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  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR THETEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRY Environment Protection Authority State Government of Victoria June 1998
  • 2. ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR THETEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING INDUSTRYEnvironment Protection AuthorityOlderfleet Buildings477 Collins StreetMelbourne Victoria 3000AustraliaPrinted on recycled paperPublication 621Cover photograph: Dyed fabric being unloaded from a jet dyeing machine.Photograph courtesy of Bradmill Undare Group© Environment Protection Authority, June 1998ISBN 0 7306 7544 0
  • 3. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing IndustryFOREWORDFor a number of years, EPA has been identifying and promoting alternatives to regulatory approaches for theprotection of the environment and the health of the community – both now and for future generations.These methods rely largely on the ability and willingness of industry and the community to take moreresponsibility for environmental performance.Like many other industries, the textile dyeing and finishing industry has been through a period ofadjustment and accommodation to environmental requirements and regulations. The industry is nowmore responsive to environmental issues and community concerns and committed to producing positiveenvironmental outcomes.One of the mechanisms for achieving these outcomes and maximising environmental performance is forindustries to define and adopt Best Practice Environmental Management (BPEM) guidelines. Thispublication sets out BPEM guidelines for the textile dyeing and finishing industry. The guidelines weredeveloped in consultation with the industry and have been endorsed by it.These guidelines will be reviewed regularly and updated as necessary on the basis of operatingexperience and the development of national standards. Users are encouraged to evaluate their usefulnessand provide comment to assist in this review process.I commend these guidelines to the textile dyeing and finishing industry and urge their adoption andimplementation in the interests of improved environmental performance.BRIAN ROBINSONCHAIRMANAcknowledgment:These guidelines were prepared under contract by Laney Pickett & Associates and Infotech Research. Page i
  • 4. Environment Protection AuthorityCONTENTS FOREWORD....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................i1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINES .............................................................................. 1 1.2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES ........................................................................................ 1 1.3 BEST PRACTICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ............................................... 1 1.4 USING THE GUIDELINES............................................................................................... 22 TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING .................................................................................. 33 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................... 4 LEGISLATION ....................................................................................................................... 4 The Environment Protection Act 1970 ................................................................................. 4 Policies................................................................................................................................ 4 Some design ground level air emission concentrations [SEPP (The Air Environment), Schedule C]......................................................................................................................... 5 Regulations ......................................................................................................................... 64 WASTE MINIMISATION ...................................................................................................... 7 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MINIMISATION............................................................. 7 4.2 IMPLEMENTING WASTE MINIMISATION................................................................... 7 Potential waste minimisation outcomes................................................................................. 8 Waste minimisation ............................................................................................................. 85 ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS ......................................................................................... 9 5.1 SITING FACILITIES AND MODIFYING EXISTING PLANT......................................... 9 Buffer distances................................................................................................................... 9 Industry............................................................................................................................... 10 Classification....................................................................................................................... 10 Recommended buffer distance (m)........................................................................................ 10 Siting .................................................................................................................................. 10 5.2 AIR QUALITY .................................................................................................................. 10 Types of emissions .............................................................................................................. 10 Common air emissions in textile dyeing and finishing ........................................................... 11 Waste minimisation ............................................................................................................. 11 Drying operations ................................................................................................................ 11 Stenters ............................................................................................................................... 11 Control systems ................................................................................................................... 12 Air emissions....................................................................................................................... 12 5.3 WATER QUALITY ........................................................................................................... 13 Policy Requirements ............................................................................................................ 14 Minimising wastewater generation ....................................................................................... 14 Liquor ratios for various dyeing processes............................................................................ 14 Dyebaths ............................................................................................................................. 15 Suggestions for bleaching .................................................................................................... 15 Treatment of dyebath wastewater ......................................................................................... 15 Salt in dyeing effluent .......................................................................................................... 16 Finishing applications .......................................................................................................... 16 Wastewater ......................................................................................................................... 16 5.4 CHEMICAL AND WASTE STORAGE AND HANDLING .............................................. 16 Chemical and waste storage and handling............................................................................. 17Page ii
  • 5. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry 5.5 SOLID WASTE AND PRESCRIBED WASTE ................................................................. 19 Waste fibre.......................................................................................................................... 18 Packaging waste .................................................................................................................. 18 Packaging waste .................................................................................................................. 19 Solid waste disposal............................................................................................................. 19 Solid waste reduction........................................................................................................... 19 5.6 NOISE ............................................................................................................................... 20 Noise in textile processing equipment ................................................................................... 20 Noise................................................................................................................................... 20 5.7 ENERGY CONSUMPTION .............................................................................................. 20 Heat recovery ...................................................................................................................... 21 Lighting............................................................................................................................... 21 Compressed air.................................................................................................................... 21 Operation of stenters/drying chambers.................................................................................. 21 General................................................................................................................................ 21 Energy saving plan .............................................................................................................. 22 Energy................................................................................................................................. 226 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ................................................................................. 23 6.1 BENEFITS OF SOUND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ...................................... 23 6.2 KEY ELEMENTS OF AN EMS ........................................................................................ 23 Commitment........................................................................................................................ 23 Initial performance review.................................................................................................... 24 Environmental policy ........................................................................................................... 24 Suggested features of environmental policy .......................................................................... 24 Objectives, targets and the program...................................................................................... 24 Implementation and operation .............................................................................................. 25 Reviews and corrective action .............................................................................................. 25 Audits and compliance......................................................................................................... 25 ISO 14001........................................................................................................................... 25 6.3 EPA’S ACCREDITED LICENSEE SYSTEM ................................................................... 25 Environmental management ................................................................................................. 26GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................................... 27APPENDIX 1 BPEM : THE NEW PARADIGM....................................................................... 29APPENDIX 2 QUICK REFERENCE AND SELF ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FORTEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING FACILITIES.............................................................. 30 QUICK REFERENCE AND SELF ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING FACILITIES ............................................................................... 30APPENDIX 3 REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCES .......................................... 32 Page iii
