Ch. 5 Warm-Up Activity
1. What are the 4 biologically important organic
compounds, their building blocks and an
example of...
Chapter 5
The Structure and Function of
Large Biological Molecules
You Must Know
•

•

•
•
•

The role of dehydration synthesis in the formation
of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the
d...
Monomers
•Small organic
•Used for building
blocks of polymers
•Connects with
condensation reaction
(dehydration reaction)
...
Dehydration Reaction
(Condensation Reaction)

Hydrolysis

Make polymers

Breakdown polymers

Monomers  Polymers

Polymers...
I. Carbohydrates
• Fuel and building material
• Include simple sugars (fructose) and polymers (starch)
• Ratio of 1 carbon...
The structure and
classification of some
monosaccharides
Linear and ring forms of glucose
Examples of disaccharide synthesis
Storage polysaccharides of plants (starch) and animals (glycogen)
Structural polysaccharides: cellulose & chitin (exoskeleton)
II. Lipids
A. Fats (triglyceride): store large amounts
of energy (2x carbohydrates), cushions
organs and insulates body

...
Ester linkage:
between OH
& COOH

Long HC chain:
-Polar or
non-polar?
-Hydrophilic or
hydrophobic?
Saturated

Unsaturated

Polyunsaturated

“saturated” with H

Have some C=C, result in kinks

In animals

In plants

Solid ...
Steroids include cholesterol (shown above)
which is the building block for steroid hormones
and component of cell membrane...
The structure of a phospholipid
Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make a
phospholipid bilayer
Overview of protein functions
Overview of protein functions
Proteins:
polymers made
of amino acid
monomers
III. Proteins
Four Levels of Protein Structure:
1. Primary




Amino acid (AA) sequence
20 different AA’s
peptide bonds...
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
2. Secondary



Gains 3-D shape (folds, coils) by H-bonding
Alpha (α) helix...
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
3. Tertiary



Bonding between side chains (R groups) of amino acids
H & io...
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
4. Quaternary


2+ polypeptides bond together
amino acids  polypeptides  protein

Bonding (ionic & H) can create
asymmetrical attractions
Chaperonins assist in proper folding of
proteins
•
•

Protein structure and function are sensitive
to chemical and physical conditions
Unfolds or denatures if pH and tempe...
change in structure = change in function
IV. Nucleic Acids
Function: carry hereditary info
DNA
•Double stranded helix
• N-bases: A, G, C, Thymine
•Stores hereditar...
Nucleotides: monomer of DNA/RNA
3 parts:
-nitrogen base
-pentose sugar
-ribose
-deoxyribose
-P04 group
phosphate

Nucleotide
Nitrogenous
base
Purines

5-C sugar

A–T
G–C

Pyrimidines

•Adenine
•Guanine

•Cytosine
•Thymine (DN...
Building the polymer
Nucleic polymer
• Backbone
Sugar to PO4 bond
Phosphodiester bond

•
•
•
•

•

new base added to sugar of previous base
Pol...
Pairing of nucleotides
• Nucleotides bond between DNA strands
H bonds
Purine :: Pyrimidine
A :: T

•
•
•
•

2 H bonds

G :...
DNA  RNA  protein:
a diagrammatic overview
of information flow in a
cell.
AP Bio Chapter 5 (Carbohydrates)
AP Bio Chapter 5 (Carbohydrates)
AP Bio Chapter 5 (Carbohydrates)
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AP Bio Chapter 5 (Carbohydrates)

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AP Bio Chapter 5 (Carbohydrates)

