Carolina Rossini Open Educational Resources:Brazilian Challenges and Perspectives
1. Open systems and open networks can create newmodes of innovation and collaboration2. New modes of innovation can be helped, or hurt,by institutional and government policies and design3. Brazil and Brazilian institutions areexperimenting with openness, but it is just in thebeginning
Networked Information Economy*• Network of connectivity enables new forms of productive activity • Large-scale, distributed collaboration • Non-market, commons-based peer production or social production • User-driven innovation• Nature of digital information goods • Non-rival, non-excludable• “Replicability” of digital goods • near zero marginal cost of reproduction• Disintermediation * Benkler, Y. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedoms. New Haven: Yale University Press
Free Software GNU General Public License: The use of IPs to create freedom
Tech Intellectual Content Property IntellectualFull courses, Software to support the creation, property licensescourse materials, delivery, use and improvement of to promote opencontent modules, open learning content including publishing oflearning objects, searching and organization of content, content and learning materials, design-collections, journals principles, and management systems, content development tools, and on-line localization of learning communities. content.
“OER are teaching, learning, and research materials inany medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open licence that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. An open license is one that allows anyone to access, reuse,modify and share the OER. The use of open technicalstandard for OER platforms and files improves accessand reuse potential of OERs which are developed and published digitally.”
The proposalTo rethink the access and development of knowldge and the use of technology....Not just as a way of accessing “free stuff”, but as a new way of knowldge governance for innovation, through sharing and collaboration PLUSRecognize the we pay a lot and many times twice!
OSI-Cape Town Open Education Declaration “A revolution of sorts is sweeping education...In anotherpromising development, a coalition of educators, foundations and Internet pioneers in January signed a declaration urging governments and publishers to make publicly fundededucational material available free over the Internet. The CapeTown Open Education Declaration has so far been signed by more than 140 organizations and nearly 1,500 individuals.” Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2008
Challenges to OER1.Legal > Copyright Licenses, Copyright Law, Public PurchaseContracts2.Economic > Sustainability3.Social > Fear and System of Incentives
The Green Paper*There are four axes of structure to the OER context in Brazil, echoing internalstructures of traditional education as well as the new opportunities afforded by themove to digital networks for dissemination and use of educational materials:• public access to educational materials in general, as an open education strategy toinclude the individual, the family, the community and the whole society in the process oflearning and of collaborative knowledge production;• the economic cycle of educational materials production and its impact on the “right ofcitizens to learn”;• the possible benefits OER may bring to learning strategies, the production ofeducational resources more sensitive to issues driven regional diversity and regionalstandards of quality;• the impact of digital, online, open resources on teachers’ continuous professionaldevelopment http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1549922.
Awareness Raising and CommunityBuilding http://www.flickr.com/photos/reanetbr/
Case Studies• Analysis of more that 14 Brazilian Projects which missions are to provide (open) educational recourses.• The analysis was done on its legal and technical interoperability, and in regard to who owns the rights over the content.• Conclusions and recommendations were built.
Debate around Textbooks•The right to copy books;•Value Chain of booksProduction;•Taxpayer funding;•Government fundingand buying.
Debate around TextbooksIn addition to direct public expenditures, since 1960 and reaffirmed by article 150 of the 1988Brazilian Constitution, the publishing industry (books in all its forms, newspapers, andmagazines) is tax-exempt.In 2004, the publishing industry was granted additional benefits and freed from an obligation tomake contributions such as Social Integration Programme fees (PIS/PASEP) and the Contributionfor the Financing of Social Security (COFINS). These tax and contributions exemptions, whichaffect both final product and the production process (including, for instance, the paper used)are intended to reduce the final price of the product.GPOPAI (2008) estimated that, from 2001 to 2006, the subsidies (formed by the tax andcontribution exemptions) represented a windfall of around 30% of the equivalent to sales. Forthe sake of comparison, this subsidy was roughly double the total budget of the BrazilianMinistry of Culture over the same period.
Textbooks for k-122010 – The Federal Government spent R$1.077.805.377,28 to buy, evaluate and distributetexbooks2011 – Government spent R$ 1,2 billions to buy textbooks - introductions of the “consumable texbook” : the student use it for one year and trow itaway, in oposition of many books that one student have to give back at the end of the yearand it is used for up to 3 years(http://www.fnde.gov.br/index.php/programas-livro-didatico)2011/2012 – Government debats the use of e-readers in public schools2013 – Government plans to spend
The problem of access in college education Course Annual Costs of Books % students with family monthly income below R$5,000Information Systems R$ 3915.58 90,6%Natural science R$ 3640.90 91,3%Tourism R$ 4572.90 81,3%Marketing R$ 4242.51 76,1%Technology of Textiles R$ 4164.79 79,5%Environmental management R$ 5212.69 84,1%Medicine – Obstetrics R$ 5810.46 86,7%Medicine – Gerontology R$ 4417.19 91,2%Physics R$ 3344.75 88,3%Public Policy Management R$ 5343.02 78,1%Source: GPOPAI-USP (2008) (pp. 36)http://www.gpopai.usp.br/wiki/images/b/b5/Relatorio_livros_ingles.pdf
Who pays? Yes – we pay twice!86% of the books (sample of 1,910 books adopted by 25 different courses in morethan 14 institutions) were authored by full-time, employed professors from publicinstitutions.the total invested by universities and public financial agencies (such as the SaoPaulo Research Foundation - FAPESP), through scholarships and publication grants,is R$78,410 over three years per master’s thesis per student and R$155,344 overthree years per doctoral thesis per student.By comparing these values with that invested by publishers of books derived fromtheses, the GPOPAI (2008) study concluded that 17.9% of the total cost of a bookbased on a master thesis comes from private investment, while 82.1% comes frompublic investment.For doctoral theses, 9.9% is from private sources, while the remaining 90.1%comes from public investment.
