Green Asset Management Toolkit: for Multifamily Housing
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Green Asset Management Toolkit: for Multifamily Housing

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A Guide to Green Asset Management in Multifamily Housing

A Guide to Green Asset Management in Multifamily Housing

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    Green Asset Management Toolkit: for Multifamily Housing Green Asset Management Toolkit: for Multifamily Housing Document Transcript

    • Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing Green Communities Initiative c/o Enterprise 10227 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500 Columbia, MD 21044 Telephone: 410.715.7433 www.enterprisecommunity.org www.greencommunitiesonline.org
    • Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction 4 4.23 Recycling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1.1 Looking to Go Green? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.24 No Smoking Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 1.2 Green Asset Management Process Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.25 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.26 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Section 2: Why Greening Operations Make Sense 6 4.27 Unit Turnover Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 4.28 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.1 The Case for Green Asset Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.29 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.30 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Section 3: Establishing A Foundation And Framework 10 3.1 Choosing an Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Section 5: Developing A Plan For Building Upgrades 58 3.2 Easy fixes/ Energy Tune-ups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1 Selecting Upgrade Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.3 Prescriptive Retrofits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.4 Performance-Based Substantial Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . 11 5.3 Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Equipment. . . 62 3.5 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.4 Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.6 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.5 Lighting and Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.7 Steps in green asset management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.6 Photovoltaic Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.8 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.9 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.8 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.10 Methods of Cost Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.9 Indentifying Financial Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.11 Non-Monetary Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.10 Green Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.12 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.11 Low Income Housing Tax Credits and Bond Financing . . . . 70 3.13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.12 Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.14 Specifying Green Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.13 Government Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.15 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.14 Utility and Public Incentive Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.16 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.15 Utility Allowances – Options for Energy Efficiency . . . . . . 72 3.17 Building Professionals and Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . 32 5.16 Federal Energy Efficiency and Solar Tax Credits and Deductions . 73 3.18 Building Performance (Energy and Water) Consultant . . . . 33 5.17 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.19 Green Building Consultant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.18 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.20 Architect/Design Consultant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.19 Information Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.21 Engineering Consultant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.20 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.22 Hiring a Contractor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.21 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.23 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Section 6: Case Studies And Best Practices 77 Section 4: Operations and Maintenance 38 6.1 Tips for Green Asset Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.1 Mechanical Systems and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.2 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.2 Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.3 Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.3 Heating and Cooling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.4 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Section 7: List Of Additional Resources 83 4.5 Landscape and Site Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.1 Government Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.6 Plant Choice and Landscape Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2 Energy-Efficiency Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.7 Plant Disposal and Composting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.3 Building and Energy-Efficiency News . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4.8 Soil Procurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.9 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Fertilization . . . . . 43 Section 8: Appendix 87 4.10 Irrigation and Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix A: Audit Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.11 Maintenance: Mowing & Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix B: Data Release Authorization Form . . . . . . . . 89 4.12 Outdoor Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix C: The Central Park Energy Flyover . . . . . . . . . 90 4.13 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix D: Sample View of Building Information 4.14 Green Cleaning and Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Using Portfolio Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.15 Cleaning Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.16 Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.17 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18 Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 Table of Figures 4.19 Resident Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 1: Green Asset Management Process Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.20 Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 2: Pollution Emissions of Lawn Mowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.21 Water Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fig 3: Residential Indoor Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.22 Cleaning Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • Five Easy Ways To Begin Saving Money, Energy, and Water Want to start now to save money and resources? Here are five quick steps that make a big impact. 1. Replace incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs or low- emitting diodes (LED), and add motion sensors on common space and exterior lighting, except where safety and security are an issue. ENERGY STAR® qualified CFLs use approximately 25 percent of the energy incandescent bulbs use and last up to 10 times as long.1 The wide variety of available sizes and shapes will fit almost any indoor or outdoor fixture. 2. Add demand controls to the hot water recirculation loop, insulate all exposed hot water piping, and turn down water heater/boiler thermostats to the minimum temperature required for accommodating hot water needs. 3. Upgrade laundry equipment, refrigerators, and dishwashers to ENERGY STAR® appliances and reduce energy usage and water consumption by 10 to 50 percent. 4. Repair leaks and install sink aerators, low-flow shower heads, and toilet tank flappers to reduce the amount of water used. 5. Repair and aim sprinklers to deliver water only to where it is needed, and add weather-based irrigation controls to limit overwatering when rain is expected. Resident behavior is an important part of the efficiency equation. ENERGY STAR® and your local utility companies (energy and water) can provide tips, resources, and incentives to pass along to residents, promoting energy and water conservation through behavioral change and savvy consumerism. Ask your local energy and water utilities for more information about their consumer education resources, and visit the ENERGY STAR® website. You can also encourage recycling through offering information on recycling centers and providing recycling bins. ENERGY STAR® lighting, www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=lighting.pr_lighting 1 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 3
    • SEcTIon 1: InTroducTIon communities across the nation. Enterprise has Section 1 InTroducTIon introduced neighborhood solutions through public- 1.1 Looking to go green? private partnerships with financial institutions, Then you’ve come to the right place. If you governments, community organizations and others are interested in what this toolkit has to offer, that share our vision. chances are you are associated with a housing Whether you are just getting started or already site as an owner, asset manager or maintenance have plenty of experience, you should be able to staff person and you’re looking to make some find the level of help you need in this guide. We green changes to your management practices. have included information on quick and easy We want to congratulate you on your decision to projects that can be implemented with minimal make a difference and extend a welcoming and effort, more robust measures that can be carried out helping hand. Enterprise launched the Green on a one-off basis as you replace failing equipment Communities initiative in 2004, building on or address individual building issues, and more more than two decades of creating decent, quality, challenging rehabilitation projects that involve a affordable homes and communities for low-income holistic approach to renovating a building with families. As of October 2009, Enterprise has green goals in mind. You’ll also find tips on putting successfully supported the preservation or creation together a team of professionals to take on the job of almost 16,000 green affordable homes. We’ve of planning, implementing and monitoring the also trained over 4,000 housing professionals in success of your green projects, choosing the correct green development. Throughout the process we financial tools for estimating costs and benefits, have benefited greatly from lessons learned, and identifying funding sources, benchmarking and this toolkit is our way of sharing some of these tracking your progress, and many other relevant with you. A national leader in investment capital topics. Whatever your goals and needs, chances and development solutions for affordable housing are you will find the right range of information, and community revitalization, Enterprise has advice and practical tools for the projects you have invested more than $10 billion since 1982 to help in mind. finance more than 250,000 affordable homes in 4 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 1: InTroducTIon Along with providing practical advice for evolving offer information to pass along to others who will your housing asset into a green living space, we’ve undoubtedly be inspired by your efforts. designed this manual to support your decision- 1.2 green Asset MAnAgeMent Process DiAgrAM making process. That’s why we’ve decided to start The Green Asset Management Flow Diagram can with a review of the many reasons why going green guide you to the appropriate sections, depending on makes good sense. We hope it will help answer where you are in the process. your questions and confirm your choices, as well as Intention to Reduce Energy, Water and Resource Costs Evaluate Current Establish and Train Define Green Practices and Staff a Green Asset Goals and This process is meant to be a continuous loop, Skills Management Objectives always returning to benchmarking, tracking Team energy and water use, reevaluating your goals and action plan, and reducing resource use through operations and maintenance and Develop an Energy building upgrades. and Water Efficiency Management Plan Benchmark Building Energy and Water Use Track and Monitor Building Energy and Water Use Follow Green Identify System tune- Third Party Operations and ups, equipment Verification Update Goals and Maintenance Plan upgrades, controls, Plan weatherization, etc. Prescriptive Identify Energy • Simple Payback Replacement of Efficiency Equipment • Lifecycle Cost Failed, Worn or Replacement or System Analysis Inefficient Upgrades Hire Cost Analysis • Return on Contractor Implement Equipment Investment (ROI) and Measure to Install the plan Selection • Internal Rate of Upgrades Substantial Rehab Conduct Energy Audit Return (IRR) and Diagnostic Testing • Net Present Value (NPV) Use an ESCO to Manage, Finance and Implement All or Part of the Plan Figure 1 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 5
    • S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E you achieve greater success with your property on a Section 2 Why GrEEn number of different fronts. opEraTIonS MakE SEnSE A major focus in green asset management is the The simple truth is that green asset management is way in which maintenance is handled, and going a powerful tool for improving housing performance. green means instituting maintenance practices that While popular perception often paints a picture work best over the long term. No matter how a of green building focused programs as laden property was originally designed and constructed, with obstacles that weigh down the management its performance can be significantly improved process, growing when ongoing evidence of the Growing evidence as to the maintenance effectiveness effectiveness of green asset is carried out of green asset management consistently with health, management points to the fact that a sustainability and consistently points green approach improves efficiency in mind. to the opposite: housing performance in a a green approach number of important ways. Monitoring energy improves housing and water usage performance in is as important a number of important ways. With green asset a component of asset management as the proper management, operating costs go down, tax credit operation and maintenance of equipment. opportunities go up, environmental hazards are This toolkit provides resources for enhancing reduced, resident utility savings improve, and performance in these key areas, including: potential residents are drawn to the attractiveness • Reducing energy and water consumption of a healthy, green living environment. Simply • Lowering greenhouse gas emissions translated, this means that whatever your role; asset manager, property manager, housing director, • Improving indoor air quality executive director, investor or owner going green • Lengthening the lifespan of equipment and can make your job easier in the long run, and help systems 6 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E While such measures are commonplace in of new research which, combined with recent properties that were designed and built to be green consumer demand for green housing, has helped from the start, this manual specifically targets bring innovation to the marketplace. buildings with little or no history of green building priorities in their past. The tools we’ve included 2.1 tHe cAse for green Asset MAnAgeMent are tailored to meet the needs of those seeking to There are many benefits to be realized from green move traditional building management practices in asset management, particularly for your project’s a greener direction. bottom line. As noted in the article “Sustainable What is Green Asset Management? O&M Practices,” these can include: Green asset management builds on standard • Reduced solid and hazardous waste generation property management approaches, taking them a • Lower levels of air pollution step further to promote sustainability and healthy • Extended service life for equipment and living. This means that in addition to conventional building materials management goals, new objectives are established • Reduced utility bills that make a priority of the health, economic and • Fewer employee sick days and a reduction in environmental performance of a housing property. worker’s compensation claims Traditionally, asset management has aimed to • Better indoor air quality and associated occupant thermal comfort sustain the durability of properties so that they • Fewer occupant complaints1 perform well over an extended life cycle. Thus, housing professionals have typically focused on maximizing the financial, physical and regulatory Reducing a building’s energy and water condition of a portfolio, as well as monitoring consumption will help compliance with operating agreements and the mitigate the impact of owner’s goals. sudden increases in costs. Green asset management expands this focus, Altogether, these advantages add up to an attractive particularly in the area of a building’s physical and progressive housing package for tenants, condition, to encompass new strategies, tools, managers and owners alike. This reflects one techniques and products for promoting durability of the key factors behind the success of green and longevity while increasing energy and water asset management – everyone benefits. Owners, conservation and maintaining a healthy indoor managers and investors profit from lower costs environment. Some of the measures described in and minimized risks; tenants and employees this manual will have originated from time-tested enjoy improved health and comfort levels; best practices in the industry. Others are the result 1 “Sustainable O&M Practices,” Whole Building Design Guide, available at www.wbdg.org/resources/sustainableom.php Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 7