  1. 1. Ch. 5 Warm-Up Activity 1. What are the 4 biologically important organic compounds, their building blocks and an example of each? 2. What is the difference between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis? When are each used? 3. What are the 4 structural levels of a protein and what bonds are involved in each? 4. What does it mean when a protein has been denatured? What are some possible causes for this to happen?
  2. 2. Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
  3. 3. You Must Know • • • • • The role of dehydration synthesis in the formation of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the digestion of organic compounds. How to recognize the 4 biologically important organic compounds (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) by their structural formulas. The cellular functions of all four organic compounds. The 4 structural levels of proteins How proteins reach their final shape (conformation) and the denaturing impact that heat and pH can have on protein structure
  4. 4. Monomers •Small organic •Used for building blocks of polymers •Connects with condensation reaction (dehydration reaction) Polymers Macromolecules •Long molecules of •Giant molecules monomers •2 or more polymers •With many identical or bonded together similar blocks linked by covalent bonds ie. amino acid  peptide  polypeptide  protein smaller larger
  5. 5. Dehydration Reaction (Condensation Reaction) Hydrolysis Make polymers Breakdown polymers Monomers  Polymers Polymers  Monomers A + B  AB AB  A + B + + H2O + H2O +
  6. 6. I. Carbohydrates • Fuel and building material • Include simple sugars (fructose) and polymers (starch) • Ratio of 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen or CH2O • • • monosaccharide  disaccharide  polysaccharide Monosaccharides = monomers (ie. glucose, ribose) Polysaccharides: Differ in  Storage (plants-starch, animals-glycogen)  Structure (plant-cellulose, arthropod-chitin) position & orientation of glycosidic linkage
  7. 7. The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
  8. 8. Linear and ring forms of glucose
  9. 9. Examples of disaccharide synthesis
  10. 10. Storage polysaccharides of plants (starch) and animals (glycogen)
  11. 11. Structural polysaccharides: cellulose & chitin (exoskeleton)
  12. 12. II. Lipids A. Fats (triglyceride): store large amounts of energy (2x carbohydrates), cushions organs and insulates body   Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated A. Steroids: cholesterol and hormones Steroids B. Phospholipids: cell membrane   hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails creates bilayer to form cell membrane Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail
  13. 13. Ester linkage: between OH & COOH Long HC chain: -Polar or non-polar? -Hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
  14. 14. Saturated Unsaturated Polyunsaturated “saturated” with H Have some C=C, result in kinks In animals In plants Solid at room temp. Liquid at room temp. Eg. butter, lard Eg. corn oil, olive oil
  15. 15. Steroids include cholesterol (shown above) which is the building block for steroid hormones and component of cell membranes
  16. 16. The structure of a phospholipid
  17. 17. Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make a phospholipid bilayer
  18. 18. Overview of protein functions
  19. 19. Overview of protein functions
  20. 20. Proteins: polymers made of amino acid monomers
  21. 21. III. Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure: 1. Primary    Amino acid (AA) sequence 20 different AA’s peptide bonds link AA’s
  22. 22. Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued) 2. Secondary   Gains 3-D shape (folds, coils) by H-bonding Alpha (α) helix, Beta (β) pleated sheet
  23. 23. Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued) 3. Tertiary   Bonding between side chains (R groups) of amino acids H & ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, van der Waals interactions
  24. 24. Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued) 4. Quaternary  2+ polypeptides bond together
  25. 25. amino acids  polypeptides  protein Bonding (ionic & H) can create asymmetrical attractions
  26. 26. Chaperonins assist in proper folding of proteins
  27. 27. • • Protein structure and function are sensitive to chemical and physical conditions Unfolds or denatures if pH and temperature are not optimal
  28. 28. change in structure = change in function
  29. 29. IV. Nucleic Acids Function: carry hereditary info DNA •Double stranded helix • N-bases: A, G, C, Thymine •Stores hereditary info •Longer/larger •Sugar: deoxyribose RNA •Single stranded • N-bases: A, G, C, Uracil •Carry info from DNA to ribosomes •tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, RNAi •Sugar: ribose
  30. 30. Nucleotides: monomer of DNA/RNA 3 parts: -nitrogen base -pentose sugar -ribose -deoxyribose -P04 group
  31. 31. phosphate Nucleotide Nitrogenous base Purines 5-C sugar A–T G–C Pyrimidines •Adenine •Guanine •Cytosine •Thymine (DNA) •Uracil (RNA) •Double ring •Single ring
  32. 32. Building the polymer
  33. 33. Nucleic polymer • Backbone Sugar to PO4 bond Phosphodiester bond • • • • • new base added to sugar of previous base Polymer grow in one direction N bases hang off the sugar-phosphate backbone
  34. 34. Pairing of nucleotides • Nucleotides bond between DNA strands H bonds Purine :: Pyrimidine A :: T • • • • 2 H bonds G :: C • • 3 H bonds
  35. 35. DNA  RNA  protein: a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell.
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