  • 6. Environment Protection AuthorityPage iv
  • 7. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry1 INTRODUCTIONAustralia’s textile manufacturing industry improvement through the adoption of ancomprises a group of highly interrelated environmental management system (EMS).industries. In 1992/93 the textile manufacturing 1.2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINESindustry in Australia employed more than24,000 people. Victoria is the major textile- This document is intended as a guideline forproducing state, with nearly half of the industry participants seeking to adopt BPEM.industry’s total employment. It contains information on:Every process and almost every operation within • textile wet processing and finishinga textile dyeing and finishing plant has an operations, and wastes generatedenvironmental aspect that should be considered • Government’s environmental policies and theand for which the environmental performance regulatory environmentcan potentially be improved. • opportunities for technology and processThe future development of the industry will improvementdepend on several factors, including the adoption • strategies for setting environmental goalsof Best Practice Environmental Management • achieving environmental goals via an EMS,(BPEM). BPEM encompasses the identification waste minimisation and cleaner productionand implementation of policies that are programs.environmentally beneficial while beingconsistent with business practices and The guidelines can be used by all manufacturerscommercial practicalities. and participants in the supply chain, government agencies and industry organisations. While theBPEM is synonymous with Best Practice guidelines have been written specifically forBusiness Management. Both aim to maximise Victoria, the principles and practices applythe efficiency of raw material usage, while equally across Australia. The guidelines do notminimising the consumption of energy, water disadvantage Victorian operations over those inand auxiliary chemicals and the discharge of other States.environmentally damaging materials. 1.3 BEST PRACTICEBPEM is driven not by compliance, but by the ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTrecognition that efficient resource usage resultsin increased productivity as well as reduced Best Practice Environmental Managementenvironmental impact. (BPEM) means managing an organisation or activity to achieve a high level of environmental1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE performance which is sustainable, continuously GUIDELINES improves and is consistent with business or economic objectives. Thus, BPEM needs to beThese guidelines will help members of the textile integrated with overall management philosophydyeing and finishing industry develop programs, and practice.systems and practices to improve theirenvironmental performance to best practice The BPEM publication series compriseslevels, in an affordable, sustainable and efficient guidelines and codes of practice for industryway. sectors or activities, which outline what is needed to achieve optimum environmentalThe guidelines identify the major environmental outcomes, consistent with the industry’saspects of the textile dyeing and finishing industry economic viability.and describe ways industry can assess andminimise potential and actual environmental BPEM may encompass site selection, processimpacts. Emphasis is given to the development of a design, technology choice, key operatingmanaged approach to continual environmental parameters and procedures, contingency arrangements, and monitoring and auditing aspects. Page 1
  • 8. Environment Protection AuthorityBPEM publications outline key environmental total quality management approach, toobjectives relevant to the industry or activity and voluntarily adopt BPEM guidelines and codes.provide suggested measures to achieve theseobjectives. Satisfactory implementation of the BPEM represents a commitment by managementsuggested measures will result in meeting the to adopt improved practices within the company.objectives. However, operators are able to Appendix 1 summarises the new paradigm.consider alternative ways to meet the objectivesand to apply the best site-specific solution with 1.4 USING THE GUIDELINESan outcome equivalent to, or better than, the These guidelines focus on key issues and areassuggested measure. Thus, innovation is not for investigation, and identify relevantstifled and flexibility is provided, while those information and source materials. The guidelinesseeking greater direction or certainty can simply suggest feasible improvement measures specificapply the suggested measures. to the textile dyeing and finishing industry, asThe underlying philosophy of BPEM guidelines well as methodology and tools. The guidelinesand codes is to provide a forward looking do not aim to provide detailed technicalapproach rather than simply reflect the current solutions.norm. Where problems or issues occur within The guidelines identify the main environmentalthe industry, a direction or solution to these will issues, related environmental objectives, andbe included. suggested methods by which the objectives canA comprehensive EMS – preferably in be met.accordance with the principles outlined in the A checklist is provided in Appendix 2 to assistInternational Organisation for Standardisation plant management carry out a thorough(ISO) 14000 series – is an integral part of evaluation of the relevant environmental issuesBPEM. These principles include the and identify all possible areas where action candetermination of all environmental aspects be taken or improvements can be made.associated with the company’s activities, and aprocess of continual improvement inenvironmental performance.BPEM provides the opportunity to harness thefollowing benefits:• reduction in unit costs• opportunities for eco-marketing• potential reduction in EPA licence fees• possible preferred supplier status• potential reduction in resource consumption• sustainable improvements in environmental performance• improved community perceptions and relations• increased compliance with regulatory requirements• reduced exposure to risk (occupational safety and health as well as environmental)A BPEM guideline or code is not of itselfmandatory, but the potential exists to refer tosuch a document in approvals, licences orpermits. Regulatory authorities generally expectforward-looking manufacturers who arecommitted to continuous improvement through aPage 2
  • 9. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry2 TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHINGThe textile dyeing and finishing industry hastraditionally generated large volumes of wasteand been a large consumer of energy.As it may take 200 litres of water to produce,dye and finish one kilogram of finished textile,the industry has a high demand for water andserious effluent management issues to address.Textile finishing also requires the input of awide range of chemicals which, if not containedin the final product, become waste treatment anddisposal problems.A large proportion of the environmental issuesaffecting the industry are related to the use anddischarge of water. Washings from dyeing andrinsing operations may produce hot, alkaline,highly saline, odorous and highly coloured effluent.Other environmental issues requiringconsideration are energy, chemical usage,stormwater, solid wastes, emissions toatmosphere, contaminated land, noise,hazardous materials, groundwater and otherenvironmental issues particular to the location ofa facility. Textile dyeing and finishing Processes employed operations • Pretreatment • Wool scouring • Dyeing • Wool finishing • Finishing • Dry processing • Bleaching • Woven fabric finishing • Printing • Knit fabric finishing • Coating • Carpet manufacture • Sizing and desizing • Stock and yarn dyeing and finishing Page 3
  • 10. Environment Protection Authority3 STATUTORY REQUIREMENTSFundamental principles which guide Victorian Under the Act, discharges of wastes into theGovernment policy and legislation on the environment must accord with State environmentenvironment include: protection policies (SEPPs), which identify beneficial uses for particular segments of the• pollution prevention (eg through waste environment, and establish ambient objectives avoidance and risk reduction) and discharge limits.• the precautionary principle (to enable prudent action to be taken in the absence of complete Policies scientific certainty) The Environment Protection Act 1970 provides• sustainable development for the formulation and adoption of SEPPs and• the “polluter pays” principle. Industrial Waste Management Policies (IWMPs) by the Government.LEGISLATION SEPPs provide a framework for environmentalCurrent Acts, policies and Regulations protection in Victoria by identifying “beneficialadministered by EPA are listed in Appendix 3 uses” of the environment to be protected,References and Information Sources. environmental objectives appropriate to those uses, and plans and programs for the attainmentThe Environment Protection Act 1970 of those objectives.The Environment Protection Act 1970 provides IWMPs define and give effect to strategic plans forfor the control of water, air and land pollution, the management of industrial waste, includingindustrial waste and the emission of noise. The waste minimisation initiatives, and the regulation ofAct is administered by EPA. waste treatment and disposal facilities. Owners and Environment shareholders Protection Act State environment TEXTILE DYEING AND protection FINISHING PLANT: policies (SEPPs) Employees EPA Management response to - Air environmental issues in the - Water - Land following areas: - Noise Local Government ã plant location Planning ã waste water Regulations ã air emissions Industrial Waste ã solid waste Management ã noise Policies ã energy Community ã hazardous materials ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICESPage 4
  • 11. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing IndustryThe State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Far East Gippsland (SEPP No W-Air Environment), (the Air Policy) specifies 21).both emission limits and acceptable ground levelconcentrations for pollutants that may be emitted Some industries are undertaking directby industrial and other premises. application of wastewater to land for irrigation under EPA licence conditions. This accords withEmissions from industrial facilities must comply SEPPs for surface waters, which require thatwith the Air Policy. wastewater be directed to sustainable land disposal instead of being discharged to surface waters, wherever this is achievable. Some design ground level air emission concentrations [SEPP (The Air Many wastewater discharges are to reticulated Environment), Schedule C] sewerage systems operated by water authorities or water businesses – in which case the ppm mg/m3 discharge requirements are usually governed byAmmonia 0.8000 0.60000 the operator of the sewerage system and are not subject to direct EPA controls.Acetic acid 0.0420 0.50000 The State Environment Protection PolicyCotton dust (raw) 0.00670 (Control of Noise from Commerce, IndustryHydrogen chloride 0.2000 0.20000 and Trade) No. N-1 1989, specifies permissible noise limits in noise sensitive areas – such asHydrogen sulphide 0.0001 0.00014 residential buildings, hospitals and motels. TheOdour 1 odour unit acceptable noise levels which are specified are related to the type of development in theThe Air Policy also requires the control of surrounding area. Noise limits are set byodorous substances and particles. adjusting background noise levels for day, evening and night conditions. If adequate bufferSchedules in the Policy set out the control distances have been provided and maintained,requirements for specific industries. noise requirements can more easily be met.Schedule F-4 describes requirements to control TYPICAL NOISE LIMITS: dB(A)discharges of waste to air from the textile dyeing Day Evening Nightand finishing industry. Residential 50-54 44-48 39-43Under the Policy, EPA has discretion to exemptoperations from compliance with Schedule F in Commercial 59-63 52-57 47-52certain circumstances. These include situations districtwhere compliance would preclude innovative Predominantly 63-68 57-61 52-56control or energy saving technologies, and are industrydiscussed at 5.2.Similarly, the State Environment Protection The SEPP applies only to the MelbournePolicy (Waters of Victoria) and other SEPPs metropolitan area. In country areas, EPA mayrelated to surface waters prescribe quality limits set noise targets based on the SEPP and may usefor wastewaters discharged to various receiving discretion in each particular case.environments and water quality objectives forthose water bodies. Requirements for The Industrial Waste Management Policy (Wastewastewaters vary for different water bodies, Minimisation) 1980 (Waste Minimisation Policy)where different beneficial uses may apply. specifies objectives for minimising industrial waste through avoidance and reduction, in preference toThese may be defined in SEPPs for different recycling and reclamation. Thus, this policy shiftscatchments – for example, Waters of the Yarra the emphasis from regulatory approaches and “endRiver and Tributaries (SEPP No W-29) and The of pipe” pollution control to “cradle-to-grave” controls. The Industrial Waste Strategy established Page 5
