch  and  immediately  showing  the  first  card  to  the  child.       7. Continues  with  administration  of  alliteration  measure  only  if  the  child  gives  2  correct  responses  on     samples  3  through  6.     8. Does  give  periodic  praise  for  attention,  effort,  and  task  engagement.       9. Does  NOT  include  any  of  the  Sample  Cards  in  test  administration.       10. Does  NOT  provide  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  during  administration.       11. Does  NOT  provide  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  to  sample  cards  5-­‐6.       12. Follows  directions  as  written  on  instructions  if  child  does  not  respond  within  3  seconds.       13. Provides  correct  response  if  child  responds  incorrectly  to  Sample  Cards  3 -­‐4.       14. Points  to  and  names  each  picture  during  administration.       15. Separates  correct  and  incorrect  or  skipped  responses  into  two  piles.       16. Shows  next  card  if  the  child  does  not  respond  within  an  additional  2  seconds.       17. Stops  test  administration  after  exactly  2  minutes.       18. Writes  total  number  correct  on  the  recording  form,  excluding  correct  Sample  Card  responses.       Individual  Growth  and  Development  Indicators                 ©1996-­‐2002,  University  of  Minnesota   Comments  and  Observations:      Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 175
  • SECTION 7 | Interventions and Integrity Observations Integrity  Observation  Checklist:  Benchmark  Assessment  (Letter  Sounds)   Tutor:  ________________________________________   Observer:    ____________________________________     Site:   ____________________________________________________________________________________________   Check  the  benchmark  period  being  observed  and  the  date  of  the  observation:            Fall,  Date:  _________________                Winter,  Date:  _________________            Spring,  Date:  __________________    Letter  Sound  Fluency:       =  Completed  accurately                                                =  Incorrect   1. Has  materials  out  and  ready:          Letter  Sound  card,  Administration  Instructions,  Stopwatch,  and  Recording  Form     2. Places  student  copy  in  front  of  child.     3. Places  examiner  copy  out  of  view  of  child.     4. Seated  appropriate  distance  from  child.     5. Says  complete  standardized  directions.     6. Says  “Begin”.  (Not  “start”  or  “go”).     7. Starts  stopwatch  at  correct  time  (immediately  after  saying  “begin”).     8. Marks  errors  on  examiner  copy.     9. Times  accurately  for  1minute.     10. Stays  “Stop”.     11. Stops  stopwatch.     12. Marks  last  sound  read  with  a  bracket.     13. Determines  number  of  Correct  Sounds.     14. Writes  total  number  correct  on  the  recording  form.     ©AIMSweb   Comments  and  Observations:      176 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • Section 8Transitions 177
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: RhymingRhyming Names (sing)We are going to rhyme with our names,The ending sound will stay the same.The beginning sound it will change,Who rhymes with late? Kate/Yes, late/Kate they rhyme, they sound the same at the end.Who rhymes with toe? Joe/toe they rhyme.When they are good at names you can try this variation:Rhyming Objects (sing)We are going to play a rhyming game,The ending sound will stay the same.The beginning sound it will changeWhat rhymes with (show an object or a picture, it could be theme related items) ball, tall/yes, ball/tall they rhyme, they sound the same at the end.Vamos a rimar con nuestros nombres;Los sonidos finales se quedaron,I qual y el primero cambiora.Que rima con tolanda? Yolanda/si, tolanda/Yolanda si rima, si rima…Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 179
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Rhyming or Beginning SoundsErasable Rhymes or Beginning SoundsDraw a simple picture on a dry-erase board. Think aloud as you draw… “I’m going to draw a picture of something that has 2 legs, 2 arms…”Discuss the drawing with the children - reinforce vocabulary.Have children use rhymes or beginning sounds to get you to erase parts of the drawing. For example, draw a boy. “I’m thinking of something that rhymes with bye. Bye rhymes with something on this boys’ face. (listening for answers) ‘Ear’ could it be ear? Ear/bye do they sound the same at the end? Ear/bye. No, ear does not sound the same at the end, it has to sound the same as bye at the end of the word. What could it be? Eye! Eye/bye they sound the same at the end. ________ come up and erase the part of the body that rhymes with bye… eye” “I’m thinking of something that starts with the same sound as muffin. Muffin starts with the same sounds as something on the boys’ face… What could it be? Mouth! Mouth/muffin they sound the same at the beginning… • You could do one body part at a time and finish erasing through the day. • Have fun; make it a game and try and stump them as they catch on. • Have children do the drawing once they understand the game.180 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Beginning SoundsMy Fun Friends (to the tune of “London Bridge”)Beginning sounds are fun to find, fun to find, fun to findBeginning sounds are fun to find, my fun friends,Katie begins with /k/ /k/ /k/, /k/ /k/ /k/, /k/ /k/ /k/Katie begins with /k/ /k/ /k/, my fun friendSay a word that sounds like a child’s name and have the children identify the childKite begins with /k/ /k/ /k/, /k/ /k/ /k/, /k/ /k/ /k/Kite begins with /k/ /k/ /k/, my fun friendWhose name starts with /k/ in our class?After finishing My Fun Friends ask children to say a simple word or show a common object (ball)Ball begins with /b/ /b/ /b/, /b/ /b/ /b/, /b/ /b/ /b/Ball begins with /b/ /b/ /b my fun friendMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 181
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Rhyming or Beginning SoundsThumbs Up or Thumbs DownSay two words and ask the children to repeat them and then decide if the words rhyme- if they sound the same at the end of the word Rhyming words: go/top, in/lap, mad/sad, cat/rat, out/pig, run/sun, sing/ring, him/but, yes/my, hop/pop, map/lap, mom/ball, pig/big, brush/door, ten/pen, pill/hill… Once children have mastered their rhyming you can play the game using begin-ning sounds of words (alliteration) Alliteration/Beginning Sounds of words: go/gate, lake/lap, bike/map, pop/shoe,pig/pipe, mom/milk, dad/do, bowl/lamp, peg/pill, light/apple… You could also compare names of children in the class. Katie/Kelly, Teresa/Jill…182 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Beginning SoundsSound Match GameGather objects or pictures of familiar/theme objects or use pictures of children in yourclass Have letters to correspond with the initial sound of each picture Put 2 letter cards out next to each other to start columns of pictures below theletter Say the letter sound of each card Take one picture card for each sound and position under the column heading Hand the child one card at a time and ask him/her to say the word Ask him/her to put the picture in the appropriate column that matches the soundof the letter card Ask him/her to repeat all the words in each column to check that the picture cardsare under the right letter card After the child is able to do 2 columns, increase to 3 then 4 You can also add in cards that don’t fit in any columns once the child is confidentat the gameMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 183
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Oral LanguageWhat is it? Song • - Fill a basket or bag with theme related objects • - Introduce and explain each object and its meaning • - Bring the “what is it bag” out and sing:Sing:What is it? What is it? What is it? Do you know?Have a designated child pull something out and show the groupSing:It’s a ______, it’s a ______, and it’s a ______ yes it is.Have the children discuss what the object is and its purpose/meaning184 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Letter NamesLetters SongSing:Letters. Letters. Letters have names. What is the name of this letter? (Draw and talk about the shapes as you write it) ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ is the name of this letter.You might want to add, “I’m writing the first letter of _______’s name.”Sing:Letters. Letters. Letters make sounds. What is the sound that this letter makes?/___/ /___/ /___/ /___/ /___/ /___/ is the sound of this letter.Las letras, las letra, las letras tienen su nombresCuál es el nombre de esta letra? ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ es el nombre de esta letraMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 185
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Letter Names or Letter SoundsName GameWrite a letter on a dry-erase board. Say to children: “Follow my directions if your name starts with this letter” (Tell chil-dren the letter)Say to children:“Clap 2 times if your name starts with this letter” (point to letter on dry-erase board)“Put one hand under your chin if your name has this letter”“Touch your knees if your name ends with this letter”“Those whose name begins like this may get ready to go home”“If you have the letter ___ anywhere in your name, you may get ready for snack”Extend this activity to include lowercase letters in the rest of the child’s nameRemember to say the name or sound of the letter and write it out each time186 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Letter Names or Letter SoundsName BingoGive each child a card with his/her name on it (initially just the first name, later includemiddle and last names). Say to the children: “I will call out a name (or sound) of a letter and write it on theboard. If your name has that letter in it, point to the letter and then you can go to....” Variation: Have children switch name cards so that they can learn the letters inother children’s name.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 187
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Letter Names or Letter SoundsName ScrambleGive each child a card with his/her name printed on it and have the children cut thename cards into individual letter cards. • Model scrambling their letters of their name and putting them in order • Have child scramble the letters of their name and put them back in order • Have children trade cards and see if they can unscramble a different name • Refer to an attendance chart or word wall, if the child is stumped!188 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Letter Names or Letter SoundsLeapFrog Letter Factory® SongSing:The A says /A/, the A says /A/,every letter has a name.The A says /A/!The __ says /__/, the __ says /__/,every letter has a name. The __ says /__/!Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 189
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Phonological AwarenessName RiddlesMake up riddles using children’s’ namesFor example:I’m thinking about a boy whose name begins with ___I’m thinking of a girl that has 2 beats or syllables in her nameI’m thinking of a girl that starts with the same sound as /___/I’m thinking of a boy that starts with the same sounds as cakeI’m thinking of a boy that rhymes with ______190 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: RhymingTop Ten Ways to Teach using Nursery RhymesChoose your favorite Nursery Rhyme and 1. Sing it daily with the children as a transition 2. Teach vocabulary words from the nursery rhyme- have the children talk/ read/draw/write the vocabulary words 3. Leave out the rhyming words and let the children chime in 4. Use pictures and have children match pictures that rhyme 5. http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/wil/rimes_and_rhymes.htm 6. Have children retell nursery rhymes with flannel board pieces. 7. Share the written rhyme with the children using a pointer for one-to-one correspondence for words 8. Count the words in a line 9. Do interactive writing with the nursery rhyme (cover some letters or words with Post-it® notes to have children fill in letters or words) 10. Send nursery rhyme home for parents to read with their child 11. Act it out!Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 191
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Phonological AwarenessSay Your NameCall on children to first say their name (say it slowly to help the children hear the syl-lables in their name), next have them clap the syllable…Say your name ______________Clap your name ______________Snap your name ____________Stamp your name _____________Whisper your name _____________Then have the children exchange names with a friend:Say your name ______________Clap your name ______________Snap your name ____________Stamp your name _____________Whisper your name _____________You could also use musical instruments or shakers192 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: RhymingEcho SongFind pictures to represent the animals Tutor says the phrase first and children repeat itSee you later alligator (hand over eyes)Bye-bye butterfly (wave)Give a hug ladybug (hug self )Be sweet parakeetBlow a kiss goldfish (blow a kiss)See you soon raccoon (circles around eyes)Take care polar bear (shake hands with self )Out the door dinosaur (thumb to the doorMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 193
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Phonological AwarenessHickity Pickity“Hickity, pickity bumblebee.Won’t you say your name for me?”“Let’s all say it, ______”“Let’s all clap it, ______”“Let’s all whisper it, ______”Everyone gets a turn to have their name used.194 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: RhymingRhyming transitionSay farm, now touch your arm,Say bye, now touch your eye,Say boulder, now touch your shoulder,Say beg, now touch your leg,Say yummy, now touch your tummy,Say bed, now touch your head,Say cup, please stand up.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 195
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: ListeningSimon SaysTeach children how to play Simon Says:When the Tutor says ‘Simon Says’ - do what the Tutor says. If the Tutor does not say ‘Simon Says’ before giving the directions – do not do whatthe tutor says.Say:Simon Says, touch your noseSimon Says, touch your knee,Simon Says, touch your backTouch your eye! (have fun with it)196 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • SECTION 8 | TransitionsSkill Area: Phonological AwarenessWilloughby Walloughby WooWilloughby Walloughby WooAn elephant sat on you.Willoughby Walloughby We,An elephant sat on me.Willoughby Walloughby Wevin,An elephant sat on Kevin.Continue with other children’s names, as you exit them from a group the children getto listen for the one that rhymes with their name to leave.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 197
  • Appendix A 199
  • APPENDIX AGlossaryAffirmation: Feedback that is specific, positive, and describes what you saw or heard.Aimline: A line drawn on the Student Progress Graph from the child’s base line (firstdata collected) to the spring target score.Alphabet knowledge: Knowing the names and sounds associated with printedletters.Alphabetic principle: The awareness and skills to identify and produce the soundsof letters in written words.Background Knowledge: The meaning behind the word as it relates to experiences.Benchmark assessment: A standardized assessment given to all studentsthree times per year (fall, winter, spring) to measure progress against grade levelbenchmarks and standards. The measures and targets include: Rhyming (12), PictureNaming (26), Alliteration (8), Letter Names (14), Letter Sounds (8)Big 5 Emergent Literacy Skills:1. Conversation skills2. Vocabulary and background knowledge3. Book and print rules4. Phonological awareness (rhyming & alliteration)5. Alphabetic knowledgeConcepts about print: The knowledge of print conventions (e.g. left-right, front-back) and concepts (e.g. book cover, author and text).Conventional literacy skills: More mature skills such as decoding, oral reading,fluency, reading comprehension, writing, and spelling that are the focus of instructionin elementary and secondary school students.Core curriculum: A comprehensive, research-based curriculum given to all childrenin the class, along with intentional teaching. The majority of children are expected tobenefit from high quality learning experiences in a well planned environment with acompetent team of teachersMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 201
  • APPENDIX AData-Based Decision Making: A public, objective framework is used to analyzestudent performance data and to guide classroom decisions on instructionalchanges, choices of interventions, and appropriate rate of progress.Decoding: The ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships, includingknowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words.Early Literacy Skills: Skills that begin to develop in the preschool years, such asalphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, letter writing, print knowledge, andoral language.Elaborated Interaction: Multiple turn-taking feedback loops in an interactionleading to conversation and discourse. Example: “Strive for Five feedback loops.”Embedded Instruction: Planned targeted strategies that occur within typicalroutines and activities during the day and guided by adults who are aware of thechildren’s learning needs.Emergent literacy: The view that literacy begins at birth and is encouraged throughparticipation with adults in meaningful activities.Environmental Print: The print of everyday life, such as the letters, numbers,shapes, and colors found in logos and signs for products and stores (e.g. Coke andMcDonalds)Explicit Instruction: A teacher-directed activity that emphasizes the teachingof a specific task and steps needed to master it. Research shows this approach isfundamental to helping struggling children learn to read.Expressive language: The ability to produce spoken language.Fluency: The skills and strategies to read written text with ease, accuracy, andappropriate pace.Intentional teaching: Teachers that act purposefully with the goal of enhancingchildren’s development and learning in mind.Intervention: A specific type of supplemental instruction or activity that is used withstudents who are identified as being at risk for developing reading problems.Learning rate: A child’s acquisition of knowledge, skill over time compared to thelearning rate of the child’s peers.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 203
  • APPENDIX ALiteracy: All the activities involved in speaking, listening, reading, writing andappreciating both spoken and written language.Literacy Props: Objects/materials that provide children the opportunity toexperience themes/ areas of study, hands – on and increase talking, reading andwriting about a specific theme/area of study.Minimal Interaction: Teacher directed statement or question that elicits a singleresponse from a child. No feedback loops.No interaction: No verbal interaction between teacher and child.Onset-Rime: Parts of monosyllabic words in spoken language that are smaller thansyllables –onset is the initial consonant sound of a syllable (the onset of ‘bag’ is ‘b’);rime is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of‘bag’ is ‘-ag’).Oral Language: The ability to produce or comprehend spoken language includingvocabulary (words and their meanings) and grammar (rules of spoken and writtenlanguage).Oral reading fluency: The ability to accurately and quickly read a series of words orsentences.Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound that changes the meanings of spoken words(e.g. by changing the first phoneme in bat from /b/ to /p/, the word ‘bat’ changes to‘pat’.Phonological awareness: The ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditoryaspects of spoken language (including the ability to distinguish or segment words,syllables, or phonemes) independent of meaning.Print knowledge: A skill reflecting a combination of elements of alphabetknowledge, concepts about print, and early decoding.Progress monitoring: A scientifically based practice of assessing students’performance on a regular basis. Progress monitoring data helps teaching teamsdetermine the effectiveness of interventions and then make adjustments toinstruction to ensure students reach their spring target.Rapid Automatic Naming: The ability to rapidly name a sequence of random letters,digits, objects, or colors.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 205