    • S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E and the community gains from more positive in moisture that can lead to mold or rodents. environmental conditions. Addressing such factors can significantly mitigate insurance risk. Reducing a building’s energy and More generally, a green asset management water consumption will help mitigate the impact of approach can help your portfolio achieve a high sudden increases in costs. level of performance in a number of areas. These advantages are described in detail below. Lower Costs Green asset management reduces expenses. As Environmental Benef its the cost of resources such as oil, natural gas and Green asset management makes a significant water continue to increase over time, the use of impact on both the immediate environment and these resources results in ever-rising operating the wider surrounding area. Solid and hazardous expenses. However, buildings that are energy and waste generation is significantly reduced, benefiting water efficient can help control such spiraling local landfills. Air and water pollution are expenditures, keeping operating costs lower than minimized, greenhouse gas emissions are lowered, those of comparable buildings that do not have and the reduction in energy and water use means green asset management practices in place. And natural resources are conserved. of course, lower operating costs can contribute to increases in net operating income. Resident Marketing and Retention Greener buildings cost less to operate, use fewer As an example, meeting the Enterprise Green harmful products and cleaners, and are healthier Communities Criteria yields striking savings in and more appealing to potential residents. utility costs, especially when compared to the Furthermore, lower operating costs help retain cost of implementing the Criteria’s energy- and residents by providing housing that is more water-conservation measures. These savings make affordable to maintain than comparable non-green the cost of implementing the Criteria ($4,524) homes. A physically and financially comfortable financially attractive. When considering the residence will generate a lower turnover rate. benefits revealed in our study, the average cost per dwelling unit to incorporate the energy and water Risk Mitigation criteria was $1,917, returning $4,851 in predicted Green asset management reduces the risk of lifetime utility cost savings (discounted to 2009 building damage and hazards. It includes a dollars).1 In other words, the energy and water durability plan that considers heat, air flow and conservation measures not only paid for themselves excessive moisture within a building. Green but also produced another $2,900 in projected management plans also focus on addressing aspects lifetime savings per unit.1 of building maintenance that can compromise 1 Incremental Cost, Measurable Savings: Enterprise Green longevity, such as water penetration resulting Communities Criteria, 2009, www.greencommunitiesonline.org. 8 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 2 : W h y G r E E n I n G o p E r aT I o n S M a k E S E n S E When it comes to lowering costs, many factors management involves the careful monitoring of can impact your bottom line results. Depending energy and water usage, allowing management on the scope of your goals, you will find differing to act quickly when systems are under- or levels of trade-off between the amount you invest over-performing. Consequently, there is close up front in various green projects, and your long- supervision of indoor temperature conditions and term operational savings. This toolkit will walk you as a result, resident comfort is optimized. through a detailed and accurate planning process so you can proceed with confidence concerning the level of investment that is optimal for you. In addition, we’ve provided a detailed description of useful cost analysis methods in Section 3.10 (p. 25): Methods of Cost Analysis. Increased Comfort and Health for Residents and Employees Green asset management means healthier residents and staff. When the products and materials used in property upkeep are taken into consideration as a matter of procedure, it is easy to identify and give preference to those that are less polluting and healthier than conventional choices. Air quality is a major factor in a building’s overall environment health, and thus green management emphasizes a ventilation system that removes pollutants tracked in from outside, while bringing in ample fresh air. The same measures applied to a building’s envelope and space conditioning in order to maximize energy efficiency also act to improve resident comfort by maintaining consistent and appropriate indoor temperatures. This, in turn, reduces the number of calls from residents about heating and cooling complaints, and can be especially beneficial in senior and special needs housing where residents Hotel Essex, San Francisco, CA are more sensitive to temperature changes. Green Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 9
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Section 3 ESTaBLIShInG a 3.2 easy fixes This list contains ideas for increasing energy FoundaTIon and FraMEWork and water efficiency that require little upfront investment and offer quick payback. These are 3.1 cHoosing an aPProacH steps everyone can take because they don’t require Defining the scale of a green upgrade project is large amounts of time or money – just a little the first step in creating a plan of action specific planning and effort. Many measures that fall to that project. Whether the scope of the project under this category are often considered regular maintenance practices and can be implemented at any time in a building’s lifecycle. But don’t let The best way to their humble scope fool you – over time, the returns provide concrete in terms of financial savings and conservation of evidence that resources can be considerable. your projects and improvements are making a difference Improvements in this category include: is by measuring performance • Switching incandescent light bulbs and fixtures with before, during, and fluorescents or LEDs after implementing • Weatherizing to seal the building envelope the modifications • HVAC tune-ups you have chosen. • Duct sealing • Water heater or boiler tune-ups includes major improvements or quick, low-cost • Adding recirculation controls fixes, there are many options for achieving cost • Replacing pool pumps effective energy and water savings. This section • Adjusting thermostat temperature settings on space and water heating systems defines various approaches to green upgrades, • Insulating water heaters or boilers explaining when each strategy is appropriate, and • Adjusting refrigerator and freezer temperatures offering examples of possible upgrades in the • Installing low-flow showerheads and sink aerators given project category. • Installing toilet tank flappers 10 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k 3.3 PrescriPtive retrofits In some circumstances, prescriptive measures are taken during other types of building repairs to The failure of older equipment that has become avoid losing the opportunity for an easier, quicker too worn for continued use presents an ideal and thus often cheaper, change of equipment. A opportunity for selecting a more energy efficient few examples are: replacement, and it makes sense to respond with a prescriptive retrofit. A prescriptive approach • Pipe, duct, wall, floor or ceiling insulation is simply replacing equipment on a one-by-one installation when an otherwise inaccessible building cavity is opened basis over time, rather than refitting a whole building at once in order to achieve an immediate • Installation of radiant barrier and/or cool roof products during a roof replacement transformation in its performance level. Prescriptive retrofits are appropriate and effective for any 3.4 Performance-BaseD suBstantiaL portfolio without plans or funds for substantial reHaBiLitation improvements, and are designed to meet time- A performance-based approach to upgrading energy sensitive needs for replacing specific equipment, and water efficiency is the method of choice if you appliances or lighting. While whole-building are planning substantial building improvements approaches take into account the synergistic impact or remodeling. This approach has the capacity to of replacing or upgrading multiple systems, only factor in the interrelationship of various building the savings related to the reduction in energy and components and systems, as well as accommodate water use associated with the replaced equipment is the uniqueness of your specific project. considered in prescriptive retrofit analyses. Prescriptive retrofit measures include, but are not Building Evaluation/Audit limited to, the replacement of: To follow the performance-based approach, you will first need to arrange for an evaluation or audit • Space heating equipment of the building’s performance statistics, such as a • Space cooling equipment building simulation analysis. This will allow you • Water heaters/boilers to base your choice of energy and water upgrade • Recirculation pumps packages on concrete data. To begin this process, • Light fixtures contact an energy consultant to decide how best to • Ceiling fans conduct the audit. One possibility is to have your • Refrigerators green asset management team use a worksheet to • Dishwashers collect information on existing building conditions. • Clothes washers and dryers In this scenario, the team can also use the data • Broken windows collection to become more familiar with the site’s energy and water use. Alternatively, the energy Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 11
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k consultant (or a HERS rater) can come to your site Energy Eff icient Rehab Advisor to conduct the building audit. This option is likely The U.S. Department of Energy has developed this to be more efficient and yield more accurate results. tool for existing multifamily homes to provide easy access to tailored suggestions for energy upgrades. Energy and Measures Analysis Plug in your building characteristics, and a list of Once this audit data is collected, an energy recommended improvements will be presented, consultant will plug it into simulation software complete with estimated costs and payback periods. that will estimate the current energy use of your This tool cannot take the place of a full building building. This establishes a baseline that will then audit and energy simulation, but is useful for be used for comparison with the upgrade options creating a rudimentary guide that can serve as a under consideration. The software simulation starting place for potential next steps. typically involves modeling complex interactions ➜ www.rehabadvisor.pathnet.org/calculator.asp between building systems and components to yield an accurate picture of energy and cost How to Hire an Energy Services Company savings for each upgrade scenario. Using the (ESCO) projected energy savings and estimated upgrade This document, written by the California Energy costs, your asset management team will be able to Commission, explains the purposes and roles of an effectively analyze the options and choose the best Energy Services Company, and stipulates how and improvement package for your project. when an ESCO should be hired. 3.5 tooLs ➜ www.energy.ca.gov/reports/efficiency_handbooks/400-00- 001D.PDF Building Audit Worksheet – Heschong Mahone Group Retro-Commissioning Toolkit – California Commission Collaborative This worksheet provides a tool for documenting This website offers several workbooks, some of your existing building conditions. It can be used which are classified as energy-saving tools and by building mangers, HERS raters or energy others as data analysis tools. The energy-saving consultants to collect the information that will be tools are for use in calculating energy savings plugged into an energy simulation program for related to specific retro-commissioning measures establishing baseline energy use. – i.e., variable flow pumping systems and variable Audit Worksheet: Appendix A (p. 87) volume fan systems. The data analysis tools contain templates for recording, organizing and analyzing information gleaned in the retro-commissioning process. ➜ www.cacx.org/resources/rcxtools/spreadsheet_tools.html 12 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Additional Tools HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines Energy Conservation for Housing – A Workbook: for Multifamily Dwellings Housing and Urban Development (HUD) This guidebook explains how property owners who are considering rehabilitating multifamily buildings This workbook is intended to be a guide for can increase energy efficiency and reduce costs in Housing Authorities (HA) that are interested in the process. It discusses key issues and factors that making energy conservation improvements. It is determine how much energy a multifamily building designed to provide assistance to HA staff with varying degrees of technical proficiency and energy consumes, such as heat flow, air leakage, insulation conservation experience. and heating and cooling systems. ➜ www.abtassoc.com/reports/D19980034.pdf ➜ www.huduser.org/publications/destech/multi.html TREAT – Targeted Residential Energy Analysis Additional Resources Tools: Performance Systems Development RESNET National Standard for Home Energy Audits TREAT is innovative software designed to These criteria have been set by Residential Energy provide support for weatherization programs, Services Network to define and standardize building performance contractors and energy national procedures for home energy ratings. The auditors. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority funded development list provided at the link below defines the accepted of this tool, which creates models of buildings, framework for carrying out a home energy audit. integrates the models with weather and energy ➜ www.resnet.us/standards/audit/National_Energy_Audit_ information and provides appropriate assessments Standard.pdf and recommendations. A Retro-Commissioning Guide for Building ➜ http://treatsoftware.psdconsulting.com/treat_intro.htm Owners: Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. for EPA 3.6 ResouRces This extensive guidebook offers information on how you can use retro-commissioning as a Professional Home Energy Audit cost-effective method for reducing expenses and This site outlines steps for receiving a home energy audit, including preparing for the audit, selecting increasing revenue through improved building a professional and locating resources for home operations. energy audits. ➜ www.peci.org/CxTechnical/resources.html#construction ➜ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/ Green Buildings and Energy Efficiency: Energy energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11180 is the First Step to Green – Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR® Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 13