  • 12. Environment Protection Authoritysystems and controls for hazardous wastes, as well However, sites which do not carry out bothas fostering industry agreements for waste dyeing and finishing are exempt from licensingreduction and industry codes of practice. for discharges to air, although they still require works approval for the installation of new plantAmong other things, the Waste Minimisation or modifications to existing plant.Policy requires all new development subject toworks approval under the Act to develop a waste As well as being required for the installation ofmanagement plan, with emphasis on waste new plant, works approval must precedeminimisation. alterations to existing scheduled premises, which will increase or change waste discharges. WorksSome processes generate wastes with a high approval is also needed to relocate plant orpotential to cause environmental harm. These waste discharge points. Refer to section 19A(1)“priority wastes” have to be specially managed of the Environment Protection Act 1970 for aand treated to minimise the risk of pollution. All complete description of works approvalnew premises and modifications to existing obligations.processes generating “priority wastes” arerequired to use best available technology. The Environment Protection (Prescribed Waste) Regulations 1998 classify certainRegulations industrial and domestic wastes as prescribedThe Environment Protection (Scheduled Premises waste. Prescribed waste can only be removedand Exemptions) Regulations 1996 describe from a site by an approved waste transporter.premises which are scheduled, and thus required to Some of the solid wastes generated by the dyeingcomply with the licensing and works approval and finishing industry are prescribed (seeprovisions of the Environment Protection Act Section 5.5).1970. Specific discharges which are exempt from The Environment Protection (Prescribedthe licensing provisions are also listed. Waste) Regulations 1998 also contain details ofTextile dyeing and finishing works are scheduled, the transport certificate system for the movementand hence subject to works approval and licensing. of prescribed industrial waste and define theThis classification includes plants carrying out responsibilities of the waste producer, accreditedcarpet manufacturing, wool scouring, and textile agent, waste transporter and waste processor.bleaching, dyeing and finishing.Page 6
  • 13. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry4 WASTE MINIMISATIONWaste minimisation is an important part of improvements can be assessed, this data willBPEM. By focussing on waste avoidance and allow waste reduction options to be evaluated.reduction through use of cleaner production Pathway to cleaner productionprocesses and practices, pollution control andwaste disposal costs can be lowered. Performance Large stepPRIORITIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT technology change Small step Reduce/Avoid incremental improvements Reuse/Recycle Time Treatment Increasing Disposal Increasing 4.2 IMPLEMENTING WASTE benefit cost MINIMISATION A useful approach to waste minimisationPreference should be given to waste avoidance involves the preparation of a Wasteor reduction, ahead of recycling and reuse. If Management Plan (WMP) The starting point forthese type of actions are not possible then, and a WMP is a waste audit. This should:only then, should treatment be considered, • identify all gaseous, liquid and solid wastefollowed by the least preferred alternative of streamswaste disposal. • quantify and characterise the waste streams4.1 INTRODUCTION TO WASTE • establish the methods of waste stream MINIMISATION generation. Having done the waste audit, a waste assessmentWaste minimisation includes good housekeeping is then carried out. This involves anpractices and changes to staff attitudes, as well investigation of production processes and rawas technical factors. Improvements as simple as material purchases, and an assessment of allensuring water is turned off when equipment is waste streams.not working or arranging production to minimisethe amount of cleaning required may collectively A technical and economic feasibility analysis isadd up to significant gains. The potential impact then conducted to determine which wasteof such non-technological or “low-tech” minimisation opportunities identified should bemeasures should not be underestimated. adopted.Some of the smaller incremental improvements are The WMP contains an implementation timetableeasy to gain, but difficult to maintain. Teamwork and a description of the method ofand commitment from production staff, supported implementation, the anticipated cost andby strong management and effective management environmental benefits.systems, should enable sustainable and continuousperformance improvement. The waste minimisation program should not be a one-off activity, but should be periodicallyAnother essential part of waste minimisation is reviewed to ensure that the WMP is beingunderstanding what wastes are being produced adhered to, and to identify any new wasteand the processes which generate them. As well minimisation opportunities.as establishing a baseline against which Page 7
  • 14. Environment Protection AuthorityThe waste minimisation program should also be Waste minimisationan integral part of the company’s approach toenvironmental management. Thus, it should be a Objectivekey element when an EMS is established. To minimise waste generation and maximiseSpecific waste minimisation measures are economic benefits.described in sections 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 Suggested measures Potential waste minimisation outcomes • Establish a management policy in support of waste minimisation.• Less water inputs and wastes generated. • Establish a waste management team which• Less chemical usage. includes operators and technical staff.• Less energy input. • Conduct a waste audit.• Faster dyeing cycles. • Assess viable waste minimisation projects.• Improved economic performance. • Prepare a Waste Management Plan. • Increase staff awareness of wasteFurther information can be found in EPA minimisation principles and practices.publications Guidelines for Preparing Waste • Increase operator understanding ofAssessments – A Practical Guide Towards performance factors.Cleaner Production (Publication 277),Guidelines for Preparation of Waste • Motivate operators to improve performance.Management Plans (Publication 383) and WasteMinimisation, Assessments and Opportunitiesfor Industry (Publication 351).Page 8
  • 15. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry5 ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTSEnvironmental elements relating to the industry are causes such as equipment failure, accidents andset out in the following sections. One of the main abnormal weather conditions. The bufferpotential impacts of this industry is on water distance is usually measured from the nearestquality. Air quality, site selection, noise impacts textile activity capable of emitting odour.and other important issues are also addressed. Buffer distances should not be regarded as an alternative to good source control, as discussed5.1 SITING FACILITIES AND in 5.2. Air modelling studies may be necessary MODIFYING EXISTING PLANT at the design stage for large operations to assistEnvironmental factors are one of the most in assessing the possible risk of adverse impactimportant considerations in siting a new facility on local amenity.or upgrading an existing plant. Careful site Siting should also take into account the need toselection can reduce the risk of environmental protect sensitive natural water resources. Thus aproblems during the operational life of the plant. textile plant should not be sited within 100Important environmental factors to be metres of surface waters, nor be located on aconsidered in siting textile plants are: flood plain or in declared special water supply• proximity to residential areas (buffer distance catchment areas, unless adequate protection of requirements) surface and groundwaters can be demonstrated• future land use by the proponent.• site hydrology Buffer distances between textile plant processing• weather and prevailing wind conditions in operations and sensitive areas should be relation to sensitive land uses determined with reference to Recommended• geology and ground permeability Buffer Distances for Residual Air Emissions (EPA Publication AQ 2/86).• site contamination• proposed nature of wastes and treatment Where a new or modified facility is proposed systems within a recommended buffer, a risk assessment• water supply and availability of waste-water should be carried out to assess the potential for treatment and disposal facilities adverse effects on sensitive uses. If a risk assessment shows unacceptable risks, alternative• presence of incompatible industrial neighbours. siting or technology need to be considered.These issues should be considered at greenfieldsites and when relocating or modifying existing Buffer distances usually are considered for newplant. or green field sites or for additional work on existing sites. If there is to be substantialRequirements for planning new industrial development on existing sites with potentiallydevelopments are prescribed under the Planning inadequate buffers, the site developers usuallyand Environment Act 1987. Planning approval need to show that the introduced technology willmay be required for the establishment of a textile reduce any risk of adverse impacts.plant. A buffer may be occupied by compatible non-Buffer distances sensitive land uses. Buffer zones can also be provided within a site by wise use of availableIn order to provide a basic level of protection land. Some typical buffer distances for textilefrom odour, dust and noise, a textile dyeing and industries taken from Recommended Bufferfinishing plant should not be located Distances for Residual Air Emissions (EPAinappropriately with regard to designated Publication AQ 2/86) are provided below.residential areas or other sensitive land uses.This is to protect the amenity of the area byanticipating possible unintended or accidentalemissions that may occasionally arise from Page 9