  • APPENDIX AReading comprehension: The ability to understand and gain meaning from text.Receptive language: The ability to comprehend spoken language.Repeated Read Aloud: Multiple readings of the same book. Each day the childrenhear the full story with a different instructional focus.Response to Intervention (RtI): RtI is a practice of academic and behaviorinterventions designed to provide early, effective assistance to underperformingstudents. Research-based interventions are implemented and frequent progressmonitoring is conducted to assess student response and progress. When students donot make progress, increasingly more intense interventions are introduced.Rhyme Awareness: The ability to hear words that have the same sound at the end ofthe word.Rituals: Learning activities that are embedded into the daily schedule that aredesigned to create shared positive emotion. Rituals involve child involvement withrepetition within daily routines - children can expect them to happen and expect toshare in the activity as a leader or follower.Routine: A predictable learning time that is integrated into the day; minimize waitingand transition time and meet individual needs (Ex. Large Group, Small Group).Running Commentary: An instructional strategy that introduces children tovocabulary, background knowledge and meaning throughout the day.Scaffolding: Methods used by teachers to help individual children progress fromwhat they can do to the next level. Teachers lessen or increase the intensity ofscaffolding based on how the child responds to instruction.Syllable: A part of a word that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowelsound (e.g. e-vent, news-pa-per).Target score: A reliable point at which a child has adequately achieved an identifiedtarget skill by an identified age. The target score has been proven over time toindicate that if a child reaches the target score, he or she is on track for passing theMCA in third grade.Targeted skill: Identified early predictor in an area of learning for a child’s laterlearning.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 207
  • APPENDIX ATier 1 instruction: The instruction that students receive in the general educationclassroom. It includes intentional teaching with embedded and explicit instruction.Tier 2 instruction: Provides additional, more intense instruction to children identifiedas needing extra help in targeted skill areas. Tier 2 instruction is in addition to Tier 1instruction.Tier 3 instruction: Provides the most intense intervention approach for childrenidentified as needing extra help in targeted skill area. Tier 3 instruction builds ontoTier 2 instruction by providing more individualized and intense instruction.Theme: A distinct and unifying area of study that helps children develop and extendtheir language skills. Vocabulary and background knowledge increase when thetheme is integrates into multiple areas of classroom learning.Universal Screening: All students are screened to determine academic and/orbehavioral status against grade-level benchmarks.Visual Discrimination: The ability to match or discriminate visually presented insymbols.Word Wall: A resource for children to learn about the alphabet.Written Expression: Writings to express one’s thoughts, feelings with agreed upon symbols. Through writing experiences children have the opportunity to expressthemselves in a written mode and begin to think of themselves as writers.Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 209
  • APPENDIX A Zaner-Bloser© auditory script A a B b C, c Slant left Circle back; Pull down straight Pull down Circle back Slant right Push up straight Slide right; curve straight; push up Slide right Pull down straight forward; slide left Circle forward Slide right; curve forward; slide left D d E e F Pull down straight Circle back; Pull down straight Slide right Pull down straight Slide right; curve push up straight Slide right (3 Circle back Slide right (2 forward; slide left Pull down straight times) times) f G g H h Curve back; pull Circle back Circle back; push Pull down straight Pull down straight down straight Slide left up straight Pull down straight Push up; curve Slide right Pull down Slide right forward straight; curve Pull down straight back I J j K, k L Pull down straight Pull down Pull down Pull down straight Pull down straight Slide right (2 straight; curve straight; curve Slant left Slide right times) back back Slant right i Slide right Dot i Pull down straight Pull down straight Dot Dot M m N n O, o Pull down straight Pull down straight Pull down straight Pull down straight Circle back Slant right Push up; curve Push up; curve Push up; curve Slant up forward; pull forward; pull forward; pull Pull down straight down straight down straight down straight P Push up; curve Pull down straight forward; pull Slide right; curve down straight forward; slide left p Q q R r Pull down straight Circle back Circle back; push Pull down straight Pull down straight Push up Slant right up straight Slide right; curve Push up; curve Circle forward Pull down forward; slide left forward straight; curve Slant right forward S, s T, t U u V, v Curve back; Pull down straight Pull down Pull down Slant right curve forward Slide right straight; curve straight; curve Slant up forward; push up forward; push up Pull down straight W, w X, x Y y Z, z Slant right Slant right Slant right Slant right Slide right Slant up Slant left Slant left Slant left Slide left Slant right Pull down straight Slide right Slant upMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 211
  • Group Recording Form: 2010-11 MRC Member: ____________________________________ Classroom: ____________________________ A.M. or P.M. Rhyming Letter Name Picture Name Alliteration Letter Sound Student APPENDIX A First and Last Name 12 14 26 8 8 Minnesota Reading Corps F W S F W S F W S F W S F W S• 2010–2011 PreK Manual 213
  • Individual Progress Monitoring Form Minnesota Reading Corps Child Name: Intervention Start Date: APPENDIX A Minnesota Reading Corps SPRING BENCHMARK SCORES PROGRESS MONITORING SCORES TARGET SCORE FALL WINTER SPRING NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY Rhyming 12 14• 2010–2011 PreK Manual Letter Names Picture Naming 26 Alliteration 8 Letter Sounds 8 Instructions: 1. Record student scores in the above table 2. Record MRC Intervention and materials used each week: Oral Language: Visual Discrimination: Phonological Awareness: WIIB: What is it Bag LNC: Letter Name Cards RC: Rhyming Cards RRA: Repeated Read Aloud MLN: Magnetic Letters for Names CR: Cube: Rhyming CV: Cube: Vocabulary LSC: Letter Sound Cards CA: Cube: Alliteration TRPC: Theme-related Picture Cards MLS: Magnetic Letters for Sounds AC: Alliteration Cards CC: Color Cards SC: Shape Cards 3. Record minutes of daily Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction: # minutes or SA = student absent; MA = member absent; NS = no school 215
  • MRC Intervention Used Tier Session Rating Tutoring Minutes Include notes about 1) how it went and 2) how you Record Child’s level of # minutes received Tier 2 or 3 enhanced Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. Tier 2 or understanding. Tier 3 5 = High 1 = Low Mon Tues Wed Thu Fri Total NOV Wk 1 APPENDIX A  Rhyme 11/1- Minnesota Reading Corps  Lett. N. 11/5  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 11/8-  Lett. S. 11/12 Wk 3• 2010–2011 PreK Manual 11/15- 11/19 Wk 4 11/22- 11/26 Wk 5 11/29- 12/3 DEC Wk 1  Rhyme 12/6-  Lett. N. 12/10  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 12/13-  Lett. S. 12/17 Wk 3 12/20- 12/24 Wk 4 12/27- 12/31 217
  • MRC Intervention Used Tier Session Rating Tutoring Minutes Include notes about 1) how it went and 2) how you Record Child’s level of # minutes received Tier 2 or 3 enhanced Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. Tier 2 or understanding. Tier 3 5 = High 1 = Low Mon Tues Wed Thu Fri Total JAN Wk 1 APPENDIX A  Rhyme 1/3- Minnesota Reading Corps  Lett. N. 1/7  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 1/10-  Lett. S. 1/14 Wk 3• 2010–2011 PreK Manual 1/17- 1/21 Wk 4 1/24- 1/28 FEB Wk 1  Rhyme 1/31-  Lett. N. 2/4  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 2/7-  Lett. S. 2/11 Wk 3 2/14- 2/18 Wk 4 2/21- 2/25     219
  • MRC Intervention Used Tier Session Rating Tutoring Minutes Include notes about 1) how it went and 2) how you Record Child’s level of # minutes received Tier 2 or 3 enhanced Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. Tier 2 or understanding. Tier 3 5 = High 1 = Low Mon Tues Wed Thu Fri Total MARCH Wk 1 APPENDIX A  Rhyme 2/28- Minnesota Reading Corps  Lett. N. 3/4  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 3/7-  Lett. S. 3/11 Wk 3• 2010–2011 PreK Manual 3/14- 3/18 Wk 4 3/21- 3/25 Wk 5 3/28- 4/1 APRIL Wk 1  Rhyme 4/4-  Lett. N. 4/8  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 4/11-  Lett. S. 4/15 Wk 3 4/18- 4/22 Wk 4 4/25- 4/29 221
  • MRC Intervention Used Tier Session Rating Tutoring Minutes Include notes about 1) how it went and 2) how you Record Child’s level of # minutes received Tier 2 or 3 enhanced Tier 1 embedded and explicit instruction. Tier 2 or understanding. Tier 3 5 = High 1 = Low Mon Tues Wed Thu Fri Total MAY Wk 1 APPENDIX A  Rhyme 5/2- Minnesota Reading Corps  Lett. N. 5/6  Pict. N. Wk 2  Allit. 5/9-  Lett. S. 5/13 Wk 3• 2010–2011 PreK Manual 5/16- 5/20 Wk 4 5/23- 5/27 Wk 5 5/30- 6/3   223
  • APPENDIX AStudent Progress Graph Student Name:Minnesota Reading Corps 30 30 Rhyming 20 20 10 10 0 0 Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Target Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Score 12 50 50 40 40 Picture Naming 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Target Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Score 26 30 30 Alliteration 20 20 10 10 0 0 Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Target Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Score 8Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 225
  • APPENDIX AStudent Progress Graph Student Name:Minnesota Reading Corps 60 60 50 50 40 40 Letter Naming 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Target Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Score 14 60 60 50 50 40 40 Letter Sounds 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Month Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Target Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Prog. Mon. Benchmark Score 8Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 227
  • Lead  Teacher  Agreement   Minnesota  Reading  Corps  –  2010-­‐11   ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________     APPENDIX A   Minnesota Reading Corps “I  talked,  read,  wrote  and  played  with  kids  as  a  Literacy  Tutor.  I  collected  data,  reviewed  data,  implemented  a  plan  and  then  progress  monitored   the  child’s  growth  over  time.  When  my  plan  wasn’t  working,  it  was  my  responsibility  to  make  new  decisions  and  not  blame  the  child  for  lack  of   growth.  Sometimes  that  was  hard,  but  I  could  not  accept  blaming  the  circumstances  of  a  child’s  life  or  blaming  the  child’s  family.  It  would  have   been  easy  to  blame  the  child  or  the  family  -­‐  then  I  wouldn’t  need  to  grow,  learn  or  change.  This  was  hard,  motivating  and  important  work.  I   learned  a  lot  and  I  could  not  have  done  it  without  the  amazing  lead  teacher  with  whom  I  worked.”    • 2010–2011 PreK Manual -­‐  Written  by  a  wise  Reading  Corps  Preschool  Literacy  Tutor  (2009)     ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________     Goal:   Minnesota  Reading  Corps  is  a  statewide  initiative  to  help  every  MN  child  become  a  successful  reader  by  the  end  of  third  grade.       Program  Model:     Preschool  Literacy  Tutors  (also  called  ‘members’)  work  with  preschool-­‐aged  children  in  their  classrooms  to  support  the  creation  of   literacy  rich  environments  using  evidence  based  practices.  Benchmark  data  is  collected  for  each  child  to  tailor  literacy  interactions   for  individual  children,  children  in  small  groups  and  in  whole  group  settings.         Directions: 1. Read this agreement. Ask questions. 2. Lead teacher signs this agreement. 3. Give to Master Coach at beginning of school year.             229
  • Lead  Teacher  Expectations:   Preschool  Literacy  Tutor  Expectations:    Incorporate  a  theme  into  the  classroom.  Children  will  clearly  know:    Support  the  teacher’s  classroom  theme.   • the  area  of  study  and  target  vocabulary  through  the  concrete   • Add  to  the  area  of  study  and  target  vocabulary  through  the   literacy  props  present  in  five  or  more  centers   concrete  literacy  props  present  in  five  or  more  centers   • how  to  talk,  read,  write,  and  play  with  the  concepts  being  taught   • Add  to:  adult-­‐child;  talk,  read,  write,  play  with  the  concepts  being   APPENDIX A in  large  group  and  small  group   taught  in  large  group,  and  small  group   Minnesota Reading Corps • be  able  to  develop  theme  related  concepts  over  time   • Add  to  the  theme  developing  over  time        Incorporate  the  following  elements  into  the  daily  schedule:      Support  and  participate  in  the  daily  schedule  elements:     • Arrival:  Sign-­‐in   • Arrival:  Assist  with  sign-­‐in   • Large  Group:  Daily  message  &  theme-­‐related  Repeated  Read  Aloud   • Large  Group:  Help  children  participate  as  teacher  facilitates  large  group   • Meal  time:  Have  meaningful  “strive  for  5”  conversations   • Meal  time:  Have  meaningful  “Strive  for  5”  conversations   • Tier  1  Small  Group:  Allow  tutor  to  lead  activities  each  day  using   • Tier  1  Small  Group:  Lead  activities  each  day  using  Repeated  Read  • 2010–2011 PreK Manual Repeated  Read  Aloud  or  Nursery  Rhyme  or  Alliteration   Aloud  or  Nursery  Rhyme  or  Alliteration   • Tier  2  Small  Group  (5-­‐10  min):    Allow  tutor  to  lead  MRC   • Tier  2  Small  Group  (5-­‐10  min):  Lead  MRC  Intervention  activities   Intervention  activities  with  at  least  5  targeted  children   with  at  least  5  targeted  children   • Tier  3  Individualized  Interventions  (3-­‐7  min):  Allow  tutor  to  lead   • Tier  3  Individualized  Interventions  (3-­‐7  min):  Lead  MRC   MRC  Intervention  activities  with  identified  children   Intervention  activities  with  identified  children        Meet  ELLCO  requirements  with  at  least  a  score  of  ‘3-­‐Basic’    Support  ELLCO  requirements  to  achieve  Basic  or  Better  scores.   • Completed  in  fall  &  spring  by  Internal  /  Master  Coach   • Completed  in  fall  &  spring  by  Internal  /  Master  Coach   • Support  tutor  in  meeting  monthly  ELLCO  expectations   • Complete  monthly  expectations  as  defined  in  Goal  Setting  Book        Arrange  a  time  and  place  for  tutor  to  complete  MRC  benchmark    Complete  MRC  benchmark  assessments  and  on-­‐going  progress   assessments  and  on-­‐going  progress  monitoring   monitoring        Participate  in  a  monthly  meeting  with  tutor  and  Internal  Coach  to    Participate  in  bi-­‐weekly  meetings  with  Internal  Coach  to  review   review  student  progress  and  plan  using  data   student  progress  and  plan  using  data          Meet  weekly  with  tutor  to  provide  feedback,  define  upcoming    Meet  weekly  with  classroom  team  to  receive  feedback,  define   expectations  and  plan  classroom  interventions   upcoming  expectations  and  plan  classroom  activities        Complete  tutor’s  daily  schedule  with  Internal  Coach  in  September    Complete  daily  schedule  with  Internal  Coach  &  lead  teacher  in  Sept.        Problem  solve  questions  and  concerns  with  tutor,  Internal  Coach,    Problem  solve  questions  and  concerns  with  lead  teacher,  Internal   Master  Coach  and  /  or  Program  Coordinator  (as  needed)   Coach,  Master  Coach  and  Program  Coordinator  (as  needed)       I  agree  to  these  expectations  and  agree  to  ask  for  clarification  or  help  from  my     Internal  Coach,  Master  Coach,  or  Program  Coordinator  if  I  have  challenges  meeting    Attend  SEEDS  of  Emergent  Literacy  training,  and  ongoing  regional   these  expectations.     MRC-­‐sponsored  training ________________________________________________________________________ Signature   231
  • Appendix BSEEDS of Emergent Literacy 233
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy   SESSION 1 Early Literacy Literacy Activity Say your name   Clap your name   Snap your name Stamp your name Whisper your name Point to another and say: “Say your name!”    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 235
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the importance of daily embedded and explicit language and literacy opportunities for young children. History of SEEDS SEEDS Quality Interactions Hart/Risley research What is literacy? What is emergent literacy? “On the road” to Language and Literacy Standards and School Readiness Embedded and Explicit Instruction Literacy Rich Schedule Family Involvement SEEDS SMART Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a SEEDS Lesson Observe your transitions Plan for embedded/explicit instruction   Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Conversation Talk  with  Me!   3 ways to talk at meal time   © SEEDS 2009   2    236 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy History of SEEDS   Kate Horst, a teacher, read Meaningful Differences by Hart and Risley, and it   changed her life! Moved to make a meaningful difference in the lives of the young teen mothers she was working The  SEEDS  of   with…she developed a framework for literacy  are   ensuring their children would have the opportunity and experiences necessary planted  before   to be literate regardless of their socio- children  enter   economic status. SEEDS has evolved into a nationally school.     recognized Professional Development Important   Curriculum. SEEDS quality teachers can be found in all types of Early Childhood literacy  skills  do   environments- public and private. not  develop   This workbook will provide all the information needed to ensure effective spontaneously,   instruction for young children. instruction   Underline a word or phrase that shapes  them.   you think is important. Write a (Snow,  Burns  and  Griffin,  1998)   sentence that explains what this quote means to you: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ © SEEDS 2009   3    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 237
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Quality Interactions represents a map of activities that happen in positive relationships. Educate A teacher is: Encourage Develop __________________ Sensitive through Doing   __________________ __________________ Self-Image __________________ Develop through Doing Sensitive Encourage Educate Develop through Doing - Aware - Give Affirmations - “Big 5” - Talk - Comment - Make Eye contact - Conversation - Think - Listening and - Touch - Vocabulary - Write thinking about the - Positive Non-verbal - Book & Print Rules - Read child - Smile - Alphabetic - Sing - Asking questions - Caring tone of Knowledge - Play - Watch-Wait-Listen voice - Phonological - Jump Awareness - Clap Self- A balanced image approach!     Respected and Capable © SEEDS 2009   4    238 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Quality Interactions Educate Book and Encourage Print Rules Develop through Doing Phonological Sensitive   Awareness Alphabetic Knowledge   Self-Image Vocabulary and Build on Develop Background Conversation through Doing Knowledge   SEEDS  Quality  Interactions  are  balanced  and     provide  opportunities  to  build  a  strong  foundation  (Self-­‐Image)     on  which  learning  and  growth  blossom.   Observe a lesson- identify the SEEDS aspects: Sensitive: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Encourage: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Educate: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Develop through Doing: _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   5    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 239