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Most people would agree that a green building supporting a successful and sustained commitment must be an energy-efficient building, but not to green operations. Whether large or small, your everyone agrees on how to define and quantify team should be made up of committed individuals efficiency. The link below can help ensure your who, as much as possible, represent a cross buildings deliver measurable results. section of the departments involved in property www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=green_buildings. management, development and finance. green_buildings_index The Players 3.7 stePs in green Asset MAnAgeMent A critical aspect of an effective green asset Just as with any other management process, green management team is their level of dedication to asset management is successful when there is an the effort. The skills and commitment of your established structure in place for setting goals, team members will provide the energy to translate tracking performance and evaluating progress. This your plans into action. While outside consultants section outlines steps for building such a structure may come and go, the internal team will remain and implementing a green asset management plan. constant. When looking to build a team supportive of Step 1: Assemble Team and Make a green asset management, a natural place to start Commitment in soliciting input is with the persons responsible All buildings, either new or rehabilitated, are the for the original design of the building. They offer result of specific design choices. Each building’s a continuity of knowledge about the building history is comprised of a unique set of decisions and are likely to made over its Identify those tasks which be motivated to lifetime. For example, while require the involvement of see the building some buildings professionals outside the succeed in the are conceived green asset management long term. This with green team, exper ts such as is especially consultants, contractors, important for priorities in mind, and vendors whose buildings with others are never knowledge and skills are uncommon considered from a essential to the project’s features or systems, green standpoint success. where the original until long after design intent may construction be an essential piece of information in any future is finished. Nonetheless, certain foundational alteration or improvement. The goal of including elements are necessary in every asset management designer input is to gain knowledge of how the scenario because they create an effective base for building was originally designed and how the turning goals into reality. One such element is existing equipment and systems were intended to the establishment of a green asset management be used. team. Creating this team is your first crucial step in 14 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Another potential source of team members is straightforward, as the strengths and weaknesses property and asset management staff. They are of individual managers are often commonly the ones who will ultimately implement the recognized and good managements skills usually management plan and thus have a significant stake transfer well to new challenges. If you do happen in any decisions that are made. Having a say in to include staff who are less familiar with green the process of developing the plan will no doubt management approaches, keep in mind it will be increase their investment in making sure it is necessary to introduce them to a new mindset carried out consistently and effectively. which takes into consideration a healthy living environment as well as onsite energy, resource and When recruiting candidates for your team, keep water use. in mind that professionals whose jobs involve implementing green building projects on a regular Training the team basis most likely have the right combination Once formed, the team’s first task will be to access of skill, experience and commitment for your training so they can become better acquainted effort. You can find more detailed information with the basic principals and best practices that on professions specifically related to green asset characterize green asset management. Training management in Section 3.17 (p. 32): Building will also help members from a variety of different Professionals and Quality Assurance. roles establish a common language and perspective, It can also be fruitful to look closer to home allowing everyone to operate from the same page. for possible team members. Chances are, you You will find a number of resources are available to will find employees inside the building owner’s address a variety of training needs. own organization who possess not only the Many gas, electric and water utility companies appropriate set of skills and experience, but also across the U.S. offer no- or low-cost workshops have considerable interest in taking part in a green on a variety of green building topics. These classes venture. You may want to consider staff members typically run anywhere from one to eight hours and representing the following disciplines: are a great way to introduce team members to green building practices without having to commit large • Design and engineering amounts of time and money to a more rigorous • Asset management credentialing program. • Property management • Construction management Online webinars and training videos are another • Operations and maintenance inexpensive and flexible way to bring team • Finance members up to speed. A list of organizations offering online training resources is located in Finding the right managers for the team from Section 3.9 (p. 24): Online Training, Building Science within your organization can be relatively and Green Resources. (Continued on page 18) Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 15
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection Information Requested from Property Owner PROPERTY INFORMATION Name Street Address OWNERSHIP/FINANCIAL INFORMATION Owner program requirements Using replacement reserves to fund rehab? Tax credit year Previous cap needs assessment document? Three (3) largest financing sources Current replacement reserves Planning to refinance and/or resyndicate? Other financial information here? BUILDING INFORMATION Year built Common area square footage Year of most recent rehab Residential area square footage Total number of buildings Number of floors Building type Number of primary building entries Total building square footage UNIT INFORMATION Total number of units Average number of occupants Number of occupied units Unit size (no. of bedrooms) Unit population (e.g. children, elderly, supportive) AVAILABLE INFORMATION As-built drawings Reasonable escorted access to facility/apts Current equipment schedule Contact information for project personnel Recent photographs of building Operations & Maintenance plan, schedule Previous energy or Wx audit Resident manual Previous energy or Wx measures installed UTILITY INFORMATION Electric utility provider & account no. Heating oil provider & account no. Natural gas utility provider & account no. Solid waste (garbage) provider & account no. Water utility provider & account no. Other provider(s) & account no.(s) FUEL MIX/PAYMENT OBLIGATIONS Is electricity central/individually metered Is water central/individually metered Number of meters Number of meters Meter numbers Meter numbers Is gas central/individually metered Heating oil central/individual paid? Number of meters Solid waste (garbage) disposal Meter numbers Other 16 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K (Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection, Continued) COMMON AREA AMENITIES Elevators Commercial kitchen Central laundry facility Incinerator Refrigerated vending machines Trash compactor Retail or commercial space Property manager apartment Community space Other amenities (those that may consume electricity and/or water) Offices BUILDING ENVELOPE Ceiling heights Basement/crawl space insulation Roof composition Previous upgrades? Floor composition Windows Attic insulation Doors Exterior wall insulation Tenants complaints about drafts? Basement or crawl space SPACE HEATING Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Average indoor air temperature Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Tenant complaints about comfort? SPACE COOLING Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Average air temperature Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Tenant complaints about comfort? VENTILATION Does mechanical ventilation exist in building? Ducts sealed, insulated? Equipment type Previous upgrades? Distribution type Controls Areas serviced Bathroom ventilation Condition, age of equipment Range hood ventilation Combustion appliances tested? DOMESTIC HOT WATER Owner or tenant pays? Condition, age of equipment Fuel type(s) Previous upgrades? Equipment type Controls Distribution type Hot water pipes insulated? Areas serviced Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 17
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K (Green Communities Retrofit Fund Data Collection, Continued) WATER USAGE Owner or tenant pays? Plumbing fixtures Equipment type(s) Previous upgrades? Condition, age of equipment Landscaping LIGHTING Interior common area fixtures and bulb type Operating schedule Operating schedule Controls Controls Previous upgrades? Exterior fixtures and bulb type COMMON AREA APPLIANCES Refrigerators Laundry Ranges Previous upgrades? INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OCCUPANT HEALTH & SAFETY (from Healthy Housing inspection manual) Client health questionnaire Changed heating filters every 3 months Tenant synopsis Radon mitigation/venting Carbon monoxide measurement in ambient air HVAC equipment serviced within past year Combustion gas Leak testing Presence of pests (e.g. mice, rats, bugs) Inspect for mold and moisture damage Pest control mechanisms Identify potential fire hazards Where are pets allowed to go? Inspect for faulty, inadequate or dangerous wiring Lead paint tested smoke alarms, CO monitors Asbestos Verify pressure relief valves on hot water tanks and boilers Tobacco smoke Record and properly document test results and observations Cleaning practices and frequency (e.g. sweep, vacuum) If you are looking for a more in-depth approach certification also provides a gateway to additional to training, the Credential for Green Property programs and resources. For example, CGPM Management (CGPM) program is offered by is required for participation in HUD’s Green the National Apartment Association (NAA) and Initiative program. It also supplies management the National Affordable Housing Management companies and owners participating in the Association (NAHMA). Those trained through green Mark-to-Market (M2M) program with a this set of courses will learn the latest techniques mechanism for meeting the initial and ongoing and technologies for making cost-saving green training requirements of the HUD Office of improvements at their properties, and receive Affordable Housing Preservation (OAHP). instruction on a variety of green building operations and management topics. CGPM staff 18 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K Once basic training is completed, the team will over a period of time so that an accurate picture can need to learn about data collection and analysis. be captured. These skills are critical to your team’s success. The To create a profile of your building, pull together best way to provide concrete evidence that your a spreadsheet or database of the information projects and improvements are making a difference contained in the text box below over the span of 12 is by measuring performance before, during and months (and three years is ideal): after implementing the modifications you have chosen. These measurements, and the appropriate The second category, management practices, interpretation of them, will require your team to involves a number of different factors. You will collect relevant data, document it and statistically need to include information on the following analyze any change. If the change is positive, then factors pertaining to performance over the period your team will have data-supported validation for of 12 months for this part of your baseline profile: the investments that have been made; if there is no • Utilities – specifically energy and water change, or the change is in a negative direction, the consumption team will have detailed information on what needs to • Waste be adjusted in order to achieve your desired results. • Turnover Perhaps the most important of these factors is Step 2: Understand Existing Conditions and Assess Performance energy and water consumption, since these account Tracking such change reflects recent trends for a large portion of building operating costs and in green housing, as the field becomes more thus offer some of the highest cost savings potential. anchored in data-driven validation of the benefits At minimum, all energy and water sources should be inherent in a green approach. You can contribute accounted for, including electric, natural gas, propane to documentation of the effectiveness of green and onsite generation (such as electricity generation management practices by making sure you through photovoltaic1 systems or wind turbines). consistently assess performance. This involves There are several approaches to collecting data the precise measurement of improvement or and establishing a baseline for energy and deterioration in areas such as resource consumption, water consumption. An energy and water audit indoor air quality and waste management. collects information about existing building and mechanical system characteristics. This The first step is to establish a baseline against information can be used to identify cost-effective which you can measure future change at your site, upgrades that will improve overall performance. A and thus you will need to start by documenting the more complete discussion on the topic of audits existing status of (a) building characteristics and can be found in Section 3.4 (p. 11): Performance- (b) management practices. This involves collecting Based Substantial Rehabilitation. Benchmarking data that records performance in these three areas 1 The use of solar cells in converting sunlight into electricity Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 19