  • 16. Environment Protection Authority Industry Classification Recommended buffer distance (m)Dyeing or finishing of cotton, linen 300and woollen yarns and textilesCarpet backing with latex 300Production of artificial fibres and (a) cellulose nitrate or viscose fibre 1,000textiles (b) other synthetic fibres and 500 textileTreatment or production of textiles (a) using carbon disulphide 500 (b) using other substances Determined by EPA on site-specific basisRope, cordage and twine 100Wool scouring 200 Siting 5.2 AIR QUALITY Types of emissionsObjectiveTo minimise environmental impacts by The main emissions to atmosphere from textileappropriate site selection. dyeing and finishing processes are odours and particles. These emissions arise from drying,Suggested measures bleaching, heat setting, stentering and other• Site new plants in accordance with buffer finishing processes. Their control represents a distance recommendations Recommended major challenge to the industry. Buffer Distances for Residual Air Emissions The SEPP (The Air Environment) contains (EPA Publication AQ 2/86). specific requirements for stationary sources and• Site at least 100 metres from surface waters. specifies emission limits for various pollutants.• Site so that prevailing winds will not transport pollutants and noise towards As previously noted, Schedule F4 of the State sensitive land uses. Environment Protection Policy (The Air• Consider the current and future proximity of Environment) sets out emission controls for sensitive developments. textile dyeing and finishing plants. However, the Policy allows EPA to exempt sites from compliance with Schedule F, subject to ambient objectives being met. The policy identifies the following matters as being relevant: • compliance with policy would increase or create waste disposal problems • compliance would preclude the use of energy saving technology or innovative controls • compliance cannot be achieved by using reasonably available technologyPage 10
  • 17. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry• maximum ground level concentrations will be preceded by screening for their potential to not be exceeded and the discharge will not generate odour and smoke emissions adversely affect any beneficial use of the environment. Waste minimisationIn considering an exemption, EPA will look at Waste minimisation is an integral part ofhow effectively the proposed alternative BPEM. Each facility should initially investigatetechnology will control emissions compared with opportunities for waste reduction throughthe controls set out in Schedule F4. process, material or product changes which may result in elimination of emissions or reductionsIn accordance with the SEPP, EPA licences in their quantities or toxicity.impose specific requirements for emissioncontrols for a production facility. Emissions can For example, emissions will be minimised for aoften be estimated from a knowledge of products particular heat setting or stentering process if theused and volatiles likely to be emitted, but coating used on the fibre is applied at theusually need to be determined by testing. Ground optimal level. Non-optimal coating layers willlevel concentrations can then be determined at result in correspondingly greater emissions andthe peak operating conditions through the use of the facility will lose money in wasted inputs asplume dispersion modelling. well as the increased requirement to treat wastes. In recent years, the use of toxic moth proofing Common air emissions in agents that do not biodegrade readily – such as textile dyeing and finishing pentachlorophenol – by the textile finishing industry has ceased. Alternatives toEmission Sources formaldehyde based resins are also available toWater and steam Drying, stentering and reduce the environmental risk of this biocide. heating operations Quantification of the processes which generateCarbon Dioxide Boilers, forklifts, engines emissions will lead to better understanding of and transport waste generation and hopefully the identification of both simple and more complex opportunitiesOils and mists Finishing, stentering, to reduce emissions. proofing Drying operationsSolvents, VOCs Stentering, drycleaning and washing processes There are several different technologies available to textile finishing facilities for drying.Ammonia Dyeing and printing Each of the drying processes – mechanicalFormaldehyde Coating, crosslink finishing drying, steam heating, hot air, or RF drying systems – should be examined from the point ofCarriers Dyeing environmental outcomes as well as efficiencies, energy consumption and cost. MonitoringOrganic finishes Coating and finishing intermediate and final product moisture levels and using this information to optimise dryingBPEM involves investigation of these emissions, processes is sound practice.identification of ways to avoid or minimise them,and formulation of controls on residual Stentersemissions to reduce any negative impacts on theenvironment. This process should consider Stenters may be major emission sources ofemissions during both normal and abnormal particle emissions. As well as applying wasteoperating conditions – such as plant and process minimisation practices – such as using optimumstart-up, commissioning of new plant, power and coating levels and applying less volatile coatingsequipment failure, and fires. – the following steps should be considered:The introduction of new products such as dyecarriers and lubricating and finishing oils should Page 11
  • 18. Environment Protection Authority• examining opportunities to use less volatile gases from an afterburner could be used to preheat finishes, less toxic and odorous chemicals in incoming waste stenter gases. dyeing• turning off power to machine when not in use (this may be automated)• optimising oven performance (measure it first)• splitting the oven exhaust wastes and recycling the clean streams (most of the volatiles are emitted in the first oven)• warming up incoming gases using heat exchange with out-going hot emissions (equipment has been specifically designed for this application)• using moisture meters to minimise the amount of exhaust gases required for the process by motor control• using a mist eliminator to reduce particle emissions.Control systemsEmissions of waste gases can be controlledusing stack gas treatment systems.The following emission control systems shouldbe investigated as part of BPEM:• diversion of stack emissions to neutralise alkaline effluent (CO2 to CO3_H2CO3)• diversion of stack emissions through the boiler, to reduce VOC and odour emissions• cooling and filtration (heat recovery possible)• gas scrubbing (water pollution and operating cost high)• electrostatic filtering (removal of particles requires energy).The applicability of the above approaches willdepend on individual circumstances.Some of these systems are very efficient incontaminant removal, but do not necessarilyeliminate wastes. For example, stack gasscrubbing to remove volatile organiccomponents does not destroy thesecontaminants, but condenses them into a liquid.This has to be discharged as effluent or as asludge requiring specialised disposal. Thisreinforces the desirability of waste minimisation.It is possible to save energy by using hot emissionsto heat up incoming gases. For instance, exhaustPage 12
  • 19. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry 5.3 WATER QUALITY Air emissions The most difficult environmental issue for theObjective textile dyeing and finishing industry is theTo reduce air emissions and conserve energy generation of wastewaters. Effluent qualityresources, to ensure there is no health risk or limits can be difficult for companies to meetloss of amenity. amd are likely to become more stringent, requiring textile dyeing and finishing operationsSuggested measures to employ waste minimisation, to avoid resorting• Review and analyse emissions and monitor to expensive on-site treatment. and analyse consumption of inputs which generate these emissions. Environmental issues associated with textile industry effluents include:• Assess opportunities to replace volatile with non-volatile components and toxic with lower • residual dyestuffs – toxicity, colour, toxicity components. biodegradability• Assess each material for its toxicity and • halogenated organic compounds (AOXs) environmental hazards: • heavy metal contamination (Cr, Cu, Zn)— is it a priority waste, listed in Schedule A of the Waste Minimisation • surfactants and synergistic relationship with Policy? toxicants— does it contain toxic components? • salts in effluent which is to be reused for land— is it reactive with other materials? application— will it photodecompose? • auxiliary agents for dyeing – toxicity and— is it particularly odorous? biodegradability• Review all coating materials for volatility • finishes – toxicity and biodegradability and odour potential. • elevated temperatures• Reduce coating concentrations where practical.• Run fans and ventilation equipment more • high levels of total oxidised sulphur (TOS) efficiently: • high BOD levels.— use speed variation to reduce emissions Policy requirements— switch off equipment when processes are The first priority for wastewater management is the not running. implementation of waste avoidance and reduction.• Reuse exhaust gases in other parts of the plant or off-site. Where reticulated sewer is available, wastewater should be directed to the sewer, with the• Automate the operation of machinery to approval of the system’s operator. Pretreatment switch off when not in use. may be required.• Monitor and control fugitive emissions.• Capture emissions from heat setting Where sewer is unavailable, the preferred machines and duct to a chimney. method of managing wastewater is to use it for land irrigation, in accordance with the SEPP• Use pressure dyeing machines where (Waters of Victoria). Irrigation schemes should practical. be designed in accordance with Guidelines for• No heat setting of goods with excess volatiles Wastewater Irrigation (EPA Publication 168), (more than 0.3% w/w). to be sustainable and avoid contaminating land• Ensure atmospheric batch dyeing machines or groundwater. are vented and fugitive emissions controlled. Disposal to surface waters should only be• During dye carrier and/or sulphur operations considered if a combination of waste for atmospheric batch dyeing, machines minimisation, recycling and land irrigation should be completely enclosed with any cannot avoid a wastewater discharge to surface venting ducted to a chimney. water. Page 13
  • 20. Environment Protection AuthorityIf discharge to surface waters is being • optimise production to reduce liquor ratiosconsidered, the requirements of the relevantSEPPs must be observed. Key parameters for • optimise and reduce the number of rinsespolicy compliance include toxicity, colour and • optimise cycle times and job turn-aroundtotal dissolved solids (TDS). Discharges should • use lower liquor ratio machinerynot display acute or chronic toxicity; dischargesshould not cause objectionable colours in • reduce reprocessing through better qualityreceiving waters; and TDS levels in receiving controlswaters should not be increased unacceptably. • combine rinses with scoursTo ensure policy compliance, wastewater quality • scours may be done in dyebathshould be comparable with that of the receiving • recycle steam condensate back to boilerswaters. This would be likely to require atreatment regime combining processes such as • recycle cooling waste to use as hot/ mixedsedimentation, chemical dosing, dissolved air hot-cold fillflotation, biological oxidation and filtration. The • recycle rinses as feeds for dyebaths and scourcapital and operating costs of such complex bathstreatment processes may be significant. Theseprocesses also generate sludge, which requires • recycle “clean rinses”.an environmentally sound disposal route. A key factor in water usage in dyeing, scouring, bleaching and other textile finishing processes isAn assessment of potential TDS impacts would the “liquor ratio” – the volume of liquor requiredhave to consider the characteristic high TDS in the process per kilogram of fibre. Dyeinglevels of textile industry wastewater and the plants have been developed which operates withlarge natural TDS variation in Victorian waters progressively lower liquor ratios to reduce water(from tens of mg/L to thousands of mg/L). Thus, usage. Care should be taken to investigate thesuch an assessment should be site-specific and overall environmental impact of some of thesemay have to consider treatment processes such processes before a decision is made to adoptas reverse osmosis. them.Minimising wastewater generation Liquor ratios for various dyeing processesAs for emissions to atmosphere, the generalapproach to wastewater minimisation is to: Process litres/kg• audit all wastewater streams Dyeing winches 20-30 : 1• assess options for minimising each individual Hank machines 30 : 1 stream• prepare a plan for implementing the selected Jet dyeing 7-10 : 1 options. Package dyeing 5-8 : 1A good starting point is to ensure that Pad batch 5:1formulations do not use excessive amounts ofchemicals or water. This may involve a program ULLR dyeing 5:1of trials and monitoring. Once the optimumformulations have been determined, operating Exhaust dyeing can achieve high levels of dyeprocedures should be put in place to ensure they fixation to the fibre and may produceare adhered to. A number of Victorian plants significantly lower levels of dye waste.have successfully used this approach. Simple effluent volume reduction may result inWhen assessing options to minimise wastewater reduced effluent disposal charges, but the effectstreams, consider the following methods: of volume reduction may simply be to concentrate contaminants. This could require• minimise machine cleaning through better contaminant minimisation or treatment to meet maintenance and production planningPage 14