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Imagic Store “Images  a  parent  has  or  does  not  have  of  ways  of  being,” John Bransford “If  parents  have  not  had  their  own  positive  experiences  and   stimulation  they  may  not  have  had  many  opportunities  to     develop  a  rich  store  of  positive  images.”                 Bransford,  J.D.  Brown  A.L.  &  Cocking  RR  (EDS)  (200)   How did the adults in your childhood influence your Imagic Store of reading? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Reflect on your learning: Go to your Imagic Store and list pictures you have as a teacher during: Arrival time ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Meal time ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Active Learning time ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   6    240 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Early Language and Literacy   What language and literacy behaviors/skills are useful for children to be successful in Kindergarten? Early Childhood State Standards I teach I assess Social and Emotional Language and Literacy (mark each (mark each behavior you behavior you Development Development explicitly teach currently assess in your in your classroom) classroom) Is there anything you found surprising based on your Imagic Store versus the research based standards? __________________________________________________________________________________ How would you take this information and apply it during arrival time ? __________________________________________________________________________________ meal time? __________________________________________________________________________________ Do you believe the State Standards can be met by all children? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   7    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 241
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Hart and Risley Research   “The Hart & Risley, 1995 Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 differences in the quantity # of Words Heard 13 million 26 million 45 million and quality of children’s early # Words/ Hour 616 1,251 2,153 interactions and oral # Questions/ Hour 5 20 40 language experiences # Affirmations / Prohibitions 5/11 12/7 32/5 predict early school success.” # words in vocabulary 2,000 12,000* 20,000 Dickenson & Tabors, 2001; Hart & Risley, 1995*Children need to know 10,000-12,000 words to be successful readers.What do you remember?How many words do children need to have in their vocabulary to be successful readers?________________________________________________________________________________What is the recommended ratio of encouragement to discouragement per hour?________________________________________________________________________________List how you will apply this to your next meal time with children________________________________________________________________________________Why do children need teachers to ask them questions and wait for them to respond?________________________________________________________________________________Explain why some children have larger vocabularies when they get to Kindergarten?________________________________________________________________________________Is it because they have a higher IQ?________________________________________________________________________________What is literacy?____________________________________________________________What is emergent literacy?____________________________________________________________© SEEDS 2009   8    242 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Literacy is… Literacy is the ability to talk, read, and write, leading to the ability to communicate and learn. Read Write Talk Emergent Literacy is… Emergent Literacy is the view that literacy begins at birth and is encouraged through participation with adults in meaningful activities.  Stop and Think: What did the teacher in the classroom shown above do to create a literacy rich environment? What does it look like is the effect on the child’s development? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   9    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 243
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Chinese Bamboo Tree Chinese Bamboo Child TreeYou take a little seed, plant it, water it, andfertilize it for a whole year, and nothinghappens.The second year you water it and fertilize it,and nothing happens.The third year you water it every other dayand fertilize it, and nothing happens. Howdiscouraging this becomes!The fourth year you water it every otherday, fertilize it, the whole year and nothinghappens. You almost gave up!The fifth year you continue to water andfertilize the seed and then---take note.Sometime during the fifth year, the Chinesebamboo tree sprouts and grows NINETYFEET IN SIXquestion is, did it grow 90 The WEEKS! feet in six weeks or five years? The answer is simple, it grew 90 feet in five years! If, during that five years, SOMEONE would have GIVEN UP on the Chinese Bamboo tree, IF SOMEONE would have stopped watering, stopped fertilizing, stopped protecting the tree, there would be no Original version by Dan Miller tree to climb.  Stop and Think: How do you think language and literacy are like the Chinese Bamboo Tree? ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   10    244 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to language and literacy Cry,  gestures, sounds, comprehend, one, two, then multiple words, turn-taking Birth                 Kindergarten Talk Discriminate: Environmental Sounds, Rhyming, Alliteration Birth Kindergarten Read Match letters, point to specific letter, say 26 letter names    Pictures/print  contain  message,  letters,  words,  rules  about  books/print Birth                                 Kindergarten            Write            Scribbles,  mock  writing,  first  letters,  specific  letters,             invented  spelling,    conventional  writing What does teacher do? = CAUSE What is the EFFECT on child/ren for school readiness? Talk -­‐ Re-­‐tell  parts  of  story   -­‐ 5  turn-­‐taking  conversation   -­‐ Ask  and  answer  questions   Read -­‐ Say  14  or  more  letters   -­‐ Hear  rhyming  sounds   -­‐ Read  a  name   Write -­‐ Print  their  name   -­‐ Draw  or  write  their  thoughts   -­‐ Left  to  right  orientation   © SEEDS 2009   11    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 245
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Early Childhood   Response to Intervention Cause Effect Some children as young as 3-5 years of age have trouble learning and need additional instruction in certain skills. From your Imagic Store, identify the qualities of a high quality early childhood classroom: ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   12    246 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Making a   Meaningful Difference Opportunity vs. Missed Opportunity  Embedded instruction: Planned targeted strategies that occur within typical routines and activities during the day and guided by adults who are aware of the children’s learning needs. Transitions are powerful opportunities for embedded instruction!   Explicit instruction: A teacher-directed activity that emphasizes the teaching of a specific task and steps needed to master it. “Some  children  will  need  explicit  instruction  in  skills  and  strategies.    They  will  need  to  see  the   alphabetic  letters  isolated  to  better  capture  their  shape,  size  and  form,  some  will  need  to  hear   the  sounds  of  letters  apart  from  their  context,  and  some  will  need  to  be  shown  how  to  write   their  names  and  favorite  words.    Such  explicit  instruction  is  an  important  part  of  teaching  in  early   childhood  classrooms.”       Neuman  and  Roskos  1998,  17-­‐18   Explicit instruction always includes:  Show and Tell Develop through Doing  Develop through Doing Children are talking, singing,  Teacher feedback clapping, jumping, writing, reading, thinking, repeating, adding a little more… © SEEDS 2009   13    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 247
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Integrity Checklist-Sign-in Teacher: ____________________________________ Date: ______________________ Observer: ____________________________________ Site: ______________________SEEDS Quality Interaction- Sign-in Yes NoTeacher sets up an environment that allows children to sign-in dailyTeacher is present to scaffold and encourage childrenTeacher has child name cards presentTeacher uses 2 or more of the strategies listed below to scaffold child print 1) Explicit instruction 2) Auditory script 3) Embeds letters or sounds into interactionTeacher uses comments, open-ended or closed questions to keep studentsinterested in printing Number of open-ended questions: __________________________________ Number of closed questions: ________________________________________ Number of comments: ______________________________________________Teacher interacts with child while demonstrating the SEEDS behaviors listedbelowTeacher models print using a think aloud “I am going to start on the left for thefirst letter”Teacher models print.  SEEDS Behaviors Yes NoTeacher uses Watch/Wait/Listen.Teacher responds to/extends child talk.Teacher displays eye contact with a smile and a caring look.Teacher gives affirmation.Teacher sends positive non-verbal messages.Teacher directs behavior to ensure that children develop through doing. Integrity Met:  Yes  No Comments/Feedback:   © SEEDS 2009   14    248 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Quality Sign-In   Develop Self- Sensitive Encourage Educate Through image Doing - Aware - Smile - Prompt - Child will - Child will Notice - Wink - Model be holding feel proud child’s ability - High five - Use pencil - “I did it!” - Comment - Kind touch auditory - Looking - Child will - - Child level script - Listening feel Watch/Wait/ - “You can!” - Describe - Following connected Listen - Affirmation letters direction to the - Ask - Show child - Practice teacher questions - sample - Develop - - Eye - fine motor Contact muscles - - Let them try - - - - *Add your own SEEDS quality cause and effects.  Write a SEEDS quality Sign-in script that you can use immediately in your classroom: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   15    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 249
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Literacy Rich Schedule High quality early childhood classrooms include the following research based routines every day: Routine: 1. usual pattern of activity- the usual sequence for a set of activities. 2. something repetitive something that is unvarying or repetitiveRoutine Suggested Activities: My Schedule:Arrival: - Individual greeting between adult and child15 minutes - Sign-in (teacher present scaffolding) - Teacher/Child or independent reading or designated activityLarge Group Time: - Embedded transitions - Community Greeting20 minutes - Daily Message/Shared Reading - Read Aloud/Shared ReadingSmall Group Skill - Specific skill practice/game based on child needDevelopment: - Opportunities for children to8-20 minutes Talk/Read/Write3-5 childrenGuided Discovery, - Small group and/or independent activitiesFree Play, Active - Integrated “theme-focused”Learning, Choice play - Dictations and independentTime: writing45-60 minutesSharing Time-Child - Oral language activitites - Share happenings at centersReflection - Share creations/discoveries15 minutes - Share how problems were solved - Song and stretch breakMeal Time- - Conversation with childrenbreakfast, snack or lunch Include intentional Transitions with embedded and explicit instruction What are the differences between your schedule and a SEEDS Literacy Rich Schedule? ____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   16    250 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Parents Make a Difference! Talk with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that ask their children questions during daily routines are more school ready than children that do not get the opportunity to talk and think with their parents. Think of 3 questions you can ask your child at meal time about the food they are eating! You can use who, what, when, where, why or how. Watch, wait and listen to what your child says so that s/he gets the opportunity to talk about his thoughts. You might say: Who likes cereal? What is your favorite meal? Where do you think that carrots come from? Why do you always want to eat pasta? How do you make tacos? My favorite food is _________ because I like ___________. © SEEDS 2009   17    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 251
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goals Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timeline   A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a SEEDS Lesson Observe your transitions Plan for embedded/explicit instruction   Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Conversation Talk  with  Me!   3 ways to talk at meal time © SEEDS 2009   18    252 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy   SESSION 2 SEEDS Quality Teacher Literacy Activity What is it? What is it? What is it, tell me do you know? It’s a _____________ It’s a _____________ It’s a _____________ , yes it is! © SEEDS 2009     19  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 253
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the importance of embedded SEEDS quality interactions to scaffold children’s development and learning in everyday interactions and routines. Shared Positive Interactions Sensitive- Questions and Watch-Wait-Listen Encourage- Affirmations- Positive Non-verbal Educate- The “Big 5” Develop through Doing-Multi-sensory Activities Self-image- Respected and Capable Parents Make a Difference! SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich A SEEDS Quality Teacher Classroom Give encouragement Put question bubbles in through affirmations three or more and positive non-verbal centers/areas. messages   Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Explicit instruction: Catch Me Doing Good! Conversation Parent Connection: Encourage positive shared interactions               © SEEDS 2009     20  254 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy       SEEDS Quality Interactions   Make a list of Teacher behaviors that are clearly helpful to children’s language and literacy. __________________ Educate Encourage __________________ D evelop __________________ Sensitive through Doing   __________________ __________________ Self-Image __________________ D evelop through Doing A SEEDS Quality balanced interaction leads to shared positive emotions. Shared emotions are powerful! Shared Negative Interactions: contain negative emotions shared between two or more people such as fear, anxiety, anger and sadness. Shared negative emotions trigger survival and tell a child to be on guard, adrenaline fuels the brain and learning STOPS! Shared Positive Interactions contain positive emotions shared between two or more people such as joy, excitement, interest, caring. Shared positive emotions open pathways to learning.   © SEEDS 2009     21  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 255
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Sensitive A Sensitive teacher is a super observer they use their senses to become aware of child’s actions, abilities, thoughts and feelings. A Sensitive Teacher is aware of developmental continuums and they respond appropriately to meet the needs of children in their care. Sensitive Teachers create a safe and trusting environment for children. Sensitive (observe) first, then respond Instructional strategies of a Sensitive Teacher  Watch/Wait/Listen  Comment- “You made a red circle”  Ask a question - Closed, Open and Creative   Watch/Wait/Listen- is actively observing children’s behavior within their environment in order to respond appropriately. Watch/Wait/Listen  Comment  Add a little more Ask a question  Watch/Wait/Listen  Add a little more Think/Pair/Share:What did the teacher do? What was the effect on child learning? © SEEDS 2009     22  256 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Instructional Strategies that help teachers to be Sensitive and promote Conversation and Thinking   Close-ended questions: require the child to recall facts/actions with quick, yes, no or one word answers. Open-ended questions: encourages a child to respond with more than one word, and allows him/her the opportunity to express what is on his/her mind. Creative: encourages a child to use their imagination and respond with more than one word, and allows him/her the opportunity to develop higher order thinking and his/her imagination. Close-ended Open-ended Creative Are the carrots orange? Prediction: How many carrots I wonder what you’ll be when the farmer grew? you grow up? Do you like pizza? Compare/Contrast: If you could have pizza or If you could have a garden, Do you want more? hamburgers, which would you what would you put in it? choose? Why? What kind of milk do you Sequencing: Which comes If you could make your own have? first, a caterpillar or a special pizza, what would it butterfly? be? Problem-solving: We only have one apple and three kids- What animal would you be? what should we do? Prediction: Compare/Contrast: Sequencing: Problem-solving:   © SEEDS 2009     24  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 257
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Question Bubbles for the Classroom     Open-­‐ended  Questions   Creative  Questions   Prediction:   Closed-­‐ended  Questions   Where  will  your  road   How  many  blocks  will  it     take  to  build  your   lead  you  to?   Is  that  a  house?   What  do  you  think   house?     Are  you  the  mommy?   Sequencing:   your  mom  would  say?   Do  you  like  your  lunch?   Before  you  check-­‐out     If  you  were  the  chef-­‐   what  do  you  have  to  do?   what  would  you   Compare/Contrast:     make?   What  is  your  favorite     breakfast  at  school?       Question  bubbles  for  the  Block  Area:     Closed-­‐ended  question:  _________________________________________________________________   Open-­‐ended  question:     Prediction-­‐  ___________________________________________________________________________   Sequencing-­‐  __________________________________________________________________________   Problem-­‐solving-­‐  ______________________________________________________________________   Creative  question:  _____________________________________________________________________   Question  bubbles  for  the  Dramatic  Play  Area:   Closed-­‐ended  question:  _________________________________________________________________   Open-­‐ended  question:     Prediction-­‐  ___________________________________________________________________________   Sequencing-­‐  __________________________________________________________________________   Problem-­‐solving-­‐  ______________________________________________________________________   Creative  question:  _____________________________________________________________________   Question  bubbles  for  Meal  Time:   Closed-­‐ended  question:  _________________________________________________________________   Open-­‐ended  question:     Prediction-­‐  ___________________________________________________________________________   Sequencing-­‐  __________________________________________________________________________   Problem-­‐solving-­‐  ______________________________________________________________________   Creative  question:  _____________________________________________________________________     List  the  differences  between  a  teacher  that  asks  questions  and  a  teacher  that  doesn’t:   _____________________________________________________________________________________   © SEEDS 2009     25  258 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Encourage An Encouraging teacher provides a kind of support that inspires confidence, hope, or courage and a will to continue. The child develops a sense that they can do it, that they are loveable or capable, and that the adult respects them and their abilities. Instructional strategies for an Encouraging teacher:  Affirmations  Positive Non Verbal Messages  Praise   Affirmation   Positive  Non-­‐Verbal   Praise     Messages     a  positive  statement  that  describes  a   a  positive  action  not  using  or  involving   words  that  express  an  opinion  or   mirror  of  what  is  observed   words   approval  for  somebody’s  actions   You  made  a  circle.   Smile   Good  Job   You  and  Kate  are  putting  blocks   High  Five   Way  to  go   together.   Wink   Super!   Tim  is  standing  in  line,  looking  at   Eye-­‐Contact   his  teacher.                                   Give specific ways that you will be encouraging in your classroom: ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009     26  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 259