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k buildings is useful in comparing water and energy • Collect data by fuel type and from sub-meters, performance among buildings within a complex or if feasible. a portfolio, identifying under-performing buildings • Use actual – not estimated – data whenever possible. and prioritizing energy and water investments. • Use the most current data available, preferably The “Benchmarking” subsection, Section 4.28 one year or more of monthly data. (p. 54) offfers more information on the subject of This data set should improve your understanding Benchmarking. of the property’s energy and water use as it In any case, you will need to collect cost contributes to operational costs, as well as provide information related to energy and water usage for a solid base of information on which to base future a period of at least 12 months. Utility bills are the decisions concerning improvements to the building most basic form of energy and water useage data and the site. In order to pinpoint which building and can often be made available at both a property- components and practices are contributing most to wide and a household-by-household level. Master- 1 energy and water use, and which upgrades will be metered energy and water use data is the most most cost effective, you can arrange for technical widely accessible and is audits of various systems most likely to impact and equipment that will The key to effectively operational costs when managing utility provide the supplemental utility bills are paid by costs lies in deciding information you need. the building owner or which upgrades management. More yield true savings. Once energy and water consumption data detailed data from sub- have been collected meters can reveal where specific use is occurring. and a baseline established, the next step is to set In individually metered multifamily buildings, up a monitoring system to track performance collecting resident utility bills will require obtaining moving forward. This will provide the means for resident utility release forms. See Appendix B (p. measuring improvement and progress toward 89) for an example release form. Because of this, green management goals. Be sure to use a tracking you may find that in such situations the data set for system that can easily generate periodical reports a whole building or complex may not be complete. profiling energy and water performance. An ideal Having a sample of data from a subset of individual performance tracking system would include: units is still useful when starting out. Some tips for data collection include: • Energy Use Intensity (EUI) (annual energy per square foot) • Have residents sign a utility release form when • Energy cost per square foot, separated out by they sign the lease. fuel type (e.g., gas vs. electric) 1 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=assess_performance. gather_data 20 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S e c t i o n 3 : e S tA B L i S H i n G A F o U n D At i o n A n D F R A M e W o R K • Water Use Intensity (WUI) (annual water per goals encourages each individual to develop a square foot) vested interest in achieving them, thus increasing • Water cost per square foot (both indoor and your chances for success. outdoor) The first step in this process is to estimate the • Greenhouse gas emissions (million metric tons of Carbon equivalent) potential for improvement in each area. Once this is established, you can then move on to set targets As mentioned in Section 4.27 (p. 53): Materials, that are: the EPA’s Portfolio Manager is a good option for • Realistic tracking performance data. It is widely used, simple • Specific and free. The reports that are generated will offer • Measurable your team concrete evidence of the result of their • Time dependent efforts, while also providing necessary information As many managers know, setting incremental for identifying areas in which further performance goals can be very helpful in facilitating consistent improvements can be made. The reports can progress, as this process allows the team to also be used to communicate ongoing progress consider both short-term and long-term issues as to building staff and residents, encouraging all they make decisions about implementing various participants to projects. Incremental think about green goals help create an Set targets that are choices, efficiency realistic, specific, overall vision for the and conservation. measurable, and project, encourage An example of time dependent. momentum, and effective and creative ensure immediate communication decisions do not with residents can be found in Appendix C (p.90). hinder opportunities for further improvement “The Central Park Energy Flyover” is intended to and deeper savings. Short-term goals may focus provide residents with an overview of their energy on a specific rehab project or a year of improved usage by unit along with tips for energy reduction operations and maintenance protocols, while long- and key contact information for building-related term goals are broader and address the lifecycle of a issues. building. Long-term goals can address a property’s performance over 5 to 30 years and may include Step 3: Set Goals multiple rehab and retrofit projects, as well as When the team has gained a comprehensive operations, maintenance and tenant behavior. understanding of the property’s current By taking into account factors such as the vintage performance as reflected in the building of the building and its systems and the magnitude performance profiles described above, the next step of any planned rehabilitation, you will be able to is to set parameters and green goals that include identify appropriate goals that correspond with the both usage levels and cost savings. Having the level of resources available to you. For example, if whole team participate in the activity of setting the project is receiving Low-Income Housing Tax Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 21
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Credit funding for a rehabilitation, a reasonable milestones for measuring progress. The team will short-term goal may be achieving a 15-20 percent then need to develop a communication plan, as improvement in existing levels of energy and/or sharing the progress achieved through everyone’s water use. Enterprise’s 2008 Green Communities hard work is an integral part of creating a sustained Criteria requires that moderate and substantial cooperative effort. These steps are explained in rehabilitation projects achieve a 15 percent more detail in the following section. improvement in energy performance over pre- rehabilitation building performance. If, however, Step 4: Create an Action Plan your project scope does not include an aggressive With goals in place, the team’s next task is rehabilitation approach and your current budget developing a road map for achieving them. You allows for only minor changes, consider a less can begin by identifying some detailed technical aggressive goal, such as “The ENERGY STAR® steps that will take you in the direction of your Challenge,” which is a national call-to-action established goals. Take a look at the data analyses to improve the energy efficiency of America’s you carried out in Steps 2 and 3 and ask which commercial and industrial buildings (including areas are most in need of improvement electricity, multifamily properties) by 10 percent or more. gas, water or perhaps another resource? What measures can help you improve in those areas? Long-term goals, on the other hand, may involve reducing energy or water consumption by 40-60 Once you have decided on these objectives, the next percent over 30 years, or even bringing net energy step is to create a timeline and a system for tracking use to zero by installing renewable energy systems your progress. If the team is working on a specific to fulfill the site’s remaining energy needs after the retrofit or rehabilitation project, Section 5 (p. 59): team has exhausted all available energy efficiency Developing a Plan For Building Upgrades can help options. A consultant specializing in green you define the scope of your project and develop an building, energy or water management can also appropriate action plan. provide helpful guidance concerning what it will At this point, the team will need to assign clear roles take to meet different thresholds of reduction in to individual members and allocate responsibility your specific situation. for achieving each goal. This is a good time to Similar goals can be set for improving indoor air identify those tasks that require the involvement of quality, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and professionals outside the green asset management any other health or resource issue important to team, experts such as consultants, contractors and the team. These goals can be applied to a single vendors whose knowledge and skills are essential residential project or to a portfolio of buildings. to the project’s success. By establishing your own Once the team has identified and agreed upon criteria for evaluating people or companies that specific goals, it’s time to create a schedule and set could potentially fill these roles, you can ensure that appropriate levels of expertise are accessed. 22 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Next, the team should estimate and evaluate the Step 6: Evaluate Progress cost of each item involved in the project. Cost It is essential that the team consistently track its analysis tools can be found in Section 3.3 (p. 25): progress using the tracking systems set up in Steps Methods of Cost Analysis. Once all the expenses 2 and 4. Doing so provides concrete data on the are defined, you will be able to identify any results of your efforts and can help pinpoint areas financial need and develop a business argument to that need further intervention or a change in help secure funding for the project and maintain approach. Depending on the scope of your plan, you an ongoing commitment from your supporting may also choose to continue evaluating your progress organization. More information about financial after the implementation phase is complete. resources can be found in Section 5.9 (p. 69): The tracking system will allow you to record any Identifying Financial Resources. improved performance resulting from the steps you Step 5: Implement the Action Plan have taken and measure it against the targets set Finally, it’s time to put your plan into action! You by the team. In combination with reviewing the have laid the groundwork for a solid and effective action plan, it will give you a clear picture of what course of action, and now the team can begin is working and what is not. You can then use this to implement its well thought-out program for information to make any needed adjustments to the bringing green asset management on board. rest of your action plan as you move forward. Balance would appear to be the key factor during Additionally, keeping such a track record this stage of the project. After all the work that provides the basis for recognizing jobs well done. went into developing your goals, objectives and Rewarding efforts and achievements can take place timeline, you will want to follow your plan carefully, at a variety of different levels with recognition of adhering to your budget and your schedule in order an individual team member, the team, a resident, to keep costs under control. However, the reality the project itself or the portfolio as a whole. The is that implementing change always involves some amount of support for ongoing and future projects unanticipated events, and therefore flexibility is generated by expressing appreciation of individual required. An open line of communication among and team efforts cannot be underestimated, so team members is essential, as regularly updated be sure to acknowledge successes and the people progress reports can inform any adjustments to behind them. goals and plans that might be needed to overcome unforeseen barriers. Regularly scheduled meetings for following up on implementation progress, addressing challenges and celebrating successes can ensure a forum is provided for detailed information exchanges and timely discussion. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 23
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k 3.8 tooLs Evaluating Options and Creating an Action Plan There are more than a few useful tools available to The last several pages of Local Initiatives Support help your green asset management team reach its Corporation’s (LISC) Green Rehabilitation of goals. Those listed here offer guidance on how to Multifamily Rental Properties offer a chart to help walk through the steps explained in this section of you prioritize and schedule project upgrades, as well the manual. They will provide the structure you as assign responsibilities. This tool suggests specific need to set up your own energy management plan measures and helps define your plan of action. and carry out an evaluation of your current practices. ➜ www.fypower.org/pdf/GreenRehab_MultiFamily.pdf Guidelines for Energy Management Overview 3.9 resources Follow these step-by-step guidelines, available The resources below provide information for through ENERGY STAR®, to set up an energy your green asset management team on training management plan for your organization or project. programs, data collection, and utility tracking. ➜ www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=guidelines.guidelines_ index Online Training, Building Science and EPA Energy Management Tools Green Resources Once your asset management plan is in place, Enterprise Community Partners use the Energy Program Assessment Matrix to ➜ www.practitionerresources.org/documents.html?c=312 compare your energy management practices with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency those outlined by the Environmental Protection ➜ www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/ Agency in the Guidelines for Energy Management. USGBC, Greenbuild365 ➜ www.energystar.gov/ia/business/guidelines/assessment_ matrix.xls ➜ www.greenbuild365.org/coursecatalog.aspx For site-specific energy management, use the California Integrated Waste Management Board Facility Energy Assessment Matrix (127KB) to ➜ www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Greenbuilding/Training/State.htm help evaluate management of particular facilities. BuildingGreen.com ➜ www.energystar.gov/ia/business/guidelines/Facility_ Energy_Assessment_Matrix.xls ➜ www.buildinggreen.com/menus/topics.cfm Residential Data Collection Worksheet Sustainable Buildings Industry Council This PDF, composed by the state of New Jersey, is ➜ www.sbicouncil.org/displaycommon. a checklist for gathering utility data in residential cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=3 buildings. Housing California ➜ www.state.nj.us/treasury/taxation/pdf/pamsvol/ datacollectionwrk2.pdf ➜ www.housingca.org/events/ 24 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Credential for Green Property 3.10 MetHoDs of cost AnALysis Management (CGPM) Many building owners view energy and water costs The NAHMA credentialing program for property as hopelessly escalating factors when in reality, and building managers focuses on green building it is possible to regulate expenses in these areas principals and practices. Applications and a list of by upgrading to more efficient appliances and approved green credential training providers can be infrastructure. The key to effectively managing found on the NAHMA website. utility costs lies in deciding which upgrades yield true savings, a task that can be made simple when ➜ www.nahma.org/content/greencred.html the appropriate cost analysis tools are used. ENERGY STAR®: Gather and Track Data Traditional financial metrics such as Return on This webpage outlines the basic steps and Investment (ROI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), considerations for gathering utility data. and simple payback are effective for prioritizing ➜ www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=assess_performance. most capital budget investments, but different gather_data methods must be used to calculate energy costs and Additional Resources savings. This is because traditional formulae are not How to Read Your Utility Bills: Conservation equipped to identify and factor in the energy savings Consultants, Inc. PA and return on investment that result from energy- efficiency upgrades. Instead, they tend to focus This article defines terms commonly found in on the costs involved, undervaluing the potential typical utility bills, outlines steps for contacting financial benefits inherent in energy efficiency- most utility companies and offers tips for projects. Unless the operating dollars saved by the conserving energy in the home. installation of a new system are properly reflected in ➜ www.ccicenter.org/archives/28 cost-analysis calculations, energy-efficiency projects Key Tips on How to Read Your Utility Bills: can be inadvertently penalized by their greatest California Public Utilities Commission benefit – improving cash flow. This webpage also provides definitions of key utility Thus, traditional metrics alone will not help you arrive at an accurate comparison of your investment billing terms and explains how energy use in the in a project and your anticipated savings over home is calculated. time. For example, your team may have identified ➜ docs.cpuc.ca.gov/published/Report/8526.htm problem areas in utility usage at a specific site and want to assess the cost effectiveness of implementing energy-efficiency upgrades. For this assessment to be accurate, it will need to include the cost savings that will result from lower utility bills after the upgrades are installed. ROI or IRR Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 25