  • 21. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industrytrade waste acceptance standards or to reduce water in fixing and washing off (soaping andenvironmental impacts in cases of discharges to rinsing)surface waters. • improving repeatability of shades – hence reducing the need to correct shades – byDyebaths maintaining more accurate records and betterDyebaths generally have high levels of dye delivery systems.BOD/COD, colour, toxicity, surfactants, fibresand turbidity, and may contain heavy metals. Suggestions for bleachingThey generally constitute a small fraction oftotal liquid effluent volumes, but may contribute • Avoid chlorinated bleaches where possiblea high proportion of total contaminants. (hydrogen peroxide may be used to avoid pollution).Dyes naturally tend to generate highly visiblecolour problems. The reduction of colour in the • Recycle unspent bleaching liquors.spent dyebaths will help reduce the final effluent • Avoid the need for bleaching by minimisingcolour. reprocessing.Methods to reduce dyebath contamination levels • Reduce machine cleaning requirements withinclude: more timely maintenance and by planning• choose biodegradable surfactants production to follow light shades with dark.• reduce salt usage in dyebaths – high levels of • Post-bleaching of peroxide stable shades salts make reuse of the spent liquors difficult bleach in boil-off bath of dyeing. and expensive• ensure dye fixing is maximised Treatment of dyebath wastewater• recycle light shade dyebaths into darker shades Technologies are available to purify almost any• flocculate or otherwise remove dyes from waste stream from a textile facility. However, dyebaths before dropping them to effluent, or the cost of many of the treatment options makes for recycling. waste reduction an attractive alternative.Both dyes and application technologies are being The following techniques may be usedcontinually improved. Each facility should individually or in combination:balance the cost of dyes and processes againstthe environmental cost of cheap materials and • electrolysiswasteful processes. In particular, plant • adsorption (should be reversible)management should examine: • ultra-filtration, and reverse osmosis• use of low salt dyes • activated sludge digestion• dye toxicity and carcinogenicity, and heavy • dissolved air flotation metal content • bacterial treatment (aerobic and anaerobic)• pad batch, spray and other low volume application techniques • ozone treatment• use of CO2 for neutralisation instead of • oxidation/reduction (may lead to more mineral acids pollution)• use of low temperature dyeing techniques • flocculation – alum and ferric (again may lead to more pollution).• use of dyes with high levels of exhaustion The removal of dyes and other contaminants• use of dyes that fix well onto the fibre and may simply transfer the waste problem from one require less rinsing phase to another. Many of these treatments will• replacement of reactive dyes with direct dyes end up with a toxic byproduct that may have to – especially with heavier shades – to save be disposed of at a secure landfill. Page 15
  • 22. Environment Protection AuthorityThe BPEM solution to the problem of residual Once options for material substitution have beendyes and auxiliaries in effluent is to maximise examined, the next step to reduce contaminationthe fixation of the dyes on the fibre and to of the effluent from finishing materials is toconsider recycling the spent dyebath, after monitor and improve the level of fixation to thetreatment if necessary. fibre. If padding or spraying is used as an application method, can the over spray andSalt in dyeing effluent remaining baths be kept and reused? If theseSalts are an important issue for the textile options are exhausted it may be possible todyeing industry. Common salts are required in a separate and treat these waste streams beforenumber of dyeing systems – particularly for they are discharged.cotton dyeing where reactive dyes are used. WastewaterThe low value of salts makes them a poor target forrecovery and the small nature of the ions Objectivecomprising salts makes them difficult to remove bystandard effluent treatment methods. They are not To reduce water consumption and wastewaterremoved by biological treatments and require loads.physical or chemical separation techniques (reverse Suggested Measuresosmosis, evaporation, electrolysis). • Audit the wastewater streams to determine theSalts may affect the application of effluent to processes causing high volumes of water useland for irrigation purposes. It may be possible and those generating contaminated effluent.to examine the use of different salts, whichimprove effluent sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) • Optimise formulations, to reduce chemical and water usage.and hence improve reuse options. • Examine opportunities to replace toxic andBPEM is to use low salt dyeing techniques and non-biodegradable chemicals and dyes withto examine opportunities for dyebath recycling. alternatives that have a low toxicity and are readily biodegradable.Finishing applications • Consider processes that use less water andFinishing can lead to high levels of pollutants in chemicals.wastes. The moth proofing agents most commonlyused – pyrethrins – have a high degree of insect • Improve quality procedures to reducetoxicity. If this material is over applied, does not reprocessing.adhere well to the fibre, or washes off in post- • Use preventative maintenance to reducetreatments, the resulting wastes can be highly breakdowns and associated wastes.contaminated with pyrethrins. • Confirm reduction targets and associatedHeavy metals in finishing treatments and other savings.contaminants such as fluorides used for flame- • Identify possible reduction opportunitiesproofing can also lead to contamination of throughout processes.wastewater that is difficult to treat. • Examine automated control technologiesFinishing treatments should also be examined interms of the end use of the products. The • Establish reduction and recycling strategies for high volume waste processes and“cradle-to-grave” approach to environmental contaminated waste streams.management will include consideration of therecyclability or reusability of the textiles afterthe products have finished their natural life. If aproduct is likely to be incinerated there may beenvironmental problems if it contains heavymetals or resins that may break down to formtoxic gases.Page 16
  • 23. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry5.4 CHEMICAL AND WASTE — isolating and recovering spilled STORAGE AND HANDLING materials before they enter the environment or sewerage systemsAlthough it is necessary to store chemicals and — containing and cleaning up spills whichwastes at textile industry sites, this inevitably have entered waterwayscreates an environmental risk. Spills canseverely pollute land, surface waters and — disposal or reuse of recovered residuesgroundwater. A spill of even a low toxicity, — contacting key company andbiodegradable material to a waterway can lead government agency personnel to adviseto severe oxygen depletion and the death of them of the emergency.aquatic life. Although spillage may be • Provide continuous staff training.accidental, the responsible organisation may beliable for any environmental damage which Chemical and waste storage and handlingoccurs.Staff training is particularly important, as many Objectivespills are the result of human error. Management To reduce the risk of spillage or other lossesmust ensure that staff are trained and prepared which cause environmental damage.to prevent spills and know how to takecorrective action to contain split material or Suggested measuresprevent its release into the environment. This • Audit chemical and waste storage andtype of training must be continuous. handling, and evaluate the associated environmental risks.Staff must have access to adequate informationabout the nature of materials used in the work • Determine protective strategies and prioritiseplace, the hazards associated with their use and these in a plan, which may include thesafe handling and spill control measures. A following:comprehensive and up to date set of material — reducing inventories and using lesssafety data sheets must be available, along with hazardous materialsemergency procedure guides and safe handling — storing liquids in above ground storage tanksnotices in storage areas. — using automatic dispensing systemsClearly, a program to reduce the environmental — installing bunding in accordance withrisks associated with spills should be carried Bunding Guidelines (EPA Publicationout. It should include the following elements. 347) and Australian Standard AS1940• Firstly, audit current chemical and waste — installing spillage containment systems. and fire water storage facilities, and identify potential risks.• Implement a program to reduce risks, based • Establish an inspection, maintenance and monitoring program. on the results of the audit. The program should consider: • Establish a staff awareness and training— reducing inventories program.— replacing below ground with above • Develop, and keep up to date, emergency ground tanks plans and manifests.— replacing hazardous materials with less • Confirm that the storage and handling of hazardous/non-hazardous materials (for chemicals complies with the Dangerous example, replace mineral acids with Goods Act 1985 and applicable Dangerous acetic or formic acid) Goods Regulations.— using automatic dispensing systems— bunding.• Provide contingency plans to deal with any spills which occur. Plans should consider issues such as: Page 17
  • 24. Environment Protection Authority5.5 SOLID WASTE AND PRESCRIBED WASTESolid wastes do not generally present majorenvironmental problems in textile dyeing andfinishing. Most of the solid waste is generatedby salt bags, dyestuff and chemical containersand packaging. Other solid waste includes wastefibre and sludges from water purification andeffluent treatment facilities.Waste fibreWaste fibre can be recycled as a feedstock forother operations, including:• cleaning• dye adsorption• boiler feed• external uses• quilting• fibre pilling• insulation• geotextiles• low grade products• respinning and weaving• non-wovens.Packaging wasteChemical containers present a disposal problem,even when empty. A number of regulationsapply to reuse and transport of empty chemicalcontainers. Production facilities shouldinvestigate bulk chemical delivery rather thansupply in small containers to avoid disposalproblems.Page 18