The National Plan of Education (PNE) represents thehighest level of educational policy in Brazil.Discussions to include OER in the PNE directives started in2008.More than 3,000 changes until now, the Plan setsguidelines, goals, and priorities to be implemented by2020.OER is mentioned in two guidelines (7.10 and 7.12)http://www.camara.gov.br/proposicoesWeb/fichadetramitacao?idProposicao=490116
“Há muitos anos trabalho a questão de acesso ao conhecimento e entendo a Internet como instrumento fundamental a tal fim. Ao repensar a educação na era da sociedade do conhecimento, me deparei com o conceito de recursos educacionais abertos e percebi como nossa legislação não trabalha esta questão. O Brasil não pode ficar de fora deste debate, ainda mais porque nosso governo é um dos maiores financiadores de recursoseducacionais, seja por meio de compras públicas, seja por meio de salários e bolsas de estudo e pesquisa, seja por meio de isenção de impostos em toda a cadeia produtiva de livros. Os números impressionam! Creio que todos, empresas e pessoas, que recebem tal montanha de dinheiro vindo dos cofres públicos, têm uma obrigação para com a sociedade: compartilhar oresultado de suas pesquisas e o desenvolvimento delas com a sociedade que o/a financiou, permitindo o uso livre de tal recurso educacional” Deputado Paulo Teixeira
Sao Paulo City OER DecreeArt. 1º. As obras intelectuais produzidas pela Secretaria Municipal de Educação para utilização pelas unidades da rede pública municipal de ensino, com objetivos educacionais, pedagógicos e afins, tais como livros e materiais didáticos, orientações curriculares e manuais de orientação para o programa de alimentação escolar, deverão ser disponibilizadas no sítio eletrônico daquela Secretaria no Portal da Prefeitura do Município de São Paulo na Internet e licenciadas para livre utilização, compreendendo a cópia, a distribuição e a transmissão, observadas as seguintes condições: I – preservação do direito de atribuição ao autor; II – utilização para fins não comerciais. Parágrafo único. A licença obrigatória de que trata o “caput” deste artigo compreende o direito de criação de obras derivadas, desde que sejam licenciadas sob a mesma licença da obra original.Art. 2º. Os contratos celebrados pela Administração Municipal visando à produção das obras referidas no artigo 1º ou à cessão de direitos autorais de terceiros, quando necessária, nos termos da Lei Federal nº 9.610, de 19 de fevereiro de 1998, deverão prever expressamente a obrigatoriedade de divulgação e licenciamento das obras, na forma estabelecida por este decreto. http://rea.net.br/2011/10/03/decreto-sobre-rea-em-vigor-em-sao-paulo/
Impact of the DecreeExplicando o Decreto sobre REA de São Paulo e suas impliçõeslegais e práticashttp://rea.net.br/2011/10/06/explicando-o-decreto-sobre-rea-de-sao-paulo-e-suas-implicoes-legais-e-praticas/
Why Invest in Open?1.If you are publicly funded;2.Digital technology will surpass current teaching and learning structures;3.Cost implications on continuing to rely on Statutory License schemes andonly very restrictive uses permitted (down size transaction costs);4.OER are easier to manage (down size transaction costs): • No complex copying limits; • No restrictions on audience ie. Parents, community members and lifelong learners; • Allows teachers and students to modify and share resources.
Why Invest in Open?5. Public Access - Educational institutions (particularly those publicly funded) should leverage taxpayers money by allowing free sharing and reuse of resources.6. Quality can be improved and costs of content development reduced by sharing and reusing.7. Open sharing will speed up development of learning resources.8. New opportunities for non-mainstream authors/content.
Why Invest in Open?Inclusion/cooperationWide dissemination of education contributes to more inclusive and cohesive societies, fosters equal opportunities and innovation in line with the prioritiesof a renewed social agenda focused on the knowledge society. In this sense, this study brings a series of recommendations to foster this dialogue.
Cape Town Declaration and BrazilEncourage educators and learners to actively participate inthe emerging open education movement. Creating and usingopen resources should be considered integral to educationand should be supported and rewarded accordingly;Open educational resources should be freely shared throughopen licenses which facilitate use, revision, translation,improvement and sharing by anyone. Resources should bepublished in formats that facilitate both use and editing, andthat accommodate a diversity of technical platforms.Governments, school boards, colleges and universitiesshould make open education a high priority. Ideally, taxpayer-funded educational resources should be open educationalresources. Accreditation and adoption processes should givepreference to open educational resources.
1. Open systems and open networks can create newmodes of innovation2. New modes of innovation can be helped, or hurt,by institutional and government policies and design3. Brazil is experimenting with openness, but it isjust in the beginning
“Thus, this bookspeaks. It has a voice that allows you toread yourself and you are invited to contribute to its writing.” Pierre Lévy Thank you!!!! email@example.com