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k calculations will not demonstrate the ongoing expected annual energy savings is greater than the energy savings of 30 percent or more (according initial energy investment, the NPV of the project to ENERGY STAR®)1 that over time will yield will be positive and should be undertaken. enough money to cover the initial investment Net Present Value (NPV) = Initial Investment + needed to purchase the upgraded appliances. That’s Sum of the Present Values of the Estimated Energy why the team will need to use formulae that are a or Water Savings (Life of the Project) better match for this kind of investment scenario. One tool is more appropriate for cost analyses Communicating and Implementing Cost related to energy-efficiency investments. This Analysis Results is Net Present Value (NPV), which allows the Competition for capital dollars is always fierce, user to pick a required rate of return as part of its especially in a down economy when capital projects calculations. A more detailed description to this tend to be cut. One of the most frustrating method follows, experiences for along with links to the actual The question becomes: asset managers can How can future operating be hearing that a calculation tools. budget savings pay for energy ef ficiency green project will be Net Present improvements today? postponed or denied Value (NPV ) The answer is: By because “it’s just not Net Present dedicating the resultant in this year’s budget.” Value measures savings in future monthly When it comes to increases in utility bills to cover the value of payments on upgrades energy efficiency and an investment and improvements. water conservation, based on an the reality is often just organization’s required rate of return. It takes into the opposite green upgrades can make a substantial account factors such as equipment life, the risk contribution to improving operations budgets. level of the investment and the length of time until the energy or water savings will be delivered. It is Such resistance often comes from owners who simple to compute the NPV formula, but you can assume their capital budget will be tapped to choose to have the calculations worked out for you provide financing to your project, when in fact, that by using a spreadsheet with an NPV function. The is not the case. At these times, it is the team’s job risk of the project is taken into account when you to demonstrate how your project does not need select an appropriate discount (hurdle) rate for the to compete for capital dollars because in the long investment. If the sum of the present values of the term, funding will come from saved utility costs. 1 Article written for publication of the National Electrical You can draw a clear distinction between typical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), February -2009 capital investments and green initiatives by pointing http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/spp_res/NEMA%20A rticle%20Feb%202009.pdf out the ways in which the financing differs. For 26 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k example, ROI implies using cash on hand and Realized Cost Savings investing it in a project. However, energy efficiency Once your team has worked through its action and water conservation projects can be financed and plan and implemented the desired changes, will structured to ensure that their monthly payments their job be complete? Hardly! Putting those are less than the amount gained each month in newly acquired appliances, infrastructure and/or the energy savings that will ultimately be realized. management practices into use is just the beginning Under these conditions, it will become clear that the of your venture into green asset management. project will truly pay for itself. Achieving optimal levels of green management is an ongoing commitment, one that extends The question becomes: How can future operating beyond the final delivery date of any specific budget savings pay for energy-efficiency implementation. Even as your team celebrates the improvements today? successful completion of a project, it’s a good idea The answer is: By financing the project initially, to bring into focus the long-term requirements of a and then dedicating the monthly savings in utility green approach. costs that result from your improvements to cover payments for the original outlay. Thus, it is critical Whenever new buildings are constructed or to ensure that decision makers use NPV or ROR existing developments undergo major retrofitting, a to calculate project expenses so they can see this building performance assessment is almost always reality reflected in their number crunching. carried out. However, once buildings become occupied, it is not uncommon for these assessments When discussing financing options, your team to be forgotten or disregarded, even though doing may also want to consider selling the carbon so risks the significant savings that can be achieved offset credits associated with additional energy through diligent monitoring. Therefore, be sure efficiency upgrades. While all U.S. carbon offset your team maintains a long-term perspective and trade is currently voluntary, a variety of carbon understands that ongoing monitoring is just as trade vehicles have already been established, such important as project implementation. The benefits as the Chicago Carbon Exchange, the Regional of green asset management can only be fully Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeast, and realized as your team continues to pursue building the Western Climate Initiative (a collaborative performance goals and make progress on the items trading relationship between seven U.S. states identified in your performance assessment. More and four Canadian provinces). Enterprise offers information on the subject of monitoring can be an innovative offset fund as well, The Green found in Section 4.28 (p. 54): Monitoring. Communities Offset Fund, which only purchases offsets from green affordable housing development. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 27
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k 3.11 non-MonetAry costs Furthermore, comfortable homes attract a tenant Up to this point we have been examining the base that appreciates the value of a healthy and financial costs involved in evolving your asset enjoyable environment, while ultimately yielding management approach into a greener process. fewer complaints and calls to building management. However, beyond the items that can be easily Finally, aesthetics cannot be overestimated as an translated into monetary value are other, more important factor impacting housing choice. Green intrinsic factors affecting owners and occupants adds value to a home because residents find it a more alike, including some that impact the environment. satisfying, healthy and comfortable place to live. These non-monetary qualitative costs, both internally and externally oriented, can impact Environmental Stewardship or Leadership lifestyle, economics and the natural aesthetics of Environmental stewardship can provide the means our world. While many of these costs are indirect, to secure valuable publicity for your project and they do have value in terms of influencing health your organization, as well as an opportunity to and comfort, increasing market appeal, reducing demonstrate leadership in the greater community. greenhouse gases, conserving natural resources and Such leadership makes projects and organizations promoting environmental leadership. more competitive when it comes to securing grant money, tax credits and other funding resources. Beyond those positive Publicity also attracts potential employees, consequences of green increasing the caliber of applicants and talent asset management that can be easily available to you. Whether or not these influences translated into immediately affect your bottom line at the project monetar y value are level, they do play a role in the overall success of other, more intrinsic an organization and should be included as critical factors affecting owners and occupants factors in the decision to green a portfolio. alike, including 3.12 tooLs some that impact the Typically, building owners initially choose cost as environment and even the planet itself. the metric of choice when determining whether or not to invest in green measures such as energy and Health and Comfort water efficiency. This section provides information on tools developed by Heschong Mahone Group Healthy homes help keep people well, which that are commonly used by commercial building enhances each household’s standard of living owners to evaluate the productivity of their and increases attendance rates and productivity investments. Oftentimes, one or more of these at work. The increase in cash flow to individual metrics are applied to gain information on whether residents from utility and other savings raises an investment is equal to or greater than the the probability that rents will be paid when due. company’s minimum requirements. You can also 28 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k use them to obtain comparisons of various options including links to several LCCA tools or in order to identify the best investment strategy. calculators. ➜ www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php Return on Investment Calculator This cost analysis tool allows for the simultaneous Additional Resources calculation of simple payback, Return on Incremental Cost, Measurable Savings: Enterprise Investment, Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Green Communities Criteria Return for several upgrade scenarios. The summary sheet provides a table for a basic comparison of the Enterprise released Incremental Cost, Measurable upgrade packages. Savings: Enterprise Green Communities Criteria, a first-of-its-kind study showing the cost effectiveness ROI Calculator for Energy Efficiency Projects of meeting Enterprise Green Communities Criteria, the only comprehensive green building framework ➜ http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/tools/documents/ roi_calculator.xls for affordable housing. In summary, estimated lifetime savings exceed the initial investment made 3.13 resources to incorporate the Enterprise Green Communities The following resources provide additional Criteria into affordable housing. information on methods of cost analysis, financial To download Incremental Cost, Measurable Savings: justification of green upgrades and long-term analysis. Enterprise Green Communities Criteria, visit: Payback Period Evaluation ➜ www.greencommunitiesonline.org This page of the U.S. Department of Housing and The Cost of Green Revisited: Davis Langdon Urban Development website provides a simple This paper revisits the cost issues inherent in explanation of how to calculate a payback period the incorporation of sustainable design features without the assistance of a payback calculator tool, into projects, using Leadership in Energy and accompanied by helpful examples. Environmental Design (LEED) credit points to define the criteria for sustainability. It builds on the ➜ http://nhl.gov/offices/cpd/affordablehousing/training/web/ energy/cost/calculation.cfm work undertaken in an earlier paper “Costing Green: A Comprehensive Cost Database and Budget Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) Methodology,” released in 2004, and takes a look at Sieglinde Fuller, National Institute of Standards developments in recent years as sustainable design and Technology (NIST) has become more widely accepted and practiced. Visit this website for a better understanding of ➜ www.davislangdon.com/upload/images/publications/USA/ lifecycle cost analysis. The site offers guidance on The%20Cost%20of%20Green%20Revisited.pdf evaluating lifecycle costs of project alternatives, Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 29
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Long-Term Investments for Energy The challenge in making smart product decisions Savings: U.S. Department of Energy is two-fold: 1) sorting through the criteria used to Long-term investments in energy-efficient products evaluate a product’s attributes, and 2) subsequently and upgrades can determining which save you even greater You will find that products align with amounts of money environmentally the overarching and energy in years conscious vendors have green goals of the to come. Consider already researched project. Fortunately, the products they use the suggestions listed and are typically quite there are several at this site when happy to explain the product certification purchasing new reasons for, as well and listing services products or when as the merits of, their that can inform your selection. improving a home’s decisions about which energy efficiency. products will prove ➜ www.energysavers.gov/long_term_investments.html the most beneficial. The best process for this task is the independent, third-party verification of a 3.14 sPecifying green ProDucts product, which ensures that conflict of interest has When it comes to greening existing buildings, the not tainted its certification. choices you make concerning the products you use in rehabbing, cleaning and maintaining your Information on national product certifications is property can have a significant impact. In response easily located on the Internet, and websites often to the demand for environmentally responsible include specifications you can use as reference alternatives, manufacturers have recently flooded points while you look for and compare matching the market with Environmentally Preferable products. If you prefer to source products locally, Products (EPP). EPP refers to “products or services one option is to contact the manufacturer of a that have a lesser or reduced effect on human specific product and ask for a local contact or health and the environment when compared with retailer. Usually manufacturers are more than competing products or services that serve the same happy to identify which companies and stores sell purpose.”1 Specifying EPP over conventional their products in any given geographic area. products promises direct health benefits for building If your organization hires vendors to provide cleaning, residents, and also minimizes the risk of toxic pest control, construction or other services, you can materials exposure for the contractors and trades include questions about the products they use as part people working on your project. 1 Presidential Executive Order 13101, September 1998. 30 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k of your initial fact-finding checklist. The best time to decreases the amount of construction waste associated raise the issue of green products is at the start of your with a project by reducing the need for newly vendor search so it can become part of your selection manufactured materials and by limiting the amount criteria. However, there is no reason to hesitate of demolition by-product sent to landfills. in asking about the environmental impact of a 3.15 tooLs vendor’s products, even if you have engaged them for years. You will find that many vendors have already EPA’s Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Tool Suite researched the products they use and are typically This section of the EPA’s site, under the sub- quite happy to explain the reasons for, as well as the heading “Building and Construction,” provides links merits of, their selection. In addition, those vendors to and information on decision-making tools for who have been less aware of the environmental and building material and product selection, including health issues involved in their choice of products screening criteria based on social justice issues. may be prompted by your inquiries to carry out some consumer research and revise their choices. ➜ www.epa.gov/epp/tools/index.htm#b Along with making the decision to select green 3.16 resources products and vendors, consider giving new life The resources listed in this section will help you to any unwanted materials you may have onsite. understand green product criteria and certification, Before demolishing or tearing out components in as well as locate green products and vendors. an apartment, look for opportunities to remove and recycle them instead. Building deconstruction, which Behind the Logos: Understanding Green Product Certif ication refers to the careful disassembly of a building in order This article provides information on green product to salvage materials for reuse, has been shown to be certifications. more cost effective than demolition when landfill disposal costs and potential income from salvage ➜ www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article. cfm?fileName=170101a.xml are taken into account.1 The salvaged building materials may either be used on new construction Healthy Buildings Network and rehab projects, or sold to a building supply store You can go to this site to learn how careful specializing in discounted used materials (see Habitat selection of building materials can reduce for Humanity’s Re-Stores or other local nonprofit environmental health threats from toxic chemical organizations). The use of salvaged building materials emissions. Their newsletter archive is a great place to find tips on selecting green building materials. 1 “Building Deconstruction: Reuse and Recycling of ➜ www.healthybuilding.net/ Building Materials” by Bradley Guy, available at http://www. lifecyclebuilding.org/files/Six%20House%20Building%20Decon struction.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 31