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Affirmation Write affirmations for the following pictures: © SEEDS 2009     27  260 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Educate A SEEDS Quality Teacher gives knowledge to and develops the abilities of children in language and literacy. They provide opportunities to the “Big 5” early literacy skill areas: Conversation, Vocabulary and Background Knowledge, Book and Print Rules, Phonological Awareness and Alphabetic Knowledge. Instructional strategies for a Educating teacher  Embedded Instruction  Planned  targeted  strategies  that  occur  within  typical  routines  and  activities  during  the  day      and  guided  by  adult  who  are  aware  of  the  children’s  learning  needs.    Explicit Instruction  A  teacher-­‐directed  activity  that  emphasizes  the  teaching  of  a  specific  task    and  the  steps  need  to  master  it.  Show-­‐Tell-­‐Do    Think Aloud Saying  out  loud  what  you’re  thinking   Teacher says or does = cause Effect on child learning: Embedded: Teacher sings “What is it?” song and does and elaborated conversation daily Explicit: “This is the front of the book. What do we call this? (as she points to the back of the book)” Think Aloud: “I am looking at the picture in the book and thinking ‘What is the little boy feeling?’ Good readers use pictures to understand the story.” Why do we provide embedded and explicit education for pre- kindergarten children? __________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009     28  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 261
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Devolop through Doing A SEEDS Quality teacher Develops children through Doing, using a multi-sensory approach. Children that are actively engaged using their eyes, hands, ears, mouth and nose are more likely to enjoy learning and move on the road to language and literacy. Children that are actively engaged in learning are clapping, singing, reading, thinking, writing, listening, questioning, jumping, counting, helping, repeating, talking…       Self-Image A SEEDS quality teacher develops a child’s Self-image which is the opinion that a child has about self-worth or intelligence. A balanced SEEDS approach to teaching a child is more likely to reflect a self-image that feels both respected and capable.     © SEEDS 2009     29  262 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Quality “Big 5” Interactions   Sensitive  (aware)  and   Responsive   - Aware - Notice - Listening and thinking about the child - Asking questions - Watch-Wait-Listen     Encourage   - Affirm - Eye contact - Touch - Meet at eye level - Smile     Educate   - “Big 5” Conversation   Vocabulary   Book  and  Print  Rules   Phonological  Awareness   Alphabetic  Knowledge   - Letters - Books - Play     Develop  through  Doing   What  did  I  see  children  doing?   - Talk - Think - Write - Read - Sing - Play - Jump   Self-­‐Image   - Confident - Respected - Capable     © SEEDS 2009     30  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 263
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Instructional Strategies   for a SEEDS Teacher Embedded Instruction Explicit Instruction Think Aloud Watch/Wait/Listen Comment Ask a question - Closed, Open and Creative Affirmations Positive Non-Verbal Messages Praise   List how you will use these instructional strategies in your classroom and what you would like to start implementing into your routine immediately: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009     31  264 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Parents Make a Difference! Catch Me Doing Good! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that encourage their children more than discourage them, have children that are more confident when they enter school. Watch your child and notice when they do something right. Tell them! You can use affirmations- specific positive feedback of exactly what the child did or smile, “high five”, wink at your child. Watch, wait and listen to what your child says so that s/he gets the opportunity to talk about his thoughts. You might say: I really liked how you got your shirt on in time! You helped Mom to pick up all the toys. Helping your brother get dressed; helps me! I like the way you wrote your name. You put your dishes in the dishwasher.     © SEEDS 2009     32  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 265
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goal Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timeline     A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a SIGN IN Give encouragement activity the students through affirmations and can do everyday positive non-verbal messages Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Explicit instruction: Catch Me Doing Good! Conversation Parent Connection: Encourage shared positive interactions   © SEEDS 2009     33  266 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SESSION 3 Developing Talkers and Thinkers Literacy Activity Vocabulary Cube Teacher show and tell: “This is a stapler” “It holds paper together” Teacher Check for Understanding: “Show me the stapler” “Tell me something about the stapler” “What is it?” “Tell me about it”   ©SEEDS  2009       33  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 267
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the characteristics of embedded and explicit theme related vocabulary, meaningful conversation and literacy rich classroom environments to promote language and literacy in all learners. Scaffolding “Big 5” What is Language Development? Strategies to promote Expressive Language Vocabulary Development Themes Second Language Learning Development Family Involvement SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a language Become aware of where rich daily schedule children are “On Road to” Language and Literacy   Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Explicit instruction to Talk with Me! Receptive and Theme Bingo Expressive Language: Give parents a BINGO card with Running Commentary theme related vocabulary and Expressive Vocabulary Instruction encourage them to talk with their Watch-Wait-Listen children in their home language during the BINGO game! ©SEEDS  2009       34  268 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Scaffolding   Scaffolding in early childhood refers to an adult helping a child accomplish a more difficult task than they could do on their own. It is methods teachers use to help children with the additional support they need to progress from what they can do currently to the next level of learning. Teachers lessen or increase the intensity of scaffolding or instructional support based on how the child responds to instruction and targeted interventions. Critical Questions a High Quality Teacher thinks about: 1. What do I want child to learn? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. How do I know that they learned it? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What do I do if they haven’t learned it? ____________________________________________________________________ 4. What do I do if they have learned it? ____________________________________________________________________ SAMPLE of what a SEEDS Scaffolding interaction might include: Sensitive Encourage Educate Develop Self-Image through Doing - Watch the child - Smile, thumbs - Identify - Allow the - How does for cues if they up, nod, target for child to Do- the child look? are getting it. encourage instruction practice first - Was it Shared - Wait with eye child to try with - Be explicit with your help Positive contact and positive non about the skill and as the Interaction? interest. verbal you want the child succeeds - How does - Listen, do they messages. have something - Give an child to learn. you back off the child feel? to say? A affirmation (Kate, K is the and watch comment or a specific first letter of (be sensitive question, it will feedback your name, and guide your next along the way watch- I will encouraging.) teaching. (look, you make a K, - Teacher Do - Ask a question or made a straight “straight line and help only make a comment line down) down, slant to enough to and then - Build on the right, slant help the child Watch/Wait/Listen current ability, to the left.” succeed. - Quick Responder skill, action (“Kate you came to Sign- in,” with a thumbs up) ©SEEDS  2009       35  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 269
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy A SEEDS Quality Teacher Educates children with “Big 5” Learning Opportunities Book  and   Print Rules Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Knowledge   Vocabulary  and   Build  on   Background Conversation Knowledge Research has shown 5 important emergent literacy areas. Conversation/Oral language: social interaction over two or more turns. This may be verbal or non-verbal for example an English Language Learner (ELL) may use gestures to express meaning. Conversation/Oral Language is the ability to produce or comprehend spoken language. Alphabetic Knowledge: knowledge of names and sounds associated with printed letters, rapid automatic naming of objects, colors, shapes, letters and numbers Book and Print Rules: knowledge of print conventions (left-right, front-back, letters, words, concepts about print: book, text tells the story) etc. Phonological Awareness: the ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory aspects of spoken language (including the ability to distinguish or segment words, syllables, rhymes, beginning sounds or phonemes), independent of meaning. Vocabulary and Build on Background Knowledge/definitional Vocabulary: labels and names for objects and definitional vocabulary. Write a poem, song, or verse that will help you to remember the “BIG 5” ________________________________________________________________________________ ©SEEDS  2009       36  270 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy What is Language Development? Cry, gestures, sounds, comprehend, one, two, then multiple words, turn-taking Birth Kindergarten Talk “Children who are constantly exposed to an environment rich in oral language and who interact frequently with adults in a supportive social and emotional setting develop more facility with oral language than children lacking in these opportunities” Morror, Strickland,&Woo,1998   What does a child need from an adult to move “On the Road…?” ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ How does language develop and how will you know? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ How do know if the child is moving “On the Road” to Language Development? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ “Children must have frequent opportunities to talk in the preschool classroom, since this underpins learning and is one of the major ways that they construct and refine their understandings of language (Evans and Allen) Developmental Continuum   ©SEEDS  2009       37  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 271
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Language through Teacher-Child Conversations   Elaborated Interaction: multiple turn-taking feedback loops in an interaction leading to conversation and discourse i.e. “Strive for Five” feedback loops. Minimal Interaction: teacher directed statement or question that elicits a single response from child. No feedback loops. Routine Interaction: procedural directions given by teacher for children to follow to complete tasks or all responding together in a song, verse, phrase, answer. No Interaction: no verbal interaction between Teacher-Child. Which of the adult- child interactions do you have in your “Imagic Store”? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Which of the interactions would help you connect with children emotionally? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Which of the interactions would help children move “On the road” to language and literacy? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Cause = teacher interaction Effect on child’s self-image with Watch/Wait/Listen and language and literacy • Sing Large Group: “What is it?” song • Use Vocabulary Cube in small group setting ©SEEDS  2009       38  272 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Language using Running Commentary Running Commentary is an instructional strategy that introduces children to vocabulary, background knowledge and meaning throughout the day. Running Commentary is a series of sentences/phrases explaining or interpreting teacher or child actions. It is always followed by the adult watching the child, waiting and listening- Watch/Wait/Listen. Running commentary illustrates a situation through words! Write Running Commentary for this Teacher-Child interaction: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ ©SEEDS  2009       39  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 273
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Language using Explicit Expressive Language Think as you interact: What do I want child to do? How will I know if they can do it? What will I do if they do not get it? What will I do if they do get it?Instructional Strategy Examples Child response1. Show/tell Teacher points to Child repeats and object/person/picture expands:  Teacher points and says:  Child repeats “This is a cookie. “This is a _______” It is really good. “It is ___________”1. Request and Teacher checks for Child restates in their receptive language and words. Response understanding:  Teacher checks for “Show me the “This is a _______” understanding cookie” “ I like _________”  Child state’s own “Tell me something “I think ________” words about the cookie”3. Request and Recall Teacher checks for Child recalls what they vocabulary know  Teacher questions understanding and  Watch/Wait/Listen expressive language.  Child recalls “What is this?” (point to the object) “That is a ______” “Tell me about “I like _________” ________________” Watch/Wait/Listen Watch/Wait/Listen What is the cause and effect of using Explicit Expressive Language instructional strategies with every learner? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ©SEEDS  2009       40  274 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Vocabulary Development What is Vocabulary and Background Knowledge? Vocabulary: A list or collection of words in field of knowledge. Background Knowledge: The meaning behind the words as it relates to experiences. Help children develop and build their vocabulary and language skills using a “What is it Bag.” The teacher and children sing the song; “What is it, what is it, what is it, tell me do you know? It’s a ___, it’s a ___ it’s a ____ yes it is. “ Follow up using who, what, when, where, why or how questions. *include fact or feeling words Sing “What is it?” then, add a little more with questions: Who would use it? When would they use it? How do you think it was made? Why do you think it is (color) (size) (shape) (feel)? Where do you think… Why is building a vocabulary and background knowledge important? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ “Research  has  shown  that  children  who  don’t  have  well  developed  vocabularies  by   age  3  are  likely to have difficulty in school.”                             M.  Morrow,  2004   Children need a vocabulary of 10,000-12,000 words to be fluent readers What causes low vocabulary? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Preschool  can  help  them  catch  up!   ©SEEDS  2009       41  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 275
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Theme/Area of Study A theme is a distinct and unifying area of study that helps children develop and extend their language skills. Vocabulary and background knowledge increase when the theme is integrated into multiple classroom areas of learning. Literacy Props are objects/materials that provide children the opportunity to experience themes/area of study hands-on and increase talking, reading and writing about a specific theme/area of study. Why is a theme important? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Literacy Rich Classrooms have integrated theme-focused elements throughout the classroom. The classroom centers are intentional and embedded with toys, materials, literacy props- specific and non-specific and opportunity for children to practice vocabulary and expand on their background knowledge. Look at the following pictures and identify the theme, targeted vocabulary, and literacy props that enhance the learning experience of children in this classroom: Theme: _________________________ Vocabulary: ____________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Literacy Props: __________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Which centers in your classroom reflect your current theme? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ List 2-3 additional center ideas you can integrate into your current theme: ___________________________ ________________________________ ©SEEDS  2009       42  276 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Theme/Area of Study Lesson Plan Theme: Theme related books: Vocabulary and concepts you want your children to learn about and use: (10-15 words- including 2 feeling words): Literacy Props: Large Introduce vocabulary and concept through reading, talking and writing. For example: introduce a “word of the day” or “mystery Group word” to discuss at the daily message and end of day meeting. Small Individualize vocabulary instruction. Repetition leads to mastery. Group Active Play with vocabulary and concepts in multiple contexts. Build confidence and skill through fun and meaningful hands on Learning play. Center 1: Center 2: Center 3: Center 4: Center 5: ©SEEDS  2009       43  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 277
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Second Language Learning Development Three types of classroom programs: First Language classroom Bilingual classroom English Language classroom “Tabors’ developmental sequence for leaning a second language is a cumulative process- each stage builds on the one before, and children move through these stages at their own pace” Tabors, 1988     Developmental Sequence for Second Language Learning Use of home language: Child speaks home language at home and in school. Develops awareness that home language is different from language of school Non-Verbal period: “Silent period” child stops using home language. Child communicates through crying, pointing, expressions. Child is collecting information about the new language by watching and listening. For example: child pulls on teacher to tie shoe as she points to shoe. Telegraphic and Formulaic Speech: Child uses one or two words to represent a longer thought (telegraphic; “Teacher milk”), Use of common phrase or chunks that the child has heard “Time to go”, “It’s clean up time.” Productive Language: Child is combining formulaic phrases and names of objects. More grammatical mistakes may be made in this stage because the child is attempting to form sentences/phrases on own, using the language creatively and beginning to sound more like a native speaker. “Much research suggests that, as with first language development, second language development is facilitated through interaction; i.e., children learn a second language by using it” First Steps Oral Language Resource Book 1996, 199   What would a child need from an adult in order to move on the road from use of home language to productive language? ____________________________________________________________________ ©SEEDS  2009       44  278 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy The Best Environments for Children Learning a New Language  Maintain a consistent daily routine  Provide “safe havens”: areas or activities that do not require a great deal of verbal interaction in the beginning. Be thoughtful about scaffolding a child to move from “safe havens” to more interactive settings!  Use non verbal communication  Keep language simple  Provide Running commentary  Provide explicit vocabulary and language instruction throughout all daily routines. Know what your children need from you in order to move “On the road” to expressive language as you interact.  Use language experiences to create shared writings that are used repeatedly (nursery rhymes, happy birthday, daily message that remains the same- Hello Happy Helpers… Today is… We will…, end of the day sharing remains the same- Today we…).  Read Aloud and shared reading is done in smaller groups  Use themes lasting several weeks to support repetition to vocabulary and concepts- encourage receptive and expressive language  Value children’s native language by using culturally relevant topics that builds on their background knowledge.  Have children store their learning by sharing: Think- Pair- Share- with a peer or teacher before or after talking, reading, writing, drawing, etc. ©SEEDS  2009       45  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 279
