OBSERVATION SKILLSPresented By :-Rubina Isidore(Training and Development)
Observation is getting information aboutobjects, events, moves, attitudes and phenomena using oneor more senses…Give an Example
TYPES OF OBSERVATION• Scientific observation• Natural Observation• Subjective and Objective observation• Direct and Indirect observation• Participant and Non Participant observation• Structured and Unstructured observation• Controlled and Non Controlled observation
ObservationsAdvantages• Most directmeasure ofbehavior• Provides directinformation• Easy tocomplete, savestime• Can be used innatural orexperimentalsettingsDisadvantages• May require training• Observer’s presence maycreate artificial situation• Potential for bias• Potential to overlookmeaningful aspects• Potential formisinterpretation• Difficult to analyze
Recording your observationsIt is not good enough to just observe, youneed to record your observations. You mightuse:• Observation guide• Recording sheet• Checklist• Field note• Picture• Combination of the above
Who observes you ?• Observation of parents/spouse at home• Teachers in college• Observation by your boss/colleagues/subordinates• Friends at parties• People in your environment
What are you observing?Self and Client• In yourself-• Physical sensation• Your internal monologue• Body language• Congruity/genuineness• Emotions
In your clientNonverbal communication1. Facial expression2. Body language: posture, position changes, hand gestures, headnodding, rigidity/looseness3. Proxemics-use of space4. Paralanguage-tone of voice, volume, pitch, intensity, non wordutterances, patterns of speechWatch dvd-observe for specific examples
Verbal communication1. Selective attention-what are you predisposedto hear and focus on?2. Key wordsa. Noticing repetitionb. Noticing emphasized words3. Concrete vs. abstract4. “I” vs. “other” statements
Conflict, incongruity and discrepancy-1381. Use of confrontation or challenge can be useful.2. Is client open to self reflection?3. Does the client trust you?
Encouraging, Paraphrasing, SummarizingMajor functions:1. To convey you have heard and understoodwhat the client said.2. To convey you understand the client’sperspective, their worldview.Secondary functions:1. Clarify what was said for the client.2. Clarify what was said for counselor.3. Helping client elaborate on the story.4. To help a rambling client focus.
TEST YOUR OBSERVATION• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAFfYLR_IRY
• Observation and Concentration/attention• Observation and Perception• Observation and Memory/Retention• Observation and Behavior
Eye accessing cues• Watching eye movements allows you to discover howsomeone is processing information.• If you know how someone is processing information meansyou can adjust your questions and what you are doing to suittheir processing. This helps create greater rapport.
• Visual Remembered• What colour is your front door?• What colour was your first car?• What was the brightest colour clothing you wore recently?• Visual Constructed• What would an orange square with purple stripes look like?• What colour hair will you have in 20 years from now?• What would an elephant with pink polka dots look like?
• Kinaesthetic• What is eating a lemon like?• What does it feel like to float in the water?• How does it feel to put your hand in a bucket of water?
• Auditory Remembered• What does a dog barking sound like?• Listen to your favourite song in your mind• Tune into the sound of the ocean
Auditory ConstructedWhat would it sound like if I was speakingunderwaterWhat would it sound like if a lion yodelled?What would a whistle sound like in space?Auditory DigitalSay the first lines of the national anthem toyourselfRecite a nursery rhyme to yourselfWhat do you say to yourself to psycheyourself up?
Improving Your Observation• Look at every day life in a clear manner• Trying to judge people and their perceptions• Curiosity• Always trying to ask questions to people or in your mind• Being open to new experiences
• Self-knowledge – accurate• Willingness to seek the inputs of others.• Being open to new ideas• Practicing good listening skills