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Green Vendor and Services Directory Scientific Certification Systems – general: recycled The Northeast Recycling Council has assembled content, IAQ, lifecycle this list of vendors who provide green products and ➜ www.scscertified.com services across the U.S. FloorScore – flooring ➜ www.nerc.org/documents/green_purchasing/ adtnlgrnvndrs.html ➜ www.rfci.com Online GreenSpec Directory Home Depot Eco Options program This site provides a product-listing service that For suggestions on do-it-yourself green projects houses more than 2,000 environmentally preferable along with more intensive renovation work that products. Each product description includes can improve the performance of your home, visit contact information for the manufacturer and lists this section of Home Depot’s website. You can aspects that qualify the product as green. A hard also look under specific environmental performance copy of the directory can also be purchased from goals (water conservation, energy efficiency, etc.) to the Building Green website. see which applicable products are typically carried in Home Depot stores. ➜ www.buildinggreen.com/menus/index.cfm ➜ www6.homedepot.com/ecooptions/ Additional Resources Product Certification and Accreditation Green Seal An independent nonprofit organization dedicated Carpet and Rug Institute’s Green Label/Green to safeguarding the environment and transforming Label Plus the marketplace has developed this site to ➜ www.carpet-rug.org promote the manufacture, purchase and use of Cradle-to-Cradle – general: lifecycle assessment environmentally responsible products and services. ➜ www.c2ccertified.com ➜ www.greenseal.org EcoLogo – general: public environmental 3.17 BuiLDing ProfessionaLs anD QuaLity certification assurance ➜ www.ecologo.org If your action plan for green improvements involves work of a more substantial nature, you may want Forest Stewardship Council – wood to call on the specialized expertise of a green ➜ www.fsc.org building consultant. Your choice of consultants and Greenguard: indoor air quality contractors plays just as big a role in your success ➜ www.greenguard.org as your carefully laid plans, and thus it is important to invest an equivalent amount of time and effort 32 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k in selecting these professionals. This section of the of existing multifamily buildings. In many parts manual is designed to help you make smart hiring of the country these particular types of energy choices. It addresses timing and scope of work for consultants also include HERS rating as an integral each type of professional, and describes some of part of their business, and are therefore familiar the issues that arise when outside consultants are with some of the more pragmatic issues involved in brought in. maintaining a building. 3.18 BuiLDing Performance (energy anD The Role of an Energy Auditor Water) consuLtant The role of an energy auditor is two-fold: 1) to The role of a building performance consultant is conduct visual and diagnostic testing of existing to assess existing systems and use building science buildings, possibly including infiltration and strategies to make cost-effective recommendations duct leakage testing, and 2) to verify the proper concerning equipment upgrades and operational installation of energy measures through visual changes. The purpose is to help you gain the inspections and diagnostic testing. Practitioners greatest savings and efficiency at the lowest cost. that are HERS raters and/or Building Performance This is not meant to be an ongoing service, but Institute’s (BPI) building analysts have attained rather is best performed periodically. professional certifications that demonstrate an understanding of evaluating a building’s energy Approaching an Energy Consultant performance. These professionals are often called Given the wide range of energy consultant in when major energy renovations are planned, as practices now available, it is worthwhile to they can effectively support building performance consider what type of energy consultant would contractors with field testing and inspections. best serve your individual project. Typically, energy consultants are used to evaluate retrofit HERS raters and/or BPI building analysts should measures as part of a substantial rehabilitation. typically be hired prior to the development of However, they can also act as valuable resources an asset management or rehabilitation plan, so for identifying smaller prescriptive upgrades, and they can provide inspection and benchmarking are able to run code compliance documentation of existing buildings in their pre-greened state. if a building permit is required. Some energy The results of these analyses will provide concrete consultants specialize in code compliance for new input for your team’s project selection process, as construction, or are trained mechanical engineers well as baseline data for comparison with post- specializing in HVAC systems. The energy implementation performance levels. A HERS consultant most likely to be a good match for the rater and/or BPI building analyst’s independent needs of a your team, however, would be someone verification that energy efficient design features with experience in energy auditing and the analysis have been fully executed during building Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 33
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k improvements can also be crucial in converting • What types of diagnostic testing are necessary potential energy savings into real energy savings. (Blower Door/Infiltration, Duct Testing, Adequate Airflow, etc.)? Not all raters have the As a third-party inspection, it should follow the certification and the equipment to conduct all installation phase of a rehabilitation plan, thus diagnostic tests. providing assurance to owners that the measures • Would you like energy simulation modeling or they specified have been installed and are, in fact, analysis included in the scope of work? If so, functioning at the intended performance level. be sure to inquire about the software used and its capabilities and limitations, in order to keep Selecting a HERS Rater Appropriate for your expectations realistic. the Project • Do you need energy code compliance The role of HERS raters has expanded in recent documentation to secure a permit for the project? years, and now HERS documentation is required for a wider range of functions: home energy • Are you participating in any programs or applying for funding that requires special auditing, federal tax credit documentation, energy- HERS inspections or certifications? efficiency mortgages, benchmarking, etc. If your project is participating in a national or local green 3.19 green BuiLDing consuLtAnt building program, it is important to ensure that the For substantial property rehabilitations, a green HERS rater you choose is certified to inspect for building consultant will typically join the green that specific program. asset management team as an advisor. The role of a green building You can easily consultant can vary identify your Green building considerably from specific program consultants can help and inspection develop goals before project to project, requirements you become locked into depending on the choices concerning rehab extent of a project’s prior to selecting a measures, and can bring green goals and HERS rater. The the team to a common the design team’s following questions understanding of what prior experience will help define will be expected of them. with green projects. your needs and guide you to a rater These consultants experienced in the appropriate areas. can help develop green building goals before a team becomes locked into choices concerning the • What is your building type (low-rise, mid-rise type and extent of their rehab measures, and can or high-rise)? Multifamily is a specialty, so if it applies to your property, be sure to find a rater bring the team to a common understanding of well-versed in this unique project type. what will be expected of them. After the initial • Do you need an energy audit? Would you like green goals have been set, a green consultant will the building(s) benchmarked? usually become more focused on the analysis of 34 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k specific green building methods and materials meet regularly with the energy or green building and coordinate closely with the rest of the asset consultant, as well as the rest of the green asset management team. management team, to be certain a common vision is realized by all. The role of the green building professional can be similar to that of a building performance analyst or 3.21 engineering consuLtAnt a HERS rater, in that each of these professionals The engineering consultant’s role is to design high (a) diagnose and identify opportunities for use performance mechanical systems, such as those for of green building methods and materials, and heating, cooling, ventilation and water distribution. (b) recommend operations and maintenance You will want to find an engineer that has procedures that are less harmful, use fewer resources experience in maximizing efficiency, and be wary and encourage re-use. However, green building of engineers relying on rules of thumb, as these consultants also may have expertise with the rules are often created to avoid tenant complaints verification requirements associated with a holistic but do not offer the most energy-efficient solution. green building certification program, whereas an An engineering consultant should be included energy expert may be solely focused on the testing in meetings with the asset management team, and analysis required to determine and improve a the architect and the energy or green building building’s energy performance. The green building consultant to ensure all specialties are integrated consultant is typically the team member responsible and working toward a common goal. for overseeing healthy living issues, resource and 3.22 Hiring A contrActor water conservation analysis and sourcing options Most of the same guidelines that apply when for green materials. Green building consultants selecting a general contractor for any project also should be called in during the rehabilitation phase apply to hiring contractors for greening existing of a project, or to assist with a review of current buildings. There will be many opportunities for a operations and maintenance procedures to assess skilled contractor with experience in green building their level of green performance. to add value to the project, such as offering advice 3.20 ArcHitect/Design consuLtAnt on the options and alternatives available to your Spatial, structural and/or aesthetic changes related team regarding building materials and systems. to a major renovation may require the use of an For extensive retrofits, consider involving the architect or designer. Integrating these changes general contractor early in the design process. with decisions that affect energy, water and resource Design changes in the early stages of a project are efficiency and conservation is critical to successfully always more affordable than those made later, but if greening a project. If you decide to bring in an such changes are demanded later in a project (e.g., architect or designer, make sure these professionals to meet budget) a skilled green contractor should Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 35
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k be able to minimize any negative impact on high- Engaging an Energy Consultant value green features. Even if you have decided This presentation by Colin Jessop at Heschong not to hire a general contractor for your project, Mahone Group focuses on the role of energy consider consulting with one during the design consultants in the design of high-performance phase as it is often proves worthwhile to invest in buildings. It also can help you understand the gaining vital, practical input early enough for the function of building modeling in the context of team to consider the full range of green design a whole-building energy analysis, and enable you choices available to them. to make the distinction between meeting a pre- determined set of energy options and adopting a This arrangement also offers additional benefits design process specific to your building type and to both the general contractor and the team. your particular climate. The general contractor gets the opportunity to demonstrate his or her knowledge of green ➜ www.practitionerresources.org/cache/ documents/670/67081.pdf building, while at the same time developing an edge over competitors by gaining a deeper Hiring and Working with Green understanding of both the project and your team’s Professionals - Practica Consulting dynamics before the bidding phase. The team, on This presentation, given at West Coast Green, the other hand, has the opportunity to interact with offers additional information on searching out and contractor candidates and evaluate their knowledge selecting experienced green professionals who will and communication skills before having to make a best fit your needs. final selection. ➜ practicaconsulting.com/pdfs/ HireWorkwithGreenBldgPros_060930.pdf 3.23 resources The resources below can help you identify and RESNET - Residential Energy Services Network select qualified consultants based on your needs and These websites introduce the HERS rating system location. and will direct you to resources for finding HERS professionals, energy professionals and green Building Performance Institute consultants nationwide. This website describes the training, accreditation and quality-assurance programs offered by BPI ➜ www.natresnet.org/ and its affiliates and will direct you to resources for ➜ www.resnet.us/directory/raters.aspx finding BPI accredited professionals nationwide. ➜ bpi.org/ ➜ bpi.org/content/consumers/find.php 36 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 3 : E S Ta B L I S h I n G a F o u n d aT I o n a n d F r a M E W o r k Additional Resources Remodeling Professional Organization: Green Contractors: Engineering News Record National Association of the Remodeling Industry (ENR) (NARI) ENR has produced a ranking of contractors based ➜ www.nari.org/ on the volume of sustainable and green projects What is a HERS (Home Energy Rating System) contributing to each contractor’s earnings. The Rating?: Environmental Protection Agency, list ranks the top 100 U.S.-based contractors, both ENERGY STAR® publicly and privately held, based on construction This resource succinctly defines a HERS Rating contract-specific revenue from projects that and the new HERS Index. have been registered or certified by third-party organizations as following specific environmental, ➜ www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_raters. nh_HERS energy-savings or sustainability standards. ➜ enr.construction.com/people/topLists/greenCont/ topgreenCont_1-50.asp Hiring an Energy Consultant: California Association of Building Energy Consultants (CABEC) This webpage describes the benefits of hiring an energy consultant and also provides a list of certified energy consultants in California. ➜ www.cabec.org/hiringenergyconsultants.php Websites for Searching Energy Consultants by Location The following websites provide search capabilities for locating energy consultants by zip code or state. However, these lists are not necessarily comprehensive in nature. ➜ www.lowimpactliving.com/providers/Environmental- Energy-Audits---Consulting/21 ➜ www.consultantsregistrar.com/industrysearch/energy.html Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 37