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Meaningful Difference: Oral Language Oral Language = the ability to produce or comprehend spoken language including vocabulary (words and their meanings) and grammar (rules of spoken and written language) Receptive Language = the ability to comprehend spoken language Expressive Language = the ability to produce spoken language  Teacher provides daily opportunities for children to hear, repeat and practice vocabulary/conversation with teacher and peers  Teacher requests a response from child regarding vocabulary and/or conversation  Teacher identifies targeted vocabulary and provides concrete objects or pictures to support learning and practicing new vocabulary  Embed targeted vocabulary throughout the day  Teacher uses gestures, body language, facial expressions, and hands-on materials to support comprehension and definitional vocabulary  Classroom environment “Screams the Theme”  Teacher explicitly teaches (Show/Tell/Do) vocabulary and conversation  Teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to meet the individual child’s needs: “Strive for 5” (feedback loops),Watch/Wait/Listen, Running Commentary, Intentional use of rare words, Give children scripts to encourage child/child talk  Focus on child’s meaning, not on the correctness  Intentional use of closed, open and creative questions  Teacher enters into child’s play (How do I make an appointment for the doctor?) and offers play starters (“My baby is not eating well. What should I do?”)   Encourage effort and celebrate successes ©SEEDS  2009       46  280 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Parents Make a Difference! Talk with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that talk to their children about objects during the day increase their child’s vocabulary and reinforce the vocabulary they already know! English Language Learners need to talk in their home language at home. Children will get the opportunity to build their background knowledge in their home language and this will help them in school the next day to learn the new language!   This BINGO card has pictures of objects we are talking, reading and writing about in school! Play BINGO with your child. Make sure when you call out the picture you say one thing about the picture and your child does too! You might say: “Scissor” “I use scissors to cut open the vegetable bag.” “When do you use a scissor?” Your child might say: “I cut paper.” ©SEEDS  2009       47  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 281
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goal A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a language rich Become aware of where daily schedule children are “On Road to Language and Literacy”   Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Explicit instruction to Talk with Me! Receptive and Theme Bingo Give parents information on talking with Expressive Language: their children in home language during Running Commentary Bingo Game Expressive Vocabulary Instruction Watch-Wait-Listen ©SEEDS  2009       48  282 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SESSION 4 SEEDS of Book and Print Awareness Literacy  Activity Magic Book Helper   • Identifies front and back of book. • Understands print contains a message. • Knows where to start reading. • Demonstrates left to right orientation and return sweep. • Matches one to one by pointing. • Knows the difference between a letter and a word. • Knows the first and last letter. • Understand that pictures are related to print • Understands meaning of punctuation/period and question mark. • Begin to demonstrate comprehension of stories by re-telling stories using pictures • Begin to understand that letters have names and make sounds • Copies words and labels SEEDS Inc. 2009     49  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 283
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the characteristics of a high quality read aloud that promotes awareness to book and print rules through dialogic repeated read aloud. Why is reading important? Book Choice Makes a Difference! Book and Print Rules Repeated Read Aloud Makes a Difference! Parents Make a Difference! SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Build repeated read aloud Ask Questions that provide into daily schedule opportunities for multiple feedback loops and Watch/Wait/Listen during read aloud Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Talk/Read/Write Read with Me! during a read aloud Pick a Theme related book to send home   SEEDS Inc. 2009     50  284 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Reading   Discriminate: Environmental Sounds, Rhyming, Alliteration Birth Kindergarten Read Match letters, point to specific letter, say 26 letter names “The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children.” (Chomsky  1972;  Moerk,  1985;  Wells,  1985)   From the book Beginning Literacy with Language, David K. Dickinson and Patton O. Tabors suggest teachers:  Schedule sufficient time for book reading  ½ day read once or twice per day for a minimum of 10 minutes per session  Full day read 3x for total of 45 minutes  Divide children into groups of 8-10 students  Read and Reread various types of books  Share your enjoyment  Read books related to theme  Stretch children’s attention by trying out longer books and books with more text.  Be thoughtful about conversation and elaborated discussion Cause = suggested activity Effect on child development • Read 2x a day • Divide children into smaller read aloud groups. • Do a repeated read aloud • Be thoughtful about conversation SEEDS Inc. 2009     51  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 285
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Book Choices Makes a Difference! The books that teachers choose to read have an important effect on children’s language and literacy learning opportunities. Expose children to a variety of text forms and include books with longer text, stories with rhyme, picture books, factual and scientific books. Just as some adults like non-fiction reading better than fiction or poetry over concept books, so do children, pay attention to the variety that you offer children; and who likes what. • Predictable Books: books that contain repeated dialogue and events. These books are especially useful for helping children learn to read their first printed words through rhyming, pictures cues or a phase that is repeated. • Informational books/non-fiction: provide realistic, accurate information about topics of interest to children (doctor, cars, trucks, animals, families. • Story Books: often contain a problem, interesting characters with text and illustrations with a plot and storyline. • Concept books: focus on a theme, or teach children about a topic; alphabet, shapes, counting, colors, rhyming, etc. • Wordless books: tell a story through illustrations only, having no text. • Poetry: use elements of rhythm and sound to provide children with opportunities to listen to and think about text in a different way. Look at different types of books and evaluate how effective they would be with English Language Learners and children with low vocabularies: Non-verbal Telegraphic ProductivePredictableBooksInformationalBooks/Non-fictionStory BooksConcept BooksWordless BooksPoetry   SEEDS Inc. 2009     52  286 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Concepts about Book and Print   Concepts about Book and Print refers to what children understand about how books and print work. Some of the concepts for children to learn are included below.  Identifies front and back of book.  Understands print contains a message.  Knows where to start reading.  Demonstrates left to right orientation and return sweep.  Matches one to one by pointing.  Knows the difference between a letter and a word.  Knows the first and last letter.  Understand that pictures are related to print  Understands meaning of punctuation- period and question mark.  A space comes between words  Begin to demonstrate comprehension of stories by re-telling stories using pictures  Begin to understand that letters have names and make sounds  Copies words and labels SEEDS Inc. 2009     53  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 287
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Repeated Read Aloud Makes a Difference! Multiple readings of the same book, using rich explanations of vocabulary words, effects significant gains in preschoolers vocabulary. – 1x=10% use of word – 3-5x = 80 to 90% use of new words. (Molly Collins, Reading Research Quarterly, V40,#4)   A Repeated Read Aloud is a multiple reading of the same book. Each day the children hear the full story with a different instructional focus. The instructional focuses include: • rich explanations of vocabulary, • conversation and discourse • concepts about print, • phonological awareness • letter knowledge. “  word  meaning  acquisition  is  unlikely  to  occur  in  the  absence  of  fairly   specific  concrete  referent  clearly  associated  with  a  new  word”   (Carey, 1978; Akhtar, Jipsen &Callanan, 2001)   SEEDS Inc. 2009     54  288 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Repeated Read Aloud Lesson Plan SEEDS Inc. 2009     55  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 289
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy DAY 1 Repeated Read Aloud “Big 5” focus: Vocabulary and Background knowledge, Enjoy Reading DAY 1 REPEATED READ ALOUD INTEGRITY CHECKLIST Oral Language Teacher: ____________________________________ Date: ______________________ Observer: ____________________________________ Site: ______________________ Intervention Sequence Yes No Teacher sets up an environment that allows children to concentrate. Teacher reads a book related to current classroom theme. Teacher introduces central characters and/or main problem by relating it to classroom theme and everyday life. Teacher uses 2 or more of the strategies listed below to introduce 5-10 vocabulary words:1) Points to illustration2) Uses gesture to demonstrate the word3) Uses the target word in a sentence Uses a synonym. Teacher uses open-ended or closed questions to keep students interested in story. Number of open-ended questions: ___________________________________ Number of closed questions: _________________________________________ Teacher reads the entire story while demonstrating the SEEDS behaviors listed below (in order to check “yes” all SEEDS behaviors must be demonstrated at least once). Teacher models how to summarize the story by using Think/Pair/Share technique. Teacher models print. SEEDS Behaviors Teacher uses Watch/Wait/Listen. Teacher responds to/extends child talk. Teacher displays eye contact with a smile and caring look. Teacher gives affirmation. Teacher sends positive non-verbal messages. Teacher directs behavior to ensure that children develop through doing. Integrity Met:  Yes  No Comments/Feedback: SEEDS Inc. 2009     56   290 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy DAY 2 Repeated Read Aloud “Big 5” focus: Conversation/Comprehension to New Vocabulary DAY 2 REPEATED READ ALOUD INTEGRITY CHECKLIST Oral Language Teacher: ____________________________________ Date: ______________________ Observer: ____________________________________ Site: ______________________Intervention Sequence Yes No Teacher sets up an environment that allows children to concentrate. Teacher tells children that he/she knows they have read this book before and asks questions about some things from the book that were highlighted on Day 1 Teacher uses open-ended questions to discuss characters and main problem. Teacher asks questions about feelings of characters. Teacher discusses beginning/middle/end of story. Teacher uses open-ended questions to identify problems and solutions. (predict, sequence, cause and effect, problem solve, infer) Teacher reads the entire story while demonstrating the SEEDS behaviors listed below (in order to check “yes” all SEEDS behaviors must be demonstrated at least once). Teacher models Think/Pair/Share. Teacher engages students in Think/Pair/Share activity. Teacher models print. SEEDS Behaviors Teacher uses Watch/Wait/Listen. Teacher responds to/extends child talk. Teacher displays eye contact with a smile and caring look. Teacher gives affirmation. Teacher sends positive non-verbal messages. Teacher directs behavior to ensure that children develop through doing. Integrity Met:  Yes  No Comments/Feedback:   SEEDS Inc. 2009     57  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 291
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy DAY 3 & 4 Repeated Read Aloud “Big 5” focus: All the “Big 5” DAY 3 & 4 REPEATED READ ALOUD INTEGRITY CHECKLIST Oral Language Teacher: ____________________________________ Date: ______________________ Observer: ____________________________________ Site: ______________________Intervention Sequence Yes No Teacher sets up an environment that allows children to concentrate.Teacher tells children that he/she knows they have read this book before andasks questions about some things from the book that were highlighted on Day 2.Teacher asks open-ended questions to invite children to identify the problemand describe the solution.Teacher asks children before going onto the next page, “who remembers whathappens next?”Teacher pauses to encourage children to supply predictable text.Teacher draws attention to concept of print by using all of the followingtechniques: 1) Shows the front of the book 2) Shows the first page of the book 3) Shows where to start reading 4) Shows how to move left to right 5) Shows return sweep 6) Shows the difference between word/letterTeacher draws attention to words and their meanings by using 1 or more of thefollowing techniques: 1) Uses the word wall (sight words/vocab) 2) Locates and stresses rhyming words 3) Locates and stresses alliterative words 4) Talks about word chunks (ex. –at) 5) Claps out/counts syllables and wordsTeacher reads the entire story while demonstrating the SEEDS behaviors listedbelow (in order to check “yes” all SEEDS behaviors must be demonstrated atleast once).Teacher models Think/Pair/Share.Teacher engages students in Think/Pair/Share activity.Teacher models print.SEEDS BehaviorsTeacher uses Watch/Wait/Listen.Teacher responds to/extends child talk.Teacher displays eye contact with a smile and caring look.Teacher gives affirmation.Teacher sends positive non-verbal messages.Teacher directs behavior to ensure that children develop through doing.Integrity Met:  Yes  NoComments/Feedback:   SEEDS Inc. 2009     58  292 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy DAY 5 Repeated Read Aloud “Big 5” focus: Conversation and Background Knowledge DAY 5 REPEATED READ ALOUD INTEGRITY CHECKLIST Oral Language Teacher: ____________________________________ Date: ______________________ Observer: ____________________________________ Site: ______________________Extended Activities Yes No Teacher sets up an environment that allows children to concentrate. Read for enjoyment and concept development: a. Link current story concepts with previous related learning b. Ask questions to apply learning to child’s life c. Continually strive to deepen children’s concept development through scaffolding Vocabulary enhancements: a. Discuss words in context and their meanings to assure that children have an adequate understanding of new words. b. Reread parts of the story and use the cloze procedure to prompt children to use new vocabulary. Deliberately pause and allow time for children to supply the word. For example: “Some of Jerry’s ________ came to visit.” c. Encourage children to use the book language that they have learned by modeling targeted vocabulary in the current theme-related centers. Dramatize/pretend/storytelling props: a. By retelling stories children can improve their narrative skills. Children can learn to introduce a story with its setting and characters and sequence the events in the story. b. Story retells reveal children’s comprehension of story details and their ability to make inferences and interpretations. c. Begin by modeling how to retell a story and demonstrate how to use props, such as flannel boards and puppets. Create opportunities for children to practice retelling stories using props, flannel boards, or puppets. Reduce teacher dominance of discussions and increase children’s talk about the story or informational text. Provide feedback and ask for clarification of meaning whenever possible Teacher reads the entire story while demonstrating the SEEDS behaviors listed below (in order to check “yes” all SEEDS behaviors must be demonstrated at least once). Teacher models Think/Pair/Share. Teacher engages students in Think/Pair/Share activity. Teacher models print. SEEDS Behaviors Teacher uses Watch/Wait/Listen. Teacher responds to/extends child talk. Teacher displays eye contact with a smile and caring look. Teacher gives affirmation. Teacher sends positive non-verbal messages. Teacher directs behavior to ensure that children develop through doing. Comments/Feedback:   SEEDS Inc. 2009     59  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 293
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Family Involvement Read with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that read and ask questions about the story to their children daily increase their child’s vocabulary, conversation skills and how we read! English Language Learners: Tell stories from the pictures of the books (if you do not have books in your home language). This book is about ______________. We are talking, reading and writing about ____________ in school! Read with your child. Make sure you ask questions about the story! Your child will be excited to share what he/she knows! You might say: “What is your favorite part of the story?” “Can you tell me something about the story? “Can you find the first letter of your name on this page?” Stop part way through the book and ask “Do you know what comes next?” SEEDS Inc. 2009     60  294 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goal A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Build repeated read aloud Ask Questions that provide into daily schedule opportunities for multiple feedback loops and Watch/Wait/Listen during read aloud Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Talk/Read/Write Read with Me! during a read aloud Pick a Theme related book to send home     SEEDS Inc. 2009     61  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 295
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SESSION 5 SEEDS of Phonological Awareness Literacy Activity We are going to rhyme with our names. The ending sound will stay the same. The beginning sound it will change. Who rhymes with Kate? (Watch/Wait/Listen to the children) Late! Late, Kate they rhyme. They sound the same at  the end.   © SEEDS 2009   62  296 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the elements of the continuum of complexity of phonological awareness and demonstrate the ability to embed and explicitly teach phonological awareness, sensitive to all children, throughout all daily routines. Focus- “Big 5” Phonological Awareness What is Phonological Awareness? “On the road” to Phonological Awareness Continuum of Complexity Embedded and Explicit Phonological Interventions and Small Groups Parents Make a Difference! SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Transitions that embed Develop phonological phonological awareness awareness through doing- into the daily routines focus on kinesthetic learning Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Choose a Nursery Rhyme Rhyme with Me! to Talk/Read/Write about Help me make up words that rhyme with my name, your name, for two weeks food we eat, objects in our home (they can be silly words) © SEEDS 2009   63   Book andMinnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 297