  • 25. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry Packaging waste Solid waste reductionObjective ObjectiveTo reduce all forms of packaging going to To minimise the production of all forms of solidlandfill. waste.Suggested measures Suggested measures• Accept goods in bulk wherever practical. • Audit solid wastes generation and evaluate• Use returnable containment systems disposal systems and costs. (collapsible minibulk containers). • Identify opportunities to avoid or reduce solid• Use recyclable containers. wastes: — reduce packaging waste• Seek to return all non-recyclable containers — seek to have suppliers accept returns of to suppliers. left over materials• Segregate containers into recycling areas — seek greater process efficiencies and less (plastics, paper and cardboard, steel). reprocessing• Reuse non-hazardous containers. — introduce processes that generate less solid wastes.Solid waste disposal • Examine opportunities to reuse solid wastesSolid wastes from a dyehouse and finishing currently going to landfill, for example:plant have traditionally gone directly to — composting of putrescible solid wastesmunicipal tips. Under the Environment — food wastes as animal feedsProtection Act 1970 the waste generator has a — recycling fibre wastesresponsibility to ensure that wastes are properlydisposed of. Some solid wastes generated by the • Establish quantification and monitoring systems for prescribed wastes.textile finishing and dyeing industry areclassified as prescribed wastes and must be • Wherever practical, minimise generation oftransported in accordance with the Environment prescribed wastes.Protection (Prescribed Waste) Regulations • Establish systems to ensure that prescribed1998 to a suitably licensed landfill. wastes are managed in accordance with theThese include: relevant Regulations.• boiler blowdown sludge• filter cake sludges and residues• dyes• chromium compounds• oxidising and reducing agents• peroxides• surfactants• pesticides.For a complete listing, refer to the EnvironmentProtection (Prescribed Waste) Regulations 1998. Page 19
  • 26. Environment Protection Authority5.6 NOISE NoiseNoise coming from a textile production plantmay have a significant impact on the local Objectiveenvironment. Textile plants in the Melbourne To ensure no noise nuisance results from themetropolitan area must comply with the State facility.Environment Protection Policy (Control ofNoise from Commerce, Industry and Trade) Suggested measuresNo. N-1. • Locate unloading and transport operationsImpacts are greater where, as is the case for away from residential and other noisemany sites, textile plants are close to residential sensitive areas.areas. Because of the high potential for noise to • Ensure “hooters” are used for emergenciesaffect amenity, management should give high only.priority to liaising with the local community so • Avoid use of paging systems.that it can be aware of, and effectively resolve,noise issues. Potential noise impacts should be • Eliminate water hammer.considered at greenfield sites and when existing • Maintain steam and air hoses.plant is being modified or relocated. • Isolate equipment with vibration absorbentNoise abatement can often be achieved by pads.simple non-technical measures such as closing • Consider using acoustic louvres and doubledoors and shutter windows, controlling delivery glazing to reduce noise.hours and restricting fork lift movement on openroads. Telephones and loudspeakers can affect • Liaise with the local community to identifyresidential areas and should be considered. noise issues.Simple measures such as ensuring loudspeakersare directed away from residential areas may beeffective.Where noise abatement requires more detailedanalysis and control, an acoustic consultantshould be used. Noise in textile processing equipmentSource typical levels dB(A)Steam injection systemsVentilation fans 55-69Hooter/siren 57-70Air compressors 46-69Brushing machinesHydro extractorsForklift 50-60Page 20
  • 27. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry5.7 ENERGY CONSUMPTION • Use of daylight compensation dimmers.Energy efficiency and waste minimisation are Compressed airoften closely linked. Measures that avoid orreduce wastes often save energy and vice versa. • Reduce operating pressure where possible.Many of the energy savings that may be made in • Eliminate all leaks – even small leaks can beany facility relate to staff awareness of the need costly.to conserve energy and their attention to small • Shut down compressors on main air linesmeasures that can collectively make a big during idle periods.difference. Heating and lighting energy • Size the compressors to the application.requirements can be reduced through sensible • Size main lines correctly.conservation measures. Operation of stenters/drying chambersTextile dyeing and finishing facilities usesignificant quantities of energy for steam, power • Do not over dry (temperature and time).for motors, direct heat for drying, air • Use heat exchangers between inlet and outletcompressors, air conditioning and cooling. Each air.facility should consider and quantify the energy • Aim for a maximum exhaust moisture of 150usage of its processes and its overall energy g/kg when drying (less air = less energy).costs. The main opportunities for energy savings • Use auto pilots.will reside in the largest energy-using processes • Investigate low pick-up techniques andand products. Derivation of energy consumption technologies.benchmarks (for example, kJ/kg of production)is a good starting point if the various production • Minimise energy use during stand-by periods.processes can be so characterised. GeneralComparisons of the energy costs of drying • Examine and use low temperature technologies.methods usually present good opportunities forenergy and cost savings. Steam, gas and RF • Exchange heat from hot effluent to incomingdrying comparisons have shown that it is waters for boilers or hot baths.important to look at the efficiency of heat • Recover heat from boiler stacks and hotproduction and then the efficiency with which waste streams.this heat is transferred to the fibre. • Install frequency inverters on electric motorsOptions to reduce energy consumption which to reduce electricity usage.should be considered are outlined below. • Provide cut off systems to save energy during start up and shut down, and staggerHeat recovery equipment start ups.• Recover cooling water and use it as heated input water. • Insulate dyeing vessels, dryers and boilers.• Return steam condensate to boilers. • Insulate dryers.• Reuse different process waters. • Use more efficient pumping systems• Examine the efficiencies of existing heat (displacement pumps rather than pressure exchangers. pumps). • Recycle cooling waters as heated inputLighting waters for rinses or dyebaths.• Look for opportunities to delamp by better • Upgrade to high efficiency pumps and use of natural light, upgrading lamp electric motors. efficiencies, or adjusting areas which are overly bright. • Match the pump size to the application.• Use of motion sensor switches (smart • Measure boiler output in kilojoules and lighting). calculate the energy yield. Page 21
  • 28. Environment Protection Authority• Review dyeing programs and reduce Energy temperatures and time settings where possible.• Use of combustible wastes as fuel. Objective• Consider regulating air or water flows in air To improve the efficiency of energy usage and conditioning with variable speed drives or reduce consumption of energy per unit of motors. production on a continuous improvement basis.Energy saving plan Suggested measuresThe saving of energy requires a monitoring • Conduct an energy audit to determine theprogram, the setting of goals and targets, and major areas of energy use, and define andconcrete plans to implement changes. A review value each waste energy stream.of program outcomes and the accounting of • Determine and monitor the efficiency ofenergy consumption to individual processes and major energy using processes.products is important for making decisions on • Examine opportunities for energy use reduction.the energy and environmental costs of productsand processes. • Compare systems for efficiency in terms of cost and actual energy use.Any reduction in energy usage has the additionalbenefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as • Prepare a program of improvements in efficiencies.well as reducing operating costs. • Recognise and reward contributions from staff.Page 22
  • 29. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTEPA encourages the responsible self- solved promptly and efficiently. However, itmanagement of environmental issues by provides a framework within which theindustry through environmental management organisation’s skills and resources can be usedplans and environmental management systems effectively in tackling the opportunities for(EMSs). EPA’s ability to recognise good environmental improvement, starting with theenvironmental management has been enhanced highest priority projects – those that involvethrough the introduction of the accredited compliance and issues of due diligence forlicensee system. These initiatives should be management and those that can make aincorporated in the BPEM program. significant positive impact on environment and economic performance.6.1 BENEFITS OF SOUND The EMS should not exist as an independent ENVIRONMENTAL element in a management program. It should be MANAGEMENT integrated with other management structures –With commitment from management and staff, such as those for production, planning, qualitya company can gain continuing advances in management, and occupational health andenvironmental performance through the safety. An integrated approach will yield theimplementation of an EMS. maximum benefits because the fundamental elements of these management systems areEstablishment of an EMS within a company related and incorporate commitment, policy,enables the integration of environmental targets and programs, monitoring, and reviewpolicies and programs into management policy to achieve continuous improvement.and business operations. The EMS includes: In summary, the benefits of sound• the adoption of environmental policies and environmental management include: objectives• the formulation of environmental plans and • improved performance (environmental and programs economic) and reduced risk• the setting of performance targets • due diligence (regulatory, compliance and• the establishment of a system of regular more) monitoring and review of environmental • enhanced community relations and perceptions performance. • potential for eco-marketingA key feature is that it involves personnel at all • sustainable operations (that do not createlevels of the organisation in the achievement of resource or waste problems)environmental objectives. • performance measurement for betterAn EMS is a highly desirable component of the production managementtotal management program for a textile dyeingand finishing operation. Environmental • improved corporate image.management needs to be pro-active and deal 6.2 KEY ELEMENTS OF AN EMSwith the full range of environmental issues –both routine and unexpected. Reducing Commitmentwastewater loads needs as much attention ascontrolling chemical spills. Management needs to be fully committed to environmental improvement to provide theEnvironmental management is an ongoing sustained impetus to introduce and implementprocess, not a one-off exercise or a single an EMS, and to win the commitment andmanagement plan. A fundamental principle of support of staff at all levels in the organisation.EMS is continuous improvement. The person or people with principalAn EMS itself does not guarantee that all of a responsibility for EMS implementation must becompany’s environmental problems will be Page 23