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E For these reasons, it is critical that your team Section 4 opEraTIonS and dedicate themselves to focusing on operations and MaInTEnancE maintenance as issues arise and over the long term. As we pointed out earlier, your team’s successful This section of the manual provides information implementation of upgrades, rehabs and other and resources to support you in these efforts. green projects is only the first rewarding step in 4.1 MecHAnicAL systeMs AnD eQuiPMent a long-term commitment to a specialized asset Though mechanical systems and equipment are management approach. While much thought and typically the most complex objects in need of preparation goes into that initial investment, the real operations and maintenance, they also are the work starts once your new appliances, infrastructure, ones that come with a written manual. One way management practices, etc., are in place and begin operation. That is to improve efficiency in your overall maintenance when maintaining process is to make the appropriate Successful implementation sure everyone who performance of other green projects is might need a copy standards and only the first rewarding of these manuals procedures for your step in a long-term in order to carry new equipment commitment. out their duties become paramount. has access to them. Then assign team members to monitor and support Consider the fact that your property’s ongoing the training of building managers and maintenance operations and maintenance costs will always greatly staff, ensuring they are educated in proper operation, outweigh any initial expenditure you might have maintenance and safety procedures. When staff made to cover the installation of new, eco-friendly turnover occurs, track the transition to confirm that equipment and measures. Likewise, the energy access to instruction manuals and any necessary and cost savings your team hopes to achieve will not be realized immediately upon the completed training occurs in a timely manner, including implementation of your action plan. Rather, your training on environmental awareness and an eco- savings will accumulate as green management friendly approach to building maintenance. practices are carried out over time. 38 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.2 Water Heating Be sure to begin by turning off the power supply or fuel source before draining water from the tank. A poorly maintained water heater is both Do not restore power to the tank until it has been inefficient and dangerous. There are several refilled, as the pressure from heating air, rather than measures that can prolong the life of a water heater, water, may cause an explosion. be it a central or an individual system, and these are described in detail below. Check the Temperature/Pressure Relief Valve Check the Sacrif icial Anode The temperature and pressure relief valve is designed The sacrificial anode is a metal rod inside the water to keep a water heater from exploding if either the heater tank that, through electrolysis, prevents temperature or the pressure gets too high. Since the water tank from rusting. Over time, as it residential valves are prone to failure, you should protects the tank, this rod wears down; if the water check the valve annually as a safety precaution. happens to be softened, this breakdown occurs at an accelerated rate. In order to ensure the outer tank Set the Water Heater at an Appropriate does not begin to rust, it is important to check that Temperature the sacrificial anode has not worn away completely. The lower the water temperature, the more energy To do this, turn off the water heater, close the cold you can save, so there is ample reward for keeping water valve that allows water to flow into the water your water heater setting toward the lower end of heater, and open a nearby hot water faucet to relieve the scale. However, if the temperature is too low, pressure before opening the tank. Once the tank is two problems can arise. First, legionella bacteria can open, the sacrificial anode will be apparent. If the grow in water that isn’t heated to a hygienic level, steel wire that runs through the center of the anode and bring with it the potential for major health is exposed, it will be necessary to replace the anode. problems. And secondly, residents may complain This check should be performed every 5-8 years. about not having enough hot water if the water heater setting is too low to accommodate all needs. Avoid Sediment Build-Up Sediment build-up is inevitable and decreases the Therefore, it is worth taking the time to check with efficiency of the hot water tank. As it collects, the your local utility provider and consult your water sediment has an insulating effect which causes the heater manual for guidance in determining the heating elements to operate longer than necessary, ideal temperature setting. If resident complaints resulting in a wasteful increase in cost and energy persist, be sure to check recirculation loops and consumption. To counteract this and keep your pumps for possible failures before increasing the water heater operating at maximum efficiency as temperature on your hot water heater. well as prolong the life of your equipment, drain the tank regularly, following manufacturer instructions. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 39
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.3 HeAting AnD cooLing systeMs Indoor air quality can be further controlled by checking that: The best recommendation for maintaining any kind of equipment or system is always to follow the • Areas next to air intakes are clean and free of instructions laid out in the manual; however, there dirty or toxic materials are some very basic tips that can help keep most • Ducts are clean HVAC systems running efficiently, and these are • Humidifiers are drained and cleaned after the described here. heating season Duct Testing Thermostats When it comes to optimizing savings for heating As part of your efforts to keep energy consumption and cooling systems, it is hard to over-emphasize at optimal levels, adjust your building’s thermostats the importance of energy-efficient equipment. seasonally. In summer, However, this it is appropriate When it comes to equipment contains to increase the set optimizing savings for both a generating temperature by two heating and cooling component and a or more degrees, and systems, it is hard to over-emphasize the distribution system, in winter, you can importance of energy- both of which are lower the temperature efficient equipment equally critical for by the same amount. maximizing energy Remembering to recalibrate thermostats regularly efficiency. If your systems are ducted, then you will ensure they function properly. have an ideal opportunity for improving their performance, as duct sealing can yield significant Filters increases in efficiency. And reduced energy loss is Air conditioner and furnace filters should be not the only benefit of tight ducts; a well-sealed cleaned or replaced monthly during their operating duct system can also increase resident comfort seasons. When replacing a filter, make certain it is and improve indoor air quality by preventing the correct size and type for the system. Beware unintended intake of unfiltered air. A HERS rater of filters designed with the potential for capturing or energy consultant can help test your system’s more particles, as these can also cause a pressure ducts and locate any leaks or damage so that repair drop that may negatively affect the efficiency of your work can be focused in the appropriate areas. distribution system. If you choose to use this type of filter, it will be important to work with those on your team with expertise in ventilation systems to ensure the appropriate balance for your system so that performance is not significantly compromised. 40 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E Refrigerant Charge and Airflow Tune-up HVAC Maintenance Tips from Heating and For air conditioning systems, a refrigerant charge Cooling Help and airflow system check should occur as part of This site is a great place to learn the basics of the annual system check-up. This type of tune-up maintaining healthy HVAC systems. needs to be conducted by a licensed heating and ➜ heatingcoolinghelp.com/maintenance-tips.asp cooling contractor to determine if the system is Sustainable O&M Practice performing to manufacturer specifications. In this article, Catherine Coombs Bobenhausen Clean Heat Transfer Surfaces describes the components that are integral to a Coils and heat exchangers need regular cleaning to sustainable operations and maintenance plan. She avoid build-up and ensure efficient heat exchange. also explains how key team members can support such To clean them, be sure to start by turning off the practices from the start, through thoughtful choices in unit. Use cold water and either a detergent or a the design and construction of the building. green cleaning agent designed specifically for use on ➜ www.wbdg.org/resources/sustainableom.php coils. Be aware that the use of hot water can increase Water Heater Rescue the pressure inside the tubing and damage the coils, This website thoroughly addresses the problems so this should be avoided during the cleaning process. and maintenance issues associated with water And remember to always check the equipment heaters. It is sure to help maintenance staff avoid manual first, as cleaning instructions may vary. equipment failure and maximize efficiency. 4.4 resources ➜ www.waterheaterrescue.com/ The resources listed below will assist you in developing the best plans and protocols regarding Additional Resources operations and maintenance for your property. Reliability-Centered Maintenance: Alan Pride Green Operations and Maintenance This article details a proactive maintenance Manual for the Plaza Apartments: technique called Reliability-Centered Maintenance. Best Practices for a Healthy and High- Performance Building ➜ www.wbdg.org/resources/rcm.php This manual was commissioned by Enterprise for 4.5 LanDscaPe anD site maintenance the Plaza apartment complex and was written by Outdoor landscape and site management are two M. Landman Communications and Consulting. important components of green operations and It is an example of a set of green guidelines that maintenance. Landscaping benefits the property you could modify for use in the operation and owner as well as the community by increasing the maintenance of your own property. value of the property while offering natural outdoor ➜ www.practitionerresources.org/cache/ spaces for residents to enjoy. However, some documents/639/63985.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 41
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E landscaping requires large amounts of water and are they will thrive even without a lot of extra energy, and will generate a significant amount of plant watering or disease intervention on your part. waste. You can reduce the impact of these factors by In addition, mulching wherever possible will not developing a landscape and site maintenance plan only improve the appearance of your landscape, with sustainability in mind. Landscaping that works but also simplify operations and conserve water by with, instead of against, your site’s characteristics requiring less irrigation, enhancing plant growth and the surrounding environment may even help to and suppressing weed growth.2 Wherever you increase your building’s thermal retention (heating choose not to mulch, try to avoid using concrete, and cooling), and if you choose to plant native species, asphalt or brick, three common impervious surfaces you will be supporting your community’s economy by that are known to generate excess runoff water buying locally. that is increasingly contributing to water pollution Green landscaping processes typically involve in populated areas. Instead, consider installing Xeriscaping, which is defined as “Climate-tuned permeable substitutes such as rocks, sand or landscaping that minimizes outdoor water use drought resistant plants for walkways, gathering while maintaining soil integrity and building spaces and common areas. These surfaces are better aesthetics. Xeriscaping typically includes emphasis able to control the flow of storm water and retain on native plantings, mulching and no or limited less heat than traditional surfaces.3 drip/subsurface irrigation.”1 The maintenance requirements of a Xeriscape are generally lower 4.7 PLant DisPosaL anD comPosting than those of a conventional landscape. This is due Landscape maintenance produces plant waste to a reduction in turf area and the exclusion of throughout the annual growth cycle. You can choose non-native plants that might have more disease, to compost this waste either on- or off-site simply by insect control, watering and fertilizer needs because keeping it separate from other site waste and either they are not as well adapted to the site as most allocating a space where it can break down naturally indigenous growth. over time, or sending it away to be processed. Composting on-site allows the organic nutrients to The following sections offer highlights of the major enrich the soil on-site, reducing the environmental aspects of landscape planning and maintenance impact associated with transporting the waste off- from an ecologically focused perspective. site, in addition to reducing disposal costs.4 For more information on composting visit the Austin Energy 4.6 PLant cHoice anD LanDscaPe Design Green Building’s™ Sourcebook. 5 When replanting, it is often possible to save time, money and effort in future years by choosing 2 “Mulch Basics” available at http://www.stopwaste.org/home/ index.asp?page=147 to incorporate native species. When the plants’ natural characteristics are a good fit for your site’s 3 “Minimize Impervious Surfaces” available at http://www. stopwaste.org/docs/protectwaterandair.pdf conditions and the region’s annual rainfall, chances 4 “All About Composting” available at http://www.stopwaste. org/home/index.asp?page=441 5 “Austin Energy Green Building’s Sourcebook” available at 1 “BuildingScience.com Information” available at http://www. http://www.austinenergy.com/energy%20efficiency/programs/ buildingscience.com/glossary/xeriscaping Green%20Building/Sourcebook/index.htm 42 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.8 soiL Procurement minimize the amount of toxic pesticide you apply to get your pest problems under control.2 You will find The benefits of buying local apply not only to your more detailed information on this subject in Section landscaping plants, but also to the soil they grow 4.14 (p. 46): Green Cleaning and Pest Control. in. When you purchase compost, choose a variety that is produced from feedstock which includes at Similarly, fertilizer use can be kept to a minimum least 50 percent (by volume) regionally generated in many cases. Many native plants do not need plant debris and/or food scraps, and specifies that fertilizer, as they are well adapted to the natural the compost has less than .5 percent physical conditions of the soil on your property. When contaminants (by volume). Remember, regional choosing fertilizers for non-native plants, avoid procurement supports local programs. quick-release varieties that constantly push nutrients on plants in order to stimulate growth. 4.9integrateD Pest management (iPm) anD By contrast, slow-release fertilizers make nutrients fertiLization available to the plants when needed, thus increasing Preventing pests is a critical step in eliminating the efficiency of the fertilizer which, in turn, results the need for pesticides which can be toxic to in cost savings.3 the environment. There are many physical and biological methods for controlling pest problems, Overall, in keeping with the major tenet of and these have been collected into an approach green landscape management, minimize the use called Integrated Pest Management, which of chemical pesticides, herbicides and chemical emphasizes the “use of physical barriers, biological fertilizers whenever possible, as this will reduce controls and other forms of pest control to groundwater pollution and increase plant resistance minimize the use of pesticides.”1 to disease. There are insects and other pests that actually serve a natural purpose in some plant lifecycles, 4.10 irrigation anD fiLtration and can become an integral part of the landscape. Your choice of plants and their arrangement on Left uncontrolled, they may exist on-site without your site are significant factors in the amount producing a hazard to vegetation or people, unless of water you will need to maintain healthy and they cause an unacceptable level of damage to attractive landscaping year-round. Keeping your your landscape plantings. In this case, instead of applying pesticides, you can introduce the use of irrigation needs to a minimum helps limit water beneficial organisms – insects, arachnids, bacteria, costs and reduces demand on local water resources. fungi, etc., that prey on or otherwise interfere with Ask your local landscaping providers to identify garden pests but are harmless to plants and humans. your region’s Xeriscape plants when you are If your pest issues persist after IPM interventions shopping for new landscaping varieties. have been attempted, it is always helpful to 1 “Pennsylvania Green Building Operations and Maintenance 2 “Integrated Pest Management” available at http://www. Manual” download available at http://www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/ stopwaste.org/docs/protectwaterandair.pdf (p. 36-39) cwp/view.asp?Q=118184&A=363 3 “Nurture the Soil” available at http://www.stopwaste.org/docs/ 14521819102005nurturesoil.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 43