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “Big 5” Focus: Phonological Awareness Book and Print Rules Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Knowledge   Vocabulary and Build on Background Conversation Knowledge The National Early Literacy Panel (2008) found 11 literacy variables (we have combined them into 5 categories of ease of memory- “Big 5”) consistently predicted later literacy achievement! How did you incorporate each of the “Big 5” this week?Conversation: ______________________________________________________Alphabetic Knowledge: ____________________________________________Book and Print Rules: _______________________________________________Phonological Awareness: ___________________________________________Vocabulary/Background Knowledge: ______________________________© SEEDS 2009   64  298 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy What is Phonological Awareness? Phonological Awareness is the area of oral language that involves being able to think about sounds in a word (the word’s structure) rather than just the meaning of the word. It is the ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory aspects of spoken language including the ability to distinguish, segment sentences, segment words, segment syllables, segment phonemes (individual units of sound), rhyme, and alliteration.   What is a favorite nursery rhyme, song, prayer that you learned as a child? __________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Describe what you think you gained from the activity of learning the nursery rhyme? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ How many times do you think you heard it before you actually could remember it? ________________________________________________________________________________       List phonological activities that you can embed in your classroom and when you will do them. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   65  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 299
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Phonological Awareness Continuum of ComplexityBased on data, where are thechildren you are working with? Phoneme blending andWhat kind of opportunities do they segmentingneed to build a strong, sound •  /c//a//t/ says “cat”foundation?• What do I want the child to learn? Onset-Rime• How do I know that they learned it? • Match, point, say onset rimes (-ake, - ike, -• What do I do if they haven’t learned it? at,- in, -ond, -an…)• What do I do if they have learned it?   Alliteration- discriminate or hear the beginning sound of words • Say or make a new word that sounds the same at the beginning • Point to words that have the same beginning sound • Thumbs up = same beginning sound • Thumbs down = different beginning sound Rhyming- discriminate or hear words that sound the same at the end • Say or make a new rhyming word • Point to words or pictures of words that rhyme • Thumbs up = they rhyme • Thumbs down = they don’t rhyme Syllable segmenting- hearing syllables in words •  Hear the sounds in words •  Clap/snap/stamp the sounds that they hear in words Sentence segmenting- hearing words •  Identify a word, a sentence •  Count the words they hear Listening- discriminate or hear environmental sounds and match it with the same sound •Name different sounds • Thumbs up = they are the same • Thumbs down = they are different © SEEDS 2009   66  300 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy   Listening Listening involves auditory discrimination, it is developmental, and is a skill to be taught and learned. Through fun and meaningful routines and activities teachers can provide explicit instruction on how to be good listeners. Just as with adults listening skills are dependent on other factors; interest in the topic, background knowledge, language skills (understanding the vocabulary and concept), memory skills, and how they are feeling (hungry, tired, sad, high stress). Listening activities provide children with different learning opportunities to tune up their listening skills. Listening Activities: Focus their attention Develop their memory Tape sounds in environment, people Listen to a story and retell, recite a song voices, shakers, musical instruments and or rhyme have children identify by sound Locate sound Match up and discriminate sound Hide a timer and find when it goes off Musical instrument matching, words that sound the same or different, beginning and ending sounds that are the same Remember and follow directions Listen and enjoy Play Simon Says, Do as I say (look at your Listen to music and see which kinds help neighbor and give a big yawn) you to de-stress or which ones make you smile and feel happy   © SEEDS 2009   67  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 301
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Word Awareness 1. Children learn to isolate words in sentences orally (clapping words in a sentence ‘I like you’). Words are concrete and larger units of sound making it easier for children to isolate a word than a sound within a word. 2. Children learn word awareness as they follow you track print in a Big Book Shared Reading. Their word segmentation will improve.  Read a sentence and point to each word, teaching one to one word correspondence.  At the end of a sentence you might go back and count the number of individual words that you just read 3. Word Awareness may show up when children print as they will start to leave a space between each word. Large Group Small Group Transition• Shared Reading using a • Teacher Dictation and • Clap out a familiar pointer. interactive writing nursery rhyme• Daily Message read • Count the children by with a pointer and child • Draw theme related name, pointing to leadership. items and write a each one.• Interactive Writing of a simple sentence with • familiar nursery rhyme individual words (I like• apples) then count the • words and talk about• the spaces, the beginning of the sentence the end, let each child decide what they like. • •   © SEEDS 2009   68  302 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy   Syllables Awareness   1. Children become aware or pay attention to syllables (beats) in a word. 2. This is the easiest level of segmenting word parts. • Syllable: is a word part that contains a vowel, or in spoken language, a vowel sound (e/vent, Mar/y, pa/per) • Vowels: a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y During syllable awareness activities you help children pay attention to and clap out the parts/beats they hear. It is really fun to start to do this activity with child’s names. Once the children understand that they should clap for every part/beat they hear you can make the game more challenging by playing a guessing game: say “I am thinking of someone in our small group that has 3 beats in his name, listen to me clap it … who could that be?” They will try out different people in the group and then one or all will say Chris/to/pher! “Yes, good listeners, you can hear 3 beats in Christopher.” Large Group Small Group Transition • Song/Say your name • Repeat large group • Repeat large and small (segment the syllables activities with group activities slowly.) individual children. • Say children’s names • Guess who’s gets to go as you move down the • During teacher line up? Clap 4 times body touching a body dictation clap out the for those children with part for each new words for their picture 4 syllables and work syllable. your way down. • Clap out names or • Clap out fun words in theme related words familiar rhymes and as an exit to leave the stories group Think of a group of second language learners: How many of the children were able to participate in the activity? _______________ How often do you think the teacher did this activity with the children? ____________ How explicit do you think she was when she first introduced the concept?_________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Write down how you will do syllable segmenting in your classroom. _______________ _______________________________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009   69  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 303
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Rhyme Awareness  1. Rhyming Awareness is the ability to hear words that have the same sound at theend of the word.2. Rhyming awareness requires the ability to understand the concept of rhyme.3. To understand the concept of rhyming a child must know that it is the end part ofthe word that is the same and that the beginning sound of the word will bedifferent. Some children will pay attention to the beginning or final sound or wordmeanings rather than the entire rime (chunk).4. The skills involved in rhyming include learning how to: • Segment: m-an (to know where to segment the word) • Blend: c+an (to know how to blend the segments together) • Delete: c-an (to know that you have to take one sound away) • Substitute: c-an + p = pan (to know how to add a new sound at the beginning or end)Modeling: As a teacher you want to plan how to embed fun and meaningful activities intoyour daily schedule. See a few “Best Bets” from other teachers. Remember to be explicitabout the concept of rhyming as you interact. “Children listen as I say a silly name, ready,Badie, who has a name that sounds the same at the end of the word as Badie?” Waitand pay attention to which children come up with Sadie, “Yes that is good listening.Sadie and Badie they rhyme- they sound the same at the end of the word.” “Let’s tryanother silly word …” Large Group Small Group Transition• Repetition of Rhyming • Rhyming cube • If you name rhymes Books (explicit instruction • Rhyming game with... through word deletion) • Rhyming bingo • Point to your favorite• Rhyming Songs (We are • Explicit Rhyming food, tell me a word that going to rhyme) instruction rhymes with that…• Nursery Rhyme over time.Rhyming is a developmental skill, children build on their previous ability. In rhyming,children will first be able to match up words that sound the same when they hear them;“Children I am going to teach you some words that rhyme, words that sound the same atthe end of the word, listen to the ending sound,” (you might give the child a visual cue byholding out one hand for the first rhyme and put out the second hand for the secondrhyme) “c/ake and l/ake” (say them slowly and accentuate the rhyme and then clapyour hands together as you say: “They rhyme, they sound the same at the end.” “Goodlistening, Let’s do some more rhyming words j/ill, h/ill, they rhyme” “Do it with me this time,listen and get your hands ready, let’s listen and see if these words are the same at theend.” Do several rhymes that sound the same and then do two that are different. “Let’slisten to these two words (again use your hands), j/ill and s/it. (Repeat as you accentuatethe ending sound; don’t clap your hands together because they are different.)Independent Practice: Do the activities listed above. Now find an activity in the “Big 5” Resources and plan for a child that is: Low skill Medium skill High Skillcannot identify words can sometimes can easily identifythat sound the same identify words that rhyme© SEEDS 2009   70   PM  page  70  304 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Alliteration/Beginning Sound Awareness   1. Alliteration the auditory discrimination recognition and production of words with the same beginning sounds. Alliteration is different than letter sound awareness. In letter sound awareness a child knows the name of a letter and the sound that it makes. In alliteration or beginning sound awareness, children listen to words and decide if the sound at the beginning of two words sounds the same or is able to reproduce the sound that they hear at the beginning of a word. 2. Alliteration involves understanding the concept of beginning sounds and the segmenting and blending of individual sounds within words and is the most difficult level of phonological awareness. In beginning sound awareness the child has to isolate or segment an abstract smaller sound. 3. Consonant sounds are easier for children to isolate than vowel sounds (/c/ vs. /e/) 4. Single consonants are easier than sound clusters (pin is easier than spin). Beginning sound awareness/alliteration is a developmental skill, children build on their previous ability and understanding about words, sounds and their placement. In alliteration children will first be able to match up words that sound the same when they hear them; “Children now we are going to play a different word game, these words have beginning sounds and they have ending sounds. Like in Ms. Kate’s name the beginning sound is /K/ and the ending sound is /ate/,” (you might do some other children’s names). “We are going to play a beginning sound game, ready? This time listen to the beginning sound. I am going to teach you some words that sound the same at the beginning of the word, listen for the beginning sound,” (you might give the child a visual cue by holding out one hand for the beginning sound and put out the second hand for the ending sound.) “m/om and m/ap (say them slowly and accentuate the beginning sound and then clap your hands together as you say) “they sound the same at the beginning of the word.” “Good listening, Let’s do some more beginning sound words m/oney, m/ilk, they sound the same at the beginning of the word” “Do it with me this time, listen and get your hands ready, let’s listen and see if these words are the same at the beginning of the word.” Do several that sound the same and then do two that are different. “Let’s listen to these two words (again use your hands), M/ike and B/ill are different at the beginning.” (Repeat as you accentuate the beginning sound; don’t clap your hands together because they are different.) Large Group Small Group Transition • Alliterative Books • Beginning sound tubs • If you name begins with • Morning Message that • Beginning sound bingo /k/ line up embeds beginning sound • Compare children’s play into the text. (Hi names Happy Helpers) • Find objects that have • Beginning sound songs the same beginning • Daily use of the word wall sound in a specific routine • Teacher dictation • Interactive writing about a child’s work. © SEEDS 2009   71  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 305
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Onset-Rime Awareness1. Onset-Rime refers to words that can be divided into onsets andrimes.2. The onset refers to any sounds before the vowel; the rime is anysounds from the vowel to the end of the word. It is the part we usuallycall word families. (-an, -at, -in) word onset rimecan c -anbake b -akemom m -om* the linguistic term for the part of the word that rhymes is “rime” SEEDS Quality Phonological Awareness Interactions Sensitive Encourage Educate Develop Self-Image through DoingHow will you How will you What is the What will you How does theknow if the child encourage or instructional see and hear child feel aboutunderstands the motivate the focus of your children doing? learning?concepts? child to keep teaching/ going or to be interaction? About him/r proud of each herself? What is it that skill practice? you want the About the How will you child to be able relationship create a shared to do or say? between you positive and him/her? interaction?Continue over time to play phonological games or similar activities until you knowthat children understand the concepts. If children are not able to pay attention tothe concepts, you should go back down the Phonological Awareness Continuumand play some listening activities to build up their ability to listen and discriminatebetween different sounds.REMEMBER: Ask for “Best Bets” for concept development and activities from otherstellar Pre-K teachers.© SEEDS 2009   72  306 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Meaningful Difference: Phonological Awareness Phonological Awareness: the area of oral language that involves being able to think about sounds in a word (the word’s structure) rather than just the meaning of the word. It is the ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory aspects of spoken language including the ability to distinguish, segment sentences, segment words, segment syllables, segment phonemes (individual units of sound), rhyme, and alliteration.  Teacher provides daily opportunities for children to hear, repeat and practice phonological awareness activities  Teacher requests a response from child when doing phonological awareness activities  Teacher identifies child’s ability based “On the road” to Phonological Awareness: environmental sounds, listening, sentence segmenting, syllable segmenting, rhyming, alliteration, onset-rime, phoneme blending and segmenting  Teacher explicitly teaches (Show/Tell/Do) phonological awareness skill  Teacher uses a variety of phonological awareness activities in Large Group, Small Group and provides individualized instruction for children who need additional support  Teacher uses hand gestures in conjunction with auditory cues  Encourage effort and celebrate successes© SEEDS 2009   73  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 307
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Parents Make a Difference! Rhyme with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: We have been learning Nursery Rhymes at school! Please practice this Nursery Rhyme with me in the morning and the evening: INSERT NURSERY RHYME You might say:  “Let’s say your rhyme together” “Can you teach me the words to this nursery rhyme?” “Good job remembering the rhyme, I heard some words that rhyme, do you remember a word that rhymes with ________?” Say this rhyme in the car, at breakfast, just when sitting around. © SEEDS 2009   74  308 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy   SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Transitions that embed Develop phonological phonological awareness awareness through doing- into the daily routines focus on kinesthetic learning Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Choose a Nursery Rhyme Rhyme with Me! to Talk/Read/Write about Help me make up words that rhyme with my name, your name, for two weeks food we eat, objects in our home (they can be silly words)   © SEEDS 2009   75  Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 309
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SESSION 6 SEEDS of Letter Knowledge and Written Expression Literacy  Activity   Letters,  letters,  letters  have  names.   What  is  the  name  of  this  letter?   ____,  ____,  ____,  is  the  name  of  this  letter.   Letters,  letters,  letters  make  sounds.   What  is  the  sound  of  this  letter?   /____/,/  ____/,/  ____/,  is  the  name  of  this  letter.    © SEEDS 2009 76310 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the characteristics of print rich classroom environments that incorporates the elements of the visual discrimination continuum of complexity. To learn how to embed explicit learning activities that lead to letter knowledge into daily routines. Focus- “Big 5” Letter Knowledge What is Visual Discrimination? On the Road to Visual Discrimination Continuum of Complexity Embedded and Explicit Letter Knowledge Developmental Stages of Writing Opportunities for children to develop print Family Involvement SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Do a daily message with Use explicit letter shared reading everyday knowledge or element of during a regular routine visual continuum throughout daily routines Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Child generated Write with Me! environmental print Journal drawing after a story   © SEEDS 2009 77Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 311