  • 30. Environment Protection Authorityin a position to make or influence decisions on Suggested features of environmental policyplanning and resource allocation.Staff commitment is also critical to the The policy should:successful implementation of an EMS. Many of • be appropriate to the nature of thethe functions performed to generate company’s operations and impactsimprovements are at an operational level.Housekeeping and other basic operational • include a commitment to continuousfunctions that save resources and reduce improvement and cleaner productionenvironmental problems cannot work unless • require compliance with all legislation andstaff are involved in, and supportive of, the regulationenvironmental improvement process. • provide a framework to set and review theInitial performance review objectives and targetsThis may be called an environmental audit and • be documented and communicated to all staffshould include: • be available to the public• assessment of impacts of wastes and • have authority from the highest level in the emissions, raw material supply and organisation. consumption, and energy consumption• review of compliance with environmental law Objectives, targets and the program• evaluation of environmental implications of Once a policy is in place, strategic objectives can all company operations be set that are reasonable and achievable. The objectives should cover all of the priority areas for• environmental risk assessment environmental performance improvement.• review of management and monitoring systems Objectives must have a measurable outcome• review history of environmental performance. and a timeline for achievement. From theAt this point it may be suitable to compile a objectives, a series of targets can be set toregister of environmental regulations and ensure that the objectives are met in a timelycompliance issues, and a list of environmental fashion. An example is given below.aspects for consideration. ObjectiveManagement should then be in a position to Overall waste levels shall be reduce by 15%identify the major priorities for environmental per year, measured as a fraction of totalimprovements, and what resources are required production.to run the EMS. TargetsEnvironmental policy 1. Dye rinses shall be monitored and reducedThis sets the vision for the organisation in terms by 15% in year 1.of its environmental performance. With 2. Water purification system shall recycle allknowledge of the current position and backwashes in 6 monthsopportunities for improvement, management 3. Chemical wastage shall be monitored andcan set the basis for improvements. reduced by 5% in the first yearThe policy needs to establish a strong direction Objectives and targets should include controlfor the organisation if the EMS is to succeed. It measures that will extend preparedness foris much better to establish policy objectives that emergencies and excursions from normalthe organisation can reasonably achieve, and operations.for which realistic actions can be formulated. The program established to meet objectives and targets should use the strategies of cleaner production and waste reduction.Page 24
  • 31. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing IndustryImplementation and operation Management needs to demonstrate due diligence in its management of the environmentThe EMS should be an integral part of overall as well as compliance with all relevantmanagement. If ISO 9000 for quality control is environmental legislation, agreements and codesin operation, the EMS should pick up the of practice. Audits should be used to confirmdocument control procedures in use, and progress toward these goals.environmental objectives can be added to themanagement reporting system. ISO 14001It is essential that the responsibilities and An EMS can be part of a wider qualityactions within an EMS are structured so that management system. The EMS and (ifthe people responsible can make things happen, applicable) the quality management system mayand that reporting to the highest level of use ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 as guides tomanagement from each department is sound management systems.mandatory. This will ensure that the EMS isnot relegated to the background when other 6.3 EPA’S ACCREDITED LICENSEEpressures are placed on the organisation. SYSTEMTraining, awareness and competence is critical The accredited licensee system is described into ensure effective operations and sections 26A–26E of the Environmentimplementation of an EMS. The training should Protection Act 1970, introduced through theinclude all personnel whose work may create a Environment Protection (General Amendment)significant impact upon the environment. Act 1994.Employees must be made aware of allsignificant impacts their activities could cause, The system is designed to provide companiesand be aware of emergency preparedness and which have the necessary management,response requirements. technical and legal skills, and a commitment to good environmental performance, with a degreeThe EMS, including key procedures, should be of freedom from the prescriptive approach todocumented and periodically reviewed and works approval and licensing, as well as arevised. reduction in licence fees.Reviews and corrective action To gain accredited licensee status, the companyContinuous monitoring and regularly must hold a current waste discharge licence, haveprogrammed reviews of all components of the demonstrated a high level of environmentalEMS are necessary to ensure that: performance, and have an on-going capacity to maintain and improve this performance.• performance is optimised• changes in market, business and regulatory The following prerequisites are used in the environments are taken into account assessment of accredited licensee status.• achievement of objectives and targets is in • An EMS certified by a person approved by line with policies. EPA.It makes sense to review the EMS when other • An environmental audit program, with themanagement systems are reviewed. participation of an independent environmental auditor approved by EPA.Audits and compliance Regular auditing of environmental performance is an essential part of bestAuditing can be conducted using internal or practice. It establishes currentexternal auditors. It is wise to get independent environmental performance, indicates howpeople to carry out this role. If the organisation well environmental management iswants to gain certification for its EMS it must functioning and identifies new issues asuse external auditors accredited by the they arise. The use of externalappropriate bodies (JASANZ for ISO 14001 in environmental auditors ensuresAustralia and New Zealand) . independence and objectivity. Page 25
  • 32. Environment Protection Authority• An environment improvement plan, Additional information on the accredited developed in consultation with EPA and the licensee system can be obtained from local community. Accredited Licensee – Guidelines for A well managed facility should have an Applicants (EPA Publication 424). open attitude to the community, and establish mechanisms and procedures to Environmental management liaise with the community on a continuing basis. The scale of this liaison should Objective reflect the impact of the site, the proximity To achieve a consistently high level of of sensitive land uses and the level of environmental performance by good community interest. Community liaison is management of the operation. most productive if it is incorporated in an environment improvement plan (EIP). EIPs Suggested measures set out targets for environmental improvement which are endorsed by the • Obtain a commitment to sound environmental company, the community and EPA. More management from senior company staff. information is available in Environment • Have an EMS. Improvement Plans (EPA Publication 394). • Carry out regular environmental auditsBenefits for accredited licensees include: which extend to all activities at the site.• the ability to manage affairs without detailed • Establish mechanisms for continuing liaison regulatory prescription with the community.• a single system for the site • Consider the potential for EPA to grant the• works approvals are not required – except site accredited licensee status. where there will be substantial changes to a process, or a major change to a discharge or emission• a reduction in licence fees• improved liaison and consultation with the local community• confidence that the plant’s environmental effects are being properly managed. ACCREDITED LICENCE Requirements Benefits • Environmental Management System Reduced licence fees • Demonstrated good environmental Reduced regulatory prescription performance • Environmental audit program Less stringent licence and works approval controls • Environment Improvement Program Improved community relationsPage 26
  • 33. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry EPAGLOSSARY OF TERMS Environment Protection Authority (Victoria).In these guidelines the following definitions apply. Excess volatiles Defined as more than 0.3% (w/w) of volatileANZECC material in the textile goods, excluding water.Australian and New Zealand Environment and The reference temperature for volatility is theConservation Council. maximum process temperature to which the goods will be subjected.Best practice Finishing agentThe practice of seeking out, emulating andmeasuring performance against the best standard A compound added to textiles after dyeing oridentifiable. bleaching to modify a physical or chemical characteristic of the textile.Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) GLCA measure of the oxygen demanding substancesin wastewater (indicates the level of pollution Ground level concentration.present). It is expressed as the number of Groundwatermilligrams of oxygen which is consumed in alitre of the water over five days. Water located beneath the land surface.Cleaner production ISOCleaner production involves process Signifies an International Standard issued by themodification to achieve: International Organisation for Standardisation.• reduced material consumption JASANZ• lower environmental impact Joint Accreditation System of Australia and• reduced resource depletion. New ZealandDye carrier NutrientsA compound used to increase the rate of dyeuptake and diffusion at a given temperature. Substances that stimulate and enhance growth. Generally refers to nitrogen and phosphorus inEffluent waters.The liquid discharged from a treatment unit or Odour levelsystem. It is qualified according to the type oftreatment received (for example, sand filter The odour level measured in accordance with theeffluent or treatment plant effluent). EPA’s Standard Analytical Procedure B2 (1985). Odour level is expressed in odour unitsEIP (“ou”) and is analogous to concentration.Environment improvement plan. Odour emission rateEIS The arithmetic product of the odour level of the wastes to be discharged and the column rate ofEnvironmental impact statement. discharge (in wet cubic metres per minuteEMS referred to a temperature of zero degrees Celsius and a pressure of 101.3 kilopascals) and isEnvironmental management system. expressed in odour unit volumes per minuteEnvironmental management plan (“ouv/min”).A plan covering the operation of the productionfacility to manage the environmental impacts. Page 27
  • 34. Environment Protection AuthorityReclaimed water Suspended solids (SS)Water that has been reclaimed from wastewater The non-filterable residual solids which areand treated to a standard which is satisfactory suspended in effluent. It is expressed infor its intended use. milligram/litre (MG/L).Reuse Surface watersThe application of appropriately treated As defined in State Environment Protectionwastewater for a specific purpose. Policy (Waters of Victoria).Scheduled premises Treated effluentPremises scheduled under the Environment Effluent that has been treated to secondaryProtection (Scheduled Premises and standard by biological oxidation andExemptions) Regulations 1996, which clarification but not disinfected.establishes the premises subject to EPA worksapproval and licensing. Total organic compounds The sum of all compounds of carbon whichSEPP contain at least one carbon-to-carbon bond plusState environment protection policy developed methane and its derivatives.and proclaimed under section 16 of theEnvironment Protection Act 1970. VOCs Volatile organic compounds.Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)A measure of the amount of sodium, relative to Waste minimisationcalcium and magnesium, to indicate the effect on The optimisation of processes and operations tosoil structure and reduced rate at which water reduce waste, including recycling and reuse ofmoves through the soil. waste and waste reduction.Page 28
