1- Safety and Security Concerns
2- Lack of Infrastructure and Support
3- Poor Public Perception and Lack of Awareness
4- Inadequate Urban Environment and Design
5- Accessibility and Health Issues
6- Congestion and Air Pollution
7- Lack of Public Sector Support
8- Lack of Education and Training
9- Lack of Private Sector Support
10- Inadequate Information
Safety and Security Concerns
Safety relates to the perceived or actual danger
encountered whilst cycling on the road, or walking
from A to B: ‘Stranger Danger’. Security relates to
unsafe storage of bicycles or associated equipment.
Unsafe routes for cycling/walking
Lack of definite regulations on cycling
Fear of theft or criminal damage to bicycles
An ‘unreceptive’ target audience due to inadequate and/or
conflicting information on alternative modes of transport,
and lack of coordination between responsible
Lack of information on how to reach destination safely
Lack of information about walking/cycling routes
Lack of convenient signage on walking/cycling routes
Ineffectiveness of promotional campaigns
Lack of information about walking and cycling facilities
Lack of skills to promote walking and cycling amongst businesses and
Insufficient communication between city departments and citizens
Inadequate Urban Environment and Design
Influencing factors such as topography, climate.
Lack of penetrability of city areas to walking and cycling
Low level of importance of pedestrian use in the city
Unattractiveness and low level of quality of urban
environment for walking and cycling
Climatical and topographical barriers
Lack of Infrastructure and support
Insufficient provision and maintenance of cycle lanes and
walking paths. Discontinuous networks and inter changes
with other transport modes.
Lack of integrating existing networks
Ineligible or lack of parking facilities in the city reduces the modal
Inadequate public transportation accessibility
Lack of cycle tracks
Lack of facilities of bike using (loaning, storage and repair
Lack of maintenance of the infrastructure
Poor Public Perception and Lack of Awareness
Walking and cycling not considered a viable transport mode.
Habits not successfully challenged by campaigning
organisations. Image of cycling and walking unchanged.
Lack of public interest
Public approach of walking/cycling
Low attractiveness of bicycle for longer journeys (e.g.
Cultural barriers against cycling
Accessibility and Health Issues
Lack of bicycle stands, accessory equipment and shower
facilities making cycling less convenient an alternative.
Fitness of public insufficient to cycle or walk medium to
Low level of environmental and health awareness among
Lack of competence of citizens/organizations and lack of
power to enforce their interests
Exclusion of people reduced
mobility/minority/elderly/residents living areas difficult to
Low fitness levels among citizens
Lack of Public Sector Support
Initiatives not implemented due to low priority, lack of
political support, incompetence and missing interdepartmental cooperation.
Transport policy prioritizing private car/public transport
Lack of co-ordination between city departments and NGOs
responsible for walking and cycling
Lack of appreciation of the value of marketing campaigns
Lack of integrated planning of cycling and walking/pedestrian
Purchasing and keeping political support behind project
Lack of Private Sector Support
Businesses not briefed on benefits of sustainable transport
employed by staff. In-house resources insufficient to
maintain travel plan objectives.
Lack of financial incentives to develop a travel plan for
Lack of skills to implement actions for sustainable transport
Insensitivity of companies towards employee transport preferences
Inadequate resources and knowledge by employers to implement
Inadequate facilities of walking/cycling in the workplaces (cycle park,
changing room, shower)
Inadequate incentives by employers to encourage walking/cycling to
Congestion and Air Pollution
Air pollution makes journeys uncomfortable and unhealthy for
pedestrians and cyclists.
Unbalanced level of utilization on public transport vehicles
Level of car traffic and air pollution
Reduced accessibility for businesses due to congestion
Lack of Education and Training
Low level of cycle proficiency amongst public and few training
Lack of cycling and bicycle maintenance skills
Children inadequate road safety skills
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