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “Big 5” Focus: Letter and Print Knowledge Book and Print Rules Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Knowledge   Vocabulary and Build on Background Conversation Knowledge The National Early Literacy Panel (2008) found 11 literacy variables (we have combined them into 5 categories for ease of memory- “Big 5”) that predicted later literacy achievement! How did you incorporate each of the “Big 5” this week?Conversation: ______________________________________________________Alphabetic Knowledge: ____________________________________________Book and Print Rules: _______________________________________________Phonological Awareness: ___________________________________________Vocabulary/Background Knowledge: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________© SEEDS 2009 78312 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Visual Discrimination Continuum of Complexity © SEEDS 2009 79Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 313
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Visual Discrimination of objects, colors and shapes     Discriminate: Environmental Sounds, Rhyming, Alliteration     Birth Kindergarten Read Match letters, point to specific letter, say 26 letter names Children in the first 3 years of life spend their days learning the names of people, items and objects in their everyday lives. They learn to discriminate items that are the same and different. The order of learning from easiest to hardest is to: • Match items that look the same • Point to an item when an adult names it • Say the name of objects, animals, people, colors and shapes On the continuum- List Theme related items to play objects are the easiest- Match, Point, Say leading to their ability _________________ to someday _________________ discriminate letters. _________________ _________________ Knowing letters leads to _________________ the ability to read and _________________ write. © SEEDS 2009 80314 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Play Match, Point, Say Game with objects, colors and shapes: • Have a set (2 of each item) of familiar objects (preferably theme related vocabulary that are relevant to the children). • Show items to child or a small group (3-5 children) and tell them that you are going to play a guessing game. You could pull the object out of a bag and describe it ( it is an apple, it is juicy) • Teach children the names and ask them to repeat the name, • Once you have the first 3 objects out of the bag, ask child to repeat them with you. “Let’s say them together” and then match them up. Say “I am going to match them up.” • If the child is not able to match an item, encourage him/her (this is fun to play with you) “Let’s do it again!” Tell him which one matches as you say the name of the object followed by the phrase “They are the same, they match.” • Mix them up and ask them to match them again, once they can match them move up to the next level. You say “Can you point to the stapler” if the child does not get it correct; say “Good try!” encourage and follow up with the correct word for the one he pointed to and then find the stapler. Say “This is a stapler, it holds our paper together” and then point to one stapler and say “This is the stapler, I bet you can say stapler, it holds paper together, can you find the other stapler?” • Mix them up again and ask the child to point to the stapler. If they get it you can go on and this time you point to stapler and say “What is this?” If they say “Stapler” ask them to tell you something about a stapler. • You can move on to another object. If the child gets the object name wrong, teach it and then try again. This game can be played for objects, colors and shapes and letters. • Once a child has mastered all the names in the set (3-5) you can play a game that gives the child the opportunity to practice saying the name of the object quickly. This skill is called Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN). It is an early predictor of later literacy. It is a fluency skill. Fluency is a measure of how quickly a child can see an item, go to their brain and then say the item. This game is fun if the child knows the items and helps the child to practice thinking quickly. You hide the picture behind your back and say “Ok when I show you this picture I want to see how fast you can say it! Ready?” If children are not getting it quickly give them more time to talk about the words, play another game or come back at another time. Additional Games: • match, point, say game • object, color, or shape bingo • Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN) game: *This is only to be played once a child has mastered the name of the items. • Sing “What is it?” song with objects, colors or shapes. © SEEDS 2009 81Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 315
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to reading through Letter KnowledgeLetter Knowledge is the ability to visually discriminate thedifferences between letters and say the names and soundsassociated with printed letters. “Letter Knowledge is among the readiness skills that are traditionally evaluated; the one that appears to be the strongest predictor on its own is letter identification.” (Snow et al., 1998)  Make a list of ways that you currently know how to teachletters:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ “Experts advise knowing 10 letters for preschool children by the time they go to kindergarten.” (Burns et al, 1999)  Describe how to play the Match, Point, Say Game using lettersin a child’s name:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________© SEEDS 2009 82316 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Letters     “Research indicates that the way in which children are most often   introduced to letters at   home is through the alphabet song”   (Adams)   How do you explicitly teach letters to children? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ How will I embed learning letters into my daily routine? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Large Group Small Group Transition • Daily message • Play match, • Sing: letters, with explicit point, say with letters, letters instruction to sorting of objects, • RAN to objects, letters. colors, shapes colors, letters • Interactive writing • Object, color, to theme related • Dismiss by letter shape, letter books or activities name or sound bingo or nursery rhyme • Letter sound • Word Wall used buckets. daily • Teacher dictation and independent writing © SEEDS 2009 83Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 317
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Help children pay attention to letters!   Skywriting: • Focus on 1-2 letters during circle time • Write letters and give descriptions as you write them on your dry erase • Introduce the letter using the auditory script. • Children demonstrate in the air or on the floor. • When children make letters using large motions, it makes a bigger neurological imprint. • Letter Sorting by Shapes: Venn diagram Cookie sheet, letter in a bag, Venn diagram chart • Teacher introduces sorting rules • Show children a table with 3 rows (one that has a straight line, one with curved line and one with both curved and straight) • Explain that you will choose a letter out of the bag. If a child is just beginning to identify letters choose 5-8 that are he/she has in his/her name. • You will then think about the shapes of the letter and decide whether the letter has all straight lines or curved or both and explain where you will put the letter on the table. Say the name of the letter as you place it on the table. You could also say something about the letter for example: for M- you could say “These are all straight lines. I will put it under the straight line. Mike this is M like in your name.” • Turn this into a game and once the child is confident you can try to trick him. This game can be played independently during Choice Time List activities you will Songs, due to their implement in your classroom: rhythm, is effective in supporting _____________________________ children’s learning _____________________________ and memory. _____________________________        Word  Wall   © SEEDS 2009 84318 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Word Wall Word Wall: is a resource for children to learn about the alphabet Letter/ Word Walls need to: • Be at children’s eye level • Be displayed in alphabetic order from left to right • Have room for placement of 4-5 words under each letter • Have all word cards placed directly under the matching letter • Have thematic words cards with pictures • Use lower case letters on the word card (expect proper names) • Be interactive and ongoing. • All the children would have the opportunity to find where to put their name and names stay on the word wall all year. • Theme related words are taken off the word wall with the children when the theme is changing over.   © SEEDS 2009 85Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 319
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Written ExpressionWritten Expression: Writing to express one’s thoughts, feelings,with agreed upon symbols. Through writing experiences children have the opportunity to express themselves in a written mode and begin to think of themselves as writers. “Engaging children in early writing also helps them learn about print and the letters and words they eventually will read and spell” (Burns, Griffin, & Snow 1999)Though fun and meaningful print, children have the opportunity tomove “On the road” to Print. Learning to print is a complex processinvolving multiple interactions between different aspects of print. Theaspects of print: – Learning how to print (small motor) – Using print with a purpose to communicate – Learning the alphabetic code. – Learning the basic conventions of print. How  will  you  provide  opportunities  for  children  to  print  in  the   classroom?          © SEEDS 2009 86320 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Written Expression An overview of the Stages of Writing Learning to use a pencil: – Scribble – Separated scribbles – Left to right scribbles – Scribble/mock writing – First letters – Transition stage – String of letters – Invented spelling and copies print – Conventional writing “On the road” to using print with a purpose to communicate with oneself and others Beginning In process Conventional Thinks making marks is Understands that oral Understands that once an print message can be oral message is written it represented in print should be read Draw, scribble, pretend to “I will write a story” , write Can re-read own read a scribble message and messages, expects others read to be able to read What can a Teacher do? Teacher: Teacher: • Daily sign-in • Teacher Dictation • Read the print that you • Sign art word • Brainstorm child and child have written • Model print during thoughts • Re-read using finger teacher child activities • Model list making and discuss the choice of words © SEEDS 2009 87Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 321
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to applying the alphabetic principle with complexity Beginning In process Conventional Knows that Identifies the most Identifies all Combines invented different sounds obvious sounds in component sounds spelling with in a word a spoken word in a spoken word conventional represent and attempts to and attempts to spelling with sound different symbols represent it in write them identification writing Uses words Uses beginning Represents most Spells with own represented by a sound in print, single consonants estimations, may string of letters when talking and prints them, conventionally spell about print may mostly in order, may some words call sound a letter, do some middle represent 1-3 sounds letters. What can a Teacher: Teacher: Teacher: Teacher do? • Interactive • Journal time • Rich and • Daily writing in interactive meaningful Message: center time writing and writing centers discuss the play independent that have been letter and • Teacher writing by modeled sound as you Dictation child • Sharing of print print. during small • Explicit activities after • Talk about group and instruction to choice time and Print a choice time. sounding out during sharing relevant word • Discuss the words and time. related to the letters in their writing what • Print story name as they you hear opportunities in 5 • Put relevant sign-in or put or more centers. vocabulary their name on on the word art work wall after printing with the children • Teacher Dictation and interactive writing © SEEDS 2009 88322 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to using basic conventions of print: Beginning In process Conventional Tries to act out Tries to represent oral Uses letter Uses some the writing language in writing formation in conventions of process writing, print, directionality, spacing, some punctuation Draw with Produces drawings Consistently Follows left to right random lines, that represent a produces correctly directionality, writes scribbles spoken message, formed letters, words using a produces letter-like writes in upper mixture of upper forms mixed with and lower case and lower case drawing letters letters, some punctuation What can a Teacher: Teacher: Teacher: Teacher do? • Talk/read/write • Explicit • Interactive • Daily small group time Instruction to writing and journal that includes conventions of group instruction teacher dictation print during to conventions • Access to Daily Message print in 5 or • Provide a place for • Conventions are more children to display • Scaffolding discussed during centers their print during daily shared reading sign-in and • Access to small group easel write activities • Daily sign-in • Shared Reading with large text. Identify a question you have from this knowledge and share it with another person. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009 89Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 323
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “On the road” to Print How do Children Learn to Print? - Opportunity to manipulate a pencil - Daily practice with pencil/crayon - Explicit instruction (straight line, circle, etc) - Incorporate into as many centers as possible    Make a list of all the ways.How/When do you use print? How/When do children use or see/hear you talk about print?   Literacy Rich Classroom is full of fun and meaningful ways to model and experience print. © SEEDS 2009 90324 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Fun and Meaningful Writing Center and Writing in 5 or more Centers Materials in centers need to be modeled and replaced and cared for daily. Demonstrate how to use the materials, be present to model and scaffold child print Suggested Activities • Use writing materials to draw pictures and write in individual journals • Make specific and non specific literacy props for other areas of the classroom • Make signs for the classroom areas • Write notes to each other • Make individual books • Do follow up activities from large group theme related modeling (Make an ‘I Like___’). • Share items made during sharing time and it will encourage others to visit the area   © SEEDS 2009 91Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 325
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Opportunities for Children to Develop Print Print Activities • Labeling: interactive, think about the object, negotiate what to call it, share the pen as you write, teach print concepts, read. • Copying: often an independent, look at a label, sign, book, song. And copy what the child sees. A quality teacher will talk about it and read it with the child when s/he notices it. • Environmental Print: point out child can “read”- have familiar environmental print in the classroom and on the word wall. Provide opportunities to create environmental print for the classroom. • Teacher Dictation: teacher-child talk about a drawing, activity, then the teacher writes down what the child has © SEEDS 2009 92326 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy dictated (said), they then read it together. Interactive Writing Interactive writing provides children with the opportunity to “share in the pen and the negotiating” about what will be written. During an interactive writing experience children are encouraged to think and learn and share about letters, sounds, and conventions of print. Interactive writing includes 4 steps Journal and Interactive Writing • Writing has a purpose • Demonstrate that what I think and say can be written down • We write from left to write • Spaces between letters • Letters have shapes • Letters become words • Letters make sounds © SEEDS 2009 93Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 327
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy I can read words© SEEDS 2009 94328 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Morning Message/Daily Message   Daily Message is a first great step toward Interactive Writing. During a Daily Message children see the teacher print, see the teacher “Think Aloud” about print, and are observing and thinking about the connection between thinking and print as well as conventions of print (left to right, space, upper case, lower case, etc.). Children learn though this daily routine how to develop print concepts and learn about important events of the day. • Occurs daily with all the children • All the children see the text • Teacher and/or children construct the text • Text is predictable in the beginning and can become less predictable as children move “On the road” to Written Expression. • Teacher has 1-3 instructional focus during daily message (return sweep, one to one correspondence, letter formation, letter sound, etc.) • Letter, word, sentence, punctuation, space, print carries a message, left to right orientation • Teacher and child read the message together using a pointer   Stop and Think: “Best Bang Activity” for all types of learners. It takes less than 3-5 minutes, and children learn to feel really capable, it builds shared positive emotion daily when the teacher puts a “tricky question” or word or idea for the group to think about! How does a child get the opportunity to be exposed to the “Big 5” daily during this activity? Conversation: _______________________________________ Vocabulary and Background Knowledge: _____________________________________________________ Concepts about Print: _____________________________________________________ Phonological Awareness: _____________________________________________________ Letter Knowledge: _____________________________________________________ © SEEDS 2009 95Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 329
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Family Involvement Talk, Read and Write with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that have fun talking, reading and writing with their children, help them be more school ready and to be ready to read. At school we read a story, we talk about the story and then draw a picture about our favorite part of the story. When we are done drawing one of our teachers talk about their picture with us and then, we write a few words that tell about our picture and last we read our words together. It might only take up to 10 minutes but it really helps us get ready for school. You might do and say: • First read and talk about the story. • Talk about their favorite part of the story “ What was your favorite ________. • Next you could help your child get ready to draw his/her favorite part. • It would be fun for your child if you drew your favorite part. • When it seems like your child is done drawing, ask him/her to tell you about there picture (“tell me about your favorite thing from the story”). • Then you could write a few of the thoughts and read them together. (I liked the dog might be an example of what you would write) Make it simple and only about 3-5 words, • Next you can read your words together. • When you do this you are helping your child learn about letters, words, reading and they get to have fun with you. © SEEDS 2009 96330 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goal SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Do a daily message with Use explicit letter shared reading everyday knowledge or element of during a regular routine visual continuum throughout daily routines Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Child generated Write with Me! environmental print Journal drawing after a story     © SEEDS 2009 97Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 331