  • 35. APPENDIX 1 BPEM: THE NEW PARADIGM “7 – S element Indicators Old NewSuperordinate goals • Guiding concepts of organisation Efficiency Best Practice • Set of values, aspirations • Broad notions of future directionsStyle • Management actions rather than words Formal Committed • Allocation of time by senior management to • Command and Control • CEO vision, personal commitment & issues • Environment low priority for CEO leadership • Symbolic behaviour – genuine commitment • Demonstrated priority for senior of consistent resources, appointment of management skilled people etcStructure • Formal organisational structure Rigid Flexible • Emphasis given to particular tasks, co- • Steeply hierarchical • Involvement of all staff ordination of work • Weak or no links between OH&S, • Flatter, team oriented environment and production management • Integration of OH&S, environmental and production managementStrategy • The way a company aims to improve its Reactive Pro-active competitiveness • Meet regulations, focus on end-of -pipe • Link between environmental excellence and • The response a company plans in • No specific environment policy competitiveness anticipation of or in response to, changes in • Closed door to community • Emphasis on continuous improvement its external environment • Community responsive strategySystems • All procedures, formal and informal, that Environmentally exclusive Environmentally inclusive make the organisation function • Minimum required to meet regulations • Environmental Management Plan • Includes budgeting, training, production • Environmental system integrated with systems etc and informal systems such as business processes meetingsStaff • Appraisal systems, formal training Directed Empowered programs, morale, attitude, motivation etc • Performance measured by cost • Responsibility and accountability with staff • No sense of ownership • Environmental criteria in performance appraisal • Pride in activities of the firmSkills • Skills, attributes or capabilities which Functional Problem – solving dominate in the organisation • Production and waste control focus • Integrated approach to improvement • Innovation, problem solving skills highly regardedBased on: Structure is not Organisation (Waterman, Peters & Phillips) and developed in The Environmental Challenge: Best Practice Environmental Management (Australian ManufacturingCouncil, 1992). Page 29
  • 36. APPENDIX 2 QUICK REFERENCE AND SELF ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING FACILITIESSetting environmental objectives ComplianceEnvironmental objectives must be addressed in Any non compliance issues should be addressedthe context of the operation of the facility and as a matter of urgency. Assign a rating of 5 toits underlying organisational policies and any non-compliance.objectives. If an environmental objective Opportunity for environmental improvementconflicts with the business interests of a facilityit will generally not be achieved. It is possible Rate each item on the checklist from:to achieve environmental performance • 1 – very low opportunity to improveimprovement in business with environmental toand business growth objectives working inunison. • 5 – very high opportunity to improve.Environmental improvement is one area that Net financial benefitdemonstrates the viability of an organisation in Assess the net financial impact to the facilitythe long term. Unattended environmental through adoption of best practice for each item:problems can lead to clean up costs, waste • –2 – substantial negative financial impactdisposal charges and fines for pollution, whichare only going to rise in the future, making non- • +2 – substantial positive financial impact.compliance an increasingly costly risk. Summing the ratings for each of the above headings determines the priority order forPrioritising opportunities for improvement improvements, with the proviso that correctingEvery organisation has to operate within a non-compliances always have first priority.regulated environment – compliance with laws, Environmental Improvementregulations and agreements is necessary forlong term viability. At the same time, economic Higher Priority 5 (Very High) Activitiessustainability is crucial, so improvements mustsit within the framework of economics and Energyregulations. * * 4 Dry MachineOnce an evaluation of current operations has Insulationbeen carried out and a list of environmentalimprovements compiled, these can be Effluentprioritised in order of importance to the facility. 3The priorities should be ordered by considering: * pH Control1. legal compliance Solid Waste2. opportunity for environmental improvement 23. net financial impact. * Recycle CardboardEvaluation of environmental prioritiesThe checklist on the next page should be Lower Priority 1 (Very Low)completed for each facility, to establish Activitiespriorities. Numerical ratings are determined for -2 -1 0 +1 +2each item on the checklist, to establish the orderfor improvements. Ratings are calculated for Net Financial Benefiteach of the following three headings, thensummed. Examples are also provide, as shownon the diagram. *
  • 37. Environment Protection AuthorityQUICK REFERENCE AND SELF ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR TEXTILE DYEINGAND FINISHING FACILITIES A B C Environmental Compliance Opportunity for Net Financial Benefit A+B+ Element Environmental Improvement C Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Priorit y ç è ç è Rating (very low) (very high) strong - strong + Siting - buffer zones Waste Minimisation - energy - gas - power - water - raw materials - process chemicals Wastewater Management of: - Salts TDS) - temperature - pH - Total oxidised sulphur (TOS) - Metals - Halogens - SS - BOD - nitrogen - oil / grease - contaminated surfactants - nutrients - Colour and biodegradability Solid Wastes - waste minimisation - recycling / reuse - prescribed waste - packaging waste - other Noise Soil and Groundwater - stormwater - groundwater - soil Air Emissions - odour - CO / NOX - VOC - particles - Specific Pollutants Dangerous Goods - storage and handling - transport - disposalPage 30
  • 38. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing Industry A B C Environmental Compliance Opportunity for Net Financial Benefit A+B+ Element Environmental Improvement C Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Priorit y ç è ç è Rating (very low) (very high) strong - strong + Examples 1 Effluent pH No = 5 3 -2 =6 2 Recycled Yes = 0 2 +2 =4 cardboard packaging 3 Power saving Yes = 0 4 +1 =5 through machine insulationThe above assessment indicates that the priority order for improvements would be:1. effluent pH: correcting a non-compliance2. power saving through machine insulation3. recycling cardboard packaging. Page 31
  • 39. Environment Protection AuthorityAPPENDIX 3 REFERENCES AND INFORMATION SOURCESLEGAL AND GOVERNMENT(Available from EPA, Information Victoria or the Commonwealth Government Book Shop)ActsContaminated Land Act 1991.Local Government (Planning and Environment) Act 1990.Environment Protection Act 1970.Water Industry Act 1995.Soil Conservation Act 1958.Pollution of Waters by Oil and Noxious Substances Act 1986.Dangerous Goods Act 1985 (plus amendments).Dangerous Goods Handling and Storage Regulations 1989 (plus amendments).Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985.Renewable Energy Authority Victoria Act 1990.Planning and Environment Act 1987.Litter Act 1987.State environment protection policiesState Environment Protection Policy (The Air Environment).State Environment Protection Policy (Control of Noise from Commerce, Industry and Trade).State Environment Protection Policy (Groundwaters of Victoria).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Victoria).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of East Gippsland).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Lake Burrumbeet and Catchment).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Lake Colac and Catchment).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Port Phillip Bay).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of the Dandenong Valley).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of the Latrobe River and Catchment).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of the Western District Lakes).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of the Wimmera River and Catchment).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of the Yarra River and Tributaries).State Environment Protection Policy (The Waters of Westernport Bay and Catchment).OtherIndustrial Waste Management Policy (Waste Minimisation) 1990.National Environment Protection Measures, National Environment Protection Council, 1996.Zeroing in on Waste – Pathways to Cleaner Production for Victorian Industries, EPA Publication537, 1997Page 32
  • 40. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing IndustryStandardsBS7750 – British Standard for Environmental Management System.EMAS – European Standard for Environment.ISO 14000 – International Standards Organisation Standard for Environment Management System.ISO 14001 – Specification for EMS.ISO 14004 – Guidelines to Implementing an EMS.ISO 14010 – Auditing Principles, Procedures.ISO 14020 – Labelling and Testing Procedures.ISO 14030 – Performance Evaluation.ISO 14040 – Life Cycle Analysis Assessment.ISO 14050 – Glossary of Terms.TechnologiesCleaner Production of Wool, CSIRO Textile News 24 (May), 1 Pub. Year: 1994.CPAS – The Clean Process Advisory System, National Centre For Industrial Treatment Technologies,Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Mi. 49931, USA.Design Manual for Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Industry, Hong Kong Government IndustryDepartment (May 1995), Hong Kong Productivity Council.Dyeing as a New Environmental Challenge, C. Horstmann – Journal Of The Society Of Dyers AndColourists: Vol. 111, pg. 185, 1995.Energy Efficiency in the Textile Industry, Howard Rudd – International Dyer pg. 25 – 28, October1993.Environmental Assessment of the Canadian Textile Industry, Environment Canada, 1989.Environmental Choice New Zealand, Wool Pile Carpets – Requirements Specification EC – 23 – 94.Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3), Internet: http://es.inel.gov/ep3/ep3-cs3.ht.National Cleaner Production Database, Internet –http://www.erin.gov.au/portfolio/ep..et/ncpd/auscase_studies/ausdye.ht.Neutralising Effluent by Flue Gases, Dipl. – Ing. Alfred Schwarzlmuller – International TextileBulletin Vol. 2, pg. 60, 1993.Oslo and Paris Conventions for the Prevention of Marine Pollution, PARCOM RecommendationConcerning Effluent discharges From Wet Processes In The Textile Processing Industry, (The Hague –November 1994).PARCOM Recommendations 94/95 Concerning Best Available Techniques and Best EnvironmentPractice for Wet Processes in the Textile Processing Industry, (Karkskrona June 1994).Possibilities and Tendencies in Exhaust Air Purification of Textile Finishing Machines, Dipl. – Ing.H. Frieberg – International Textile Bulletin Vol. 2, pg. 5 – 20, 1993.Purification of Exhaust Air with Concentration of Liquor Residues and Effluent by Evaporation in aCyclone Scrubber, Dipl. – Ing. K. -H. Gottschalk – International Textile Bulletin Vol. 1, pg. 5 – 10, 1991.Removing Colour from Dyehouse Waste Waters – A Critical Review Of The Technology Available, P.Cooper – Journal of the Society Of Dyers And Colourists: Vol. 109, pg. 97 – 100, March 1993.Salt Requirements put Pressure on Wet Processing Plants, Fred L. Cook – Textile World pg. 83 – 86,August 1994.SWAMI – Strategic Waste Minimisation Initiative, US EPA – Office of Research And Development,Washington DC 20460. Page 33
  • 41. Environment Protection AuthorityTextile Industry and the Environment, United Nations Environment Programme, Technical Report No.16 (November 1994).Page 34
  • 42. Environmental Guidelines for the Textile Dyeing and Finishing IndustryManagement systemsCleaner Production Case Studies, EPA, Canberra, 1996.Guidelines for Preparation of Waste Management Plans, EPA Publication 383, August 1993.Industrial Waste Minimisation Procedures for Waste Assessment, EPA Publications 358, February1993.Industrial Waste Strategy Review, EPA Publication 501, May 1996.Principles of Environmental Management, Business Council of Australia.The Environmental Challenge: Best Practice Environmental Management, Australian ManufacturingCouncil, March 1992.The Environmental Challenge: Sustainable Businesses in the 1990s, Australian ManufacturingCouncil, July 1991.The Environmental Challenge: Best Practice Environmental Regulations, Australian ManufacturingCouncil, June 1993.Guidelines for Preparing Waste Assessments – A Practical Guide Towards Cleaner Production, EPAPublication 277, 1994.Industrial Waste Management Policy – Waste Minimisation, EPA Publication S 52, 1990.Accredited Licensee Guidelines For Applications, EPA Publication 424, 1996.Waste Minimisation: Assessment and Opportunities for Industry, EPA Publication 351, July 1993.Cleaner Production Waste Studies EPA Publication 536, July 1997. EPA Publication 621 © EPA Victoria, 1998 Page 35