Ch. 5 Warm-Up Activity
1. What are the 4 biologically important organic
compounds, their building blocks and an
example of each?
2. What is the difference between dehydration
synthesis and hydrolysis? When are each used?
3. What are the 4 structural levels of a protein
and what bonds are involved in each?
4. What does it mean when a protein has been
denatured? What are some possible causes for
this to happen?
The Structure and Function of
Large Biological Molecules
You Must Know
The role of dehydration synthesis in the formation
of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the
digestion of organic compounds.
How to recognize the 4 biologically important organic
compounds (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) by
their structural formulas.
The cellular functions of all four organic compounds.
The 4 structural levels of proteins
How proteins reach their final shape (conformation)
and the denaturing impact that heat and pH can
have on protein structure
•Used for building
blocks of polymers
•Long molecules of
•2 or more polymers
•With many identical or bonded together
similar blocks linked by
ie. amino acid peptide polypeptide protein
A + B AB
AB A + B
• Fuel and building material
• Include simple sugars (fructose) and polymers (starch)
• Ratio of 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen or CH2O
monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide
Monosaccharides = monomers (ie. glucose, ribose)
Storage (plants-starch, animals-glycogen)
Structure (plant-cellulose, arthropod-chitin)
The structure and
classification of some
A. Fats (triglyceride): store large amounts
of energy (2x carbohydrates), cushions
organs and insulates body
Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated
A. Steroids: cholesterol and hormones
B. Phospholipids: cell membrane
hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails
creates bilayer to form cell membrane
Long HC chain:
“saturated” with H
Have some C=C, result in kinks
Solid at room temp.
Liquid at room temp.
Eg. butter, lard
Eg. corn oil, olive oil
Steroids include cholesterol (shown above)
which is the building block for steroid hormones
and component of cell membranes
IV. Nucleic Acids
Function: carry hereditary info
•Double stranded helix
• N-bases: A, G, C, Thymine
•Stores hereditary info
• N-bases: A, G, C, Uracil
•Carry info from DNA to
•tRNA, rRNA, mRNA,
Nucleotides: monomer of DNA/RNA