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SESSION 7 SEEDS to Social/ Emotional Development Literacy Activity Sing:  What  is  it?  What  is  it?  What  is  it  do  you   know?  (using  feeling  pictures)   It’s  a  sad  face,  it’s  a  sad  face,  it’s  a  sad  face  yes  it   is.   Then  do  a  “strive  for  5”    Ask:  What  do  we  know   about  this  feeling?       198          332 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Learning Objective: To identify the elements of a socially and emotionally safe learning environment that includes classroom routines and rituals, consequences for positive and negative behavior, classroom rules and self-regulation. Create Shared Positive Be Predictable and Consistent Clear Rules and Expectations Teach child to De-stress Empower Child Family Involvement SEEDS Smart Goals SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Create a Shared Positive Environment Observe Transitions for Shared Positive Emotion Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement Teach Feeling Words Give A Ratio of 5/1 Affirmation   199    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 333
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy What is Social/Emotional Development? On the Road to S/E Development Identify  feeling      cause  and  effect      consequences      predict      plan        self  regulate   Emotional Development Social Development  Recognize and describe  Interact easily with other emotions children.  Use words instead of actions to  Have positive interactions with express emotions others  Understand and respond to  Participate in a group others emotions successfully.  Begin to show self regulation to  Use play to understand handle emotions appropriately relationships  Respond to affirmation, limits  Cooperate, help, share, and correction  Seek help when needed  Use words to resolve conflicts. List 4 basic feelings, what the feeling looks like on the outside, what it feels like on the inside and an acceptable manner to express it for a 3- 5 year old child 1. __________________________________________________________________ 2.__________________________________________________________________ 3.__________________________________________________________________ 4. _______________________________________________________________   200    334 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Positive Relationships are Important to Build Based on your experience why do you think positive relationships might be important to develop in an early childhood classroom? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Abraham Maslow thinks relationships are important because we are creatures that are driven to get our needs met within relationship. Positive Relationships help regulate the nervous system. Child Need List 3 ways you could fill up that need (emotional account) in your daily interactions, routines Live: basic food, clothing, shelter, and physical and emotional safety Loved and Belong (I am in a trusting environment where I am loved and belong; 5/1 ratios) Learn and Contribute (how do I contribute to this community of special people in daily routines?) Developmental learning is organized around relationships. Learning occurs in with a safe and trusting relationship   201    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 335
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Shared Negative Interactions: negative emotions shared between two or more people: fear, anxiety, anger, sadness. – Do not lead to shared goals or feelings of connectedness, but instead , – They signal us to withdraw. Shared Positive Interactions: positive emotions shared between two or more people through touch, hugs, motion, rhythm, happy sounds Shared Positive Shared Negative:  “The more supportive and accepting and caring the social environment, the freer a person is to experiment with new behaviors and attitudes.” How do you communicate acceptance, and caring to a child? ____________________________________________________________________  “As the need to justify oneself and protect oneself against rejection decreases, it becomes easier to experiment with new ways of behaving, thinking and valuing.” What would an adult do that would make a child feel like he has to protect himself against rejection? _______________________________________________________________     104    336 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Emotional learning creates strong memories, especially when they are strong. Think of an emotional learning in your life. What was the cause and what was the effect? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ • Shared emotions change behavior for both child and adult. • We respond to the emotional signals of another but also tend to absorb them or join in the feeling of another. • Through sharing emotional signals, each person is changed by the other. • Evidence suggests that the ability for one person to temper or excite the emotions of another is a major influence in early brain growth. Share Mad Share Share Happy Threatening   105    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 337
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy What  role  does  teacher-­‐child  interaction  play  in  a  safe   and  trusting  relationships?               Have and elaborated (strive for 5) conversation with another person:  What happened as you talked and listened to each other? Did it help to fill up your emotional account? Now imagine you have a child that has poor self-regulation during your read aloud.  What would having an elaborated interaction do to the relationship between the 2 of you if you did it on a regular basis? How could you build elaborated interactions into your day?   106    338 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Literacy Rich Schedule A predictable, consistent, rich with learning and fun schedule and rituals within lead to a safe trusting environment Routine: 1. usual pattern of activity- the usual sequence for a set of activities. 2. something repetitive something that is unvarying or repetitive List how your schedule is Routine Suggested Activities: an environment where children do not have to work really hard to get there emotional needs met. Arrival: - Individual greeting - teacher present at sign-in 15 minutes - I like you ritual -conversation 1-1 Large Group Time: - Fun transition songs and games -Routine activities 20 minutes -Child Helpers -using names - children involved in Doing Small Group Skill - Eye contact, conversation, - Scaffolding children so they feel Development: successful and like learning 8-20 minutes Active Learning, - Small group and/or independent activities Choice Time: - Integrated “theme-focused” play 45-60 minutes That is rich and provides variety. Sharing Time-Child - Kids sharing and listening to friends - Share happenings at centers Reflection - Share creations/discoveries 15 minutes - Share how problems were solved - Song and stretch break Meal Time- - Conversation with children breakfast, snack or lunch   107    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 339
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Classroom  Social  Emotional  Planning  Form       Our Schedule/ Transitions in Rules/(Prevention) Strategies for Consequences/New Routines and and out/ teaching rules/new Responses to Rituals/ (Prevention) skills/expectations challenging (Prevention) behavior/new skill if expectations are not met List a shared positive transition that has worked for you that also promotes language and literacy.   108    340 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Consequences  Consequences can be – Positive: smile, thumbs up, pat, sticker, time with teacher – Negative: “if the sand goes on the floor, you have to choose another area to play”, “the look”, teacher warning  Consequences are intended to shape and teach children socially acceptable behavior.  Goal of a consequence is to motivate a child to choose a more functional, healthy, acceptable behavior. What are some consequences for early childhood classrooms?Consequence/alternative to Consequence/Rewardsexpected behavior • Notice and state positive • Prompt child to choose behavior/affirmation • Take a break area • Non-verbal feedback • Non Verbal Message • Take a walk/time with • Loss of a favored activity someone special • Count down to allow choice • Time on the computer or time; 5,4,3,2,1 other desired activity • Offer Options; first.. then…. • Send Parent an affirmation about child • Sticker/food/chart/toy Think/pair/share: What are 2 consequences that work well for you? ________________________________________   109    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 341
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Rules Should Be Clear Descriptions of what you want to see and hear children doing. They teach about:  Noise level  Movement inside  Interactions with property  Interactions with adults  Interactions with peers Rules for Making Classroom Rules!  Have a few simple classroom rules  Involve the children in developing the rules  Post the rules visually  Teach the rules systematically  Reinforce the rules with consistency initially and you will need to less often as the year goes on Develop a list of 3-5 rules you use or would use in a classroom Brainstorm fun and creative ways for teaching the rules Classroom Rule How will you teach it?   110    342 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Giving Directions: You know what you want, do the children? Turn transition time in a time to connect (eye contact, smile, breathe, and de-stress instead of hurry and go.  Make sure you have the children’s attention before you give the direction  Minimize the number of directions given to children  Individualize the way directions are given  Give clear directions  Give directions that are positive  Give children the opportunity to respond to a direction  When appropriate, give the child choices and options for following directions  Follow through with positive acknowledgment of children’s behavior Imagine you are about to transition from small group to active learning, which of the following scenarios would help you to succeed and de-stress.  Teacher lets kids finish drawing and wander away  Teacher has a ritual that before you leave the small group table you get to clap the syllables in your name and then leave.  Teacher says everyone isn’t done sit still.   111    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 343
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Safe and Trusting Environments Empower Children to Make an acceptable choice “No one likes to be bossed around!” “Bossing feels shared negative to me how about you?” Is “sit down!”, “line up!”, “be quiet”… bossing? What turns a direction or request into a Shared Negative request? Alternatives to Bossing: Not coming Not listening when you in small ask group Offer Choices Re-Direct or Prompt child Count down, 5,4,3,2,1 to allow child time to choose Offer acceptable options; First… Then….   112    344 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Stress: A condition or feeling experienced when a person believes that demands exceed the personal and social resources that an individual is able to manage. Children in full day childcare have an increased level of cortisol by the afternoon related life and the stimulation around us. • Cortisol is a hormone released under stress… • What happens in the brain when a child is stressed on sensory overload? – Amygdala (emotional brain) – Neo-cortex (thinking brain) – Cotisol (“I am stressed”) Stress (stimulation from the outside) is perceived by the Amygdala and a child will naturally release cortisol unless he tells himself that he is ok. Since children have not fully developed the emotional skills to self regulate or to stop the worry or stress they can build up an excess of cortisol even by lunch time. Once cortisol is released you begin to lose your ability to think and you stay in your emotional brain. Think of what happens to you when you are stressed. What do you feel like inside? ________________________ How productive are you? ____________________________   113    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 345
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy To De-Stress is essential to an effective working body and mind Child response to Signs of Stress Ways to De-stress stress type Strike out shout, hit, demand, outlet, physical control, arching back, release, repetition, get red face, kicking, jiggles out, dance, kicking blankets off, large muscle play, throwing toys sensory play Shut down shout, hit, demand, near but little stimuli, control, arching back, space, stop talking, red face, kicking, pause, sensory play kicking blankets off, alone, read alone throwing toys/bottle Gather in cling, can’t do, hold attention, touch, hug, me, don’t leave me hold, connect, read alone, cuddling more, with adult, sensory patting, stroking, play with others whine Safe and Trusting Environments teach and help children to De-Stress. Ways to De-Stress in a Classroom Setting:  Take a Break,  Lotion, sensory calm down,  Deep Breathing  Calming Self-Talk  Yawning  Smile  Rub Legs, hands  Talk to a teacher  Read a book alone or with someone  Draw a picture  Play alone  Sit or play with someone that makes you feel good.   114    346 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy “Take a Break” Take a Break is an alternative way to de-stress, when I Take a Break I take time to lower my corisol levels, I do certain things t to get myself together. The Intent is to teach not shame/blame/or make child feel bad. Adult analogy: think of time when you just needed a break and you didn’t take it and then you….. ____________________________________________________________ What do you do to take a break? ____________________________________________________________ How do children in your classroom take a break? What do you think? Do all people need to take a break at some point? Do you think some people need more than others and is that ok? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________   115    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 347
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Ideas about setting up a “Take a Break” area: • I might say to the children “sometimes I am having trouble paying attention to my teacher or others and I need to take a break to help myself calm down”. “I can choose to go to the “take a break area” and (rub my legs, look in the mirror, read the take a break book, take a deep breath..” “when I am ready I can come back and join my friends” • During a child “Taking a Break” is not a time for social reinforcing/or teaching/or reminding them of what they have done wrong. Use few words and limited interaction as your words become more stimulation and the child may already be flooded with cortisol. Connect with child after the take a break time not during. • Re-Connect with child after s/he leaves the “take a break” What can you say to the Kids about “Take a Break”? • Introduce the concept of activities in the take a break book. Teach, practice, review in large group at the lunch table, standing in line… • Every child gets to spend 2 minutes in the “take a break” during choice time. • Rules: • You can go to the “take a break when you are angry, sad, or want to be alone. • Only one person at a time. • If you need the “take a break” and someone is in it, you could: Wait until they are out, sit at a table near the safe place, put you name on the waiting list…   116    348 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Safe and Trusting Environments are Shared Positive Strategies that help teachers to Create Shared Positive Emotion throughout the day.  Positive Non Verbal message  Spend time with individual children. (game, lunch, helper, “strive for 5 conversation”  I Like you ritual  Give affirmation: 5/1 ratio  Model positive behaviors (manners, ways to talk, share..)  Talk with children, make eye contact and watch, wait and listen to what s/he has to say. Remember Shared Positive Interactions lead to a Positive Relationship and less stress for all and create and environment for children to be open to learning. Affirmation is a form of encouragement that describes a specific positive behavior. It is: 1)Descriptive/Mirror of action 2)Conveyed with enthusiasm 3) Contingent on effort 4)Positive Non-verbal Messages What are 3-5 behaviors you would like to see increase in your setting? ____________________________________________________________________ What changes might you make in your use of positive feedback and encouragement in order to increase the behaviors you just identified. ____________________________________________________________________   117    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 349
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Behavior Management Decision Making Form Sensitive:  List Current Behaviors of teacher and child How do you feel? (Be specific, describe what you see and hear) How does the child Things to consider and feel? What do you be aware of: Event believe? triggers, family, health, special need, tired…. Function of the behavior: escape, obtain, or doesn’t know what else to do. What do you currently do that is a maintaining consequence? Encourage  Be Predictable and Consistent: routine, transition, child Things I will do…. helper, consequences to rules; for positive and negative What strategies could behavior you use to help child/ren  Clear Rules and Expectations: Directions, Visual Supports, self-regulate? Modify expectations so child can succeed and build on success.  De-stress Activity: Take a Break, lotion break, deep breathing, calming talk, yawning, smiling, rub leg, rub hands, talk to a teacher, read a book alone or with someone, draw a picture, play alone, sit or play with someone that is smiling.  Empower Child: Offer choices, count down to make choice; 5,4,3,2,1, Offer options First.. then.., prompt child  Create a Shared Positive Environment: Positive Non verbal Message, Spend time; I like you ritual, play with, game, lunch conversation, helper, give affirmation for ordinary and unusual behavior, use names, model positive manners, talk with children as you make eye contact, watch wait and listen to what they have to say. Educate  Explicit Instruction (give scripts to problems, play organizers, Things I will do… sharing, friendship skills What will you teach the  Role Play ( positive and negative situations) child?  Teach Problem Solving How will you teach the  Read and Talk about real life situations. expected behavior?  Problemitize during play, reading, eating ( I only have one How much repetition apple and 5 kids how could I solve this problem?) and scaffolding will the  Think Aloud during play talk about how you decide what to child need in order to do and say (“I am going to go ask my friend if she will share self-regulate? with me, Katie will you share your toy?” Develop Self-Regulation Share, Take turns , Ask for help, Wait, Play with others, Help Things I want to see Through Doing (practice) others and self, Pick up toys, Listen to others… and hear … What do you want to see and hear child/ren doing and/or saying?   118    350 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy Family Involvement   Talk with Me! Include in your weekly newsletter home to parents: Dear Parents: Parents that have fun talking, reading and writing with their children, help them be more school ready and to be ready to read and it helps them learn to cooperate, share, help and other positive ways of being at school. At school we try to give kids more encouragement than discouragement. When we are playing or reading or eating our teachers will smile at us, or give us a thumbs up or give us an affirmation it really helps us get ready for school. You might do and say:  Positive Non Verbal message (smile, high five)  Spend time with your children. (game, talk and smile at your child at lunch, helper,  Give affirmation: 5/1 ratio  Model positive behaviors (manners, ways to talk, share..)  Talk with children, make eye contact and watch, wait and listen to what s/he has to say. Affirmation is a form of encouragement that describes a specific positive behavior.   119    Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual 351
  • APPENDIX B | SEEDS of Emergent Literacy SEEDS Smart Goal SEEDS Smart Goals A Literacy Rich Classroom A SEEDS Quality Teacher Teaching the “Big 5” Family Involvement       120    352 Minnesota Reading Corps • 2010–2011 PreK Manual