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E If sections of your landscaping do need irrigation, property. Where grass lawn is present, the high-efficiency water systems are available to following practices are suggested: enable you to limit the amount of water lost to • Check with your local county agricultural board evaporation and runoff. These systems provide regarding the best type of grass for your climate you with the capability to control water flow, and soil pH. minimizing disease and unnecessary weed growth, • Mow the grass when it is about 1/3 higher than and offer the added benefit of reducing your water the desired height. Avoid mowing lawns too short, as grass which is cut too short can require bills through more efficient outdoor water use. more water due to stress and over-drying. In the absence of this type of irrigation system, • Leave the clippings where they fall, as this will you can still regulate your landscape water usage provide extra nutrients for the soil to absorb. If clippings must be removed, then compost them. by installing a timer to avoid overwatering.1 You • Water the lawn before sunrise or after dark to can also train maintenance staff on how to prevent cut down on evaporation.3 watering during or soon after rainfall, and how and when to reprogram the system to accommodate Compare pollution emissions seasonal watering needs. Gasoline mowers electric mowers Grams/year Grams/year Hydrocarbons 1475.0 0.8172 Another important step is to install rain or storm Carbon Monoxide 11425.0 4.572 Carbon Dioxide 24075.0 21240.0 water filtration to ensure that water draining Nitrogen Oxides 50.0 11.28 from your irrigation system (as well as your site Figure 2: Pollution Emissions of Lawn Mowers (Source: Greenseal) in general) will be absorbed and filtered into the ground, rather than become run-off. Check the Choose your mowing equipment wisely. The filtration system periodically to make sure it is cumulative effects of electric and gas mowing working and is not clogged by debris.2 equipment can make a significant environmental impact, especially in densely populated areas. 4.11 maintenance: moWing anD trimming Gas-powered lawn equipment makes a notable Green landscaping can require less maintenance, contribution to the deterioration of air quality especially if you use native plants and mulch to and ultimately, human health. Electric equipment limit the amount of grass lawn space on your emits between 5 and 9,000 times less pollution than gas powered mowers, depending on the 1 “Xeriscape” available at http://xeriscape.sustainablesources.com/ 3 “Lawn Care Equipment” available at http://www.greenseal. (5.0 Efficient Irrigation) org/resources/reports/CGR=LawnCareEquip.pdf 2 “Pennsylvania Green Building Operations and Maintenance Manual” download available at http://www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/ cwp/view.asp?Q=118184&A=363 44 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E specific emission (see Figure 2). Though the initial not over-lighting areas beyond what is necessary cost of an electric mower is higher than that of a for security purposes. Light that is too bright can gas mower, GreenSeal argues that over a period of result in glare and shadows, compromising the 10 years, the cost of an electric mower comes to comfort of surrounding residents and in some cases, half that of a gas mower. compromising security. When replacing fixtures, choose full cut-off or down lit fixtures, which are GreenSeal recommends: designed to prevent light from being projected • Choosing electrical equipment with: above the horizontal plane and instead, focused • Adjustable grass height settings in the downward direction that requires lighting.2 • Mulching options If possible, place outdoor lighting on timers and • Batteries (for small areas) motion sensors to ensure it does not stay on during • Choosing gas equipment with: daylight hours and goes off when not needed. • A 4-cycle engine Remember to adjust sensors seasonally, as daylight cycles vary significantly during the course of a year. • Overhead valves • A performance level that meets standards such 4.13 resources as those of the California Air Resources Board The following resources below offer information • Adjustable grass height settings on sustainable landscaping, as well as other green • Mulching options measures that can be implemented onsite. 4.12 outDoor LigHting Pennsylvania Green Building Operations In the U.S. today, two-thirds of the population and Maintenance Guidebook cannot see the Milky Way in the night sky, and This guidebook provides information on 40 percent never experience enough darkness at green maintenance, including chapters on site night to require full night vision.1 These conditions maintenance such as landscaping and outdoor lighting. are exacerbated by light pollution, night lighting that interferes with surrounding ecosystems and ➜ www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/lib/dgs/green_bldg/ greenbuildingbook.pdf prevents viewing of the stars and night sky by inhabitants of urban areas. A Sourcebook for Green and Sustainable Building Areas of higher residential density are naturally The Sourcebook, by Sustainable Sources, offers prone to light pollution, but there are steps you can both design and maintenance information on green take to minimize it. First, ensure that outdoor light approaches to managing water, energy, materials, fixtures are pointed in the right direction and are and solid waste. 1 “Light Pollution” available at http://www.aae.org.uk/Life_in_ 2 “Pennsylvania Green Building Operations and Maintenance the_Universe/light_pollution.htm Manual” download available at http://www.dgs.state.pa.us/dgs/ cwp/view.asp?Q=118184&A=363 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 45
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E For more information on Xeriscaping: 4.15 cLeAning Agents ➜ www.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook/XeriscapeGuideline7. html Green cleaning refers to the purchase and use of cleaning products that are not harmful For more information on composting: to human health or the environment. It also ➜ www.greenbuilder.com/sourcebook/CompostSystem.html includes the establishment of a regular cleaning Additional Resources and maintenance schedule to promote consistent A Guide to Green Maintenance and Operations: upkeep of a property, which can help lengthen the StopWaste.Org , Alameda County Waste lifespan of equipment and buildings overall. Management Authority Is the person in your organization responsible This guide identifies the factors you will want for purchasing aware of which brands fulfill the to take into consideration when selecting specific requirements set out for environmentally environmentally preferable products for use during safe products? Discerning whether or not products building maintenance. Practical, effective operation meet these requirements can be more difficult than and maintenance strategies for energy efficiency, it sounds, because loose and misleading advertising natural resource conservation and indoor air quality abounds in today’s marketplace. Descriptors such protection are integrated throughout. as “all-natural,” “environmentally safe,” and “green” are used regularly by manufacturers without the ➜ www.stopwaste.org/docs/gbmg-dec-20-07ltr.pdf support of scientifically proven data to back up 4.14 green cLeAning AnD Pest controL their claims. In order to make a truly informed There are many benefits to be realized from product choice, you will need to look for products incorporating green cleaning and pest control that have been approved through an independent, policies across your organization’s portfolio. third-party organization. Such organizations test When you bring green practices to bear in these green cleaning products, identify those that are areas, your efforts can contribute to the improved measurably safer and healthier when compared health of not only your residents, but also your to conventional products, and approve or certify staff. The impact is especially significant to those them so consumers can recognize them as individuals who are particularly susceptible to authentically beneficial. You can find more details environmental hazards, including young children, on these organizations, along with some links, seniors and those with certain types of illnesses in this section’s tools and resources. Also, if your such as asthma and emphysema. But the positive organization’s budget allows, consider providing a effects don’t necessarily stop at your property’s basket of green cleaning supplies for residents or boundary line. By choosing cleaning and pest hosting a green cleaning learning event. control products that are made without the use of harmful chemicals, you are helping to decrease the amount of pollutants that end up in our soils and waterways. 46 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.16 Pest controL 4.17 tooLs Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an The tools in this section are helpful guides for environmentally friendly approach to pest control directing both management teams and residents to that focuses on prevention. IPM uses non- sustainable cleaning and pest control practices. chemical solutions to pest problems involving an ongoing cycle of inspecting, altering pest- EPA’s Green Cleaning Pollution friendly conditions, monitoring pest presence, Prevention Calculator and documenting pest and pest control activity. This calculator quantifies the projected environmental Vacuums are commonly used for pest removal and benefits of purchasing and using green janitorial chemical treatments are applied only as a last resort. services and products, showing the specific Green Pest Management (GPM) takes IPM to the environmental benefits you can achieve by reducing next level by excluding the use of synthetic pesticides. chemical use in your typical cleaning routine. It also Instead, GPM uses naturally occurring and low-risk can help identify which of the green cleaning options materials, such as botanical oils and biopesticides, available to you will have the greatest impact on when these are needed to resolve infestation problems. reducing cleaning-engendered hazardous chemicals and pollution at your site. Though the tool is designed There are six basic steps involved in the operation for green cleaning in office buildings, it is included of an IPM or GPM program: here because many of the practices are similar to those • Diagnose and monitor pest problems. used in affordable housing maintenance. • Prevent pests from getting into the building ➜ www.ofee.gov/janitor/index.asp through cracks in the building envelope. • Remove inappropriately stored food, water and Multifamily Property Resident Education other items that attract pests. Tip Sheets for Pest Control • Treat identified problems only, rather than Orkin put together these handy tip sheets which blanket treating entire buildings. can be distributed to residents for pest prevention • Keep precise records of pest control activities and treatment. education. • Evaluate and improve the program. ➜ www.orkincommercial.com/docs/Orkin_TipSheets_Tip%20 Though implementation of an IPM or GPM Sheets_FINAL_12.4.08.pdf program may require additional labor from Additional Tools management staff, the costs involved are still far Green Shield Certified Program Guide and less than those of professional chemical treatments. The high cost of resident displacement for building Evaluation Form for Facilities tenting or the spraying of toxic materials are also This document explains the principles and criteria avoided with the use of an IPM or GPM program. of the Green Shields pest management program and offers a form for evaluating your practices. ➜ www.greenshieldcertified.org/standards/facilities.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 47
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.18 resources products, including cleaning products, finishes and materials. Using these products instead of Integrated Pest Management: A Guide traditional ones can help to improve and protect for Managers and Owners of Affordable Housing indoor air quality at your site. This guide, written by the Boston Public ➜ www.greenguard.org Health Commission, describes a process of pest EcoLogo control found to be effective in public housing The EcoLogo program provides third-party developments around the country. certification of a large variety of everyday products, ➜ www.healthyhomestraining.org/ipm/IPM_MFH_Hand_1_ from furniture to adhesives. The EcoLogo website ARC_IPM_Toolkit_9-11-08.pdf hosts an online product search that even allows you A corresponding course, entitled “Integrated to look up cleaning agents by their intended use. Pest Management in Multifamily Housing,” was developed to train managers in implementing an ➜ www.ecologo.org IPM program. Additional Resources ➜ www.healthyhomestraining.org/ipm/training.htm Critter Library: Havahart Related Heathly Homes Resources This site provides information about various pests This site compares traditional pest control with the and how to control them humanely. less toxic Integrated Pest Management approach, ➜ www.havahart.com/advice/critter-library using cost and effectiveness as concrete measures. Green and Clean: The Designer’s Impact on ➜ www.healthyhomestraining.org/ipm/Case_Study_ Housekeeping and Maintenance: Stephen Ashkin Costs_10-26-07.pdf You can find information about how to find an This article was published in Environmental and IPM contractor here: Economic Balance: The 21st Century Outlook, and offers interior design ideas that improve the ➜ www.healthyhomestraining.org/IPM/Vendor.htm “cleanability and maintainability” factors of a building. Information on how to write a Request for Proposal for IPM services, as well as a model for writing an ➜ www.ashkingroup.com/pdfs/Architect/AIAPAPER.PDF IPM services contract, can be found here: A 10-Step Guide to Green Cleaning Implementation: H2E ➜ www.healthyhomestraining.org/IPM/contract.htm You will find the basic process for making the switch GREENGUARD Environmental Institute to green practices outlined in this article, published The GREENGUARD Environmental Institute by Hospitals for a Healthy Environment (H2E). product guide offers a user-friendly product search ➜ www.h2e-online.org/docs/h2e10stepgreenclean-r5.pdf of all GREENGUARD indoor air quality certified 48 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 4.19 resiDent BeHAvior 4.21 WAter conservAtion It’s not buildings that use energy, it’s people. While Motivating residents to save water can be building owners and managers exercise control challenging, especially if the water is master over the level of energy efficiency that is built metered and the cost is borne by the building into infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, owner. Still, many people respond positively to residents control many day-to-day decisions about conservation programs that highlight choices conserving energy and water. and changes that cost them little or nothing 4.20 energy conservAtion to implement. Alert residents to water and In many cases residents are motivated to save environmental issues that affect your specific area, energy, as it can be directly translated into and offer tips for water conservation to encourage reductions in their utility bills. Equipping residents new behaviors that will result in reduced use. with expanded A study by the and up-to-date It’s not buildings that use American Water knowledge on energy, it’s people. Works Association energy conservation Research will help them Foundation achieve their own energy reduction and cost savings goals. As part of this process, they will need showed that nearly a third of household indoor information about and practice with operating their water is used by toilets. Providing dual flush toilets unit’s controls for space conditioning and lighting. requires the residents to make conscious decisions In addition to reducing energy use, this may also each time they flush. prolong the life of the mechanical equipment The same study demonstrated that the next involved, since resident training increases the highest residential water usage is for washing likelihood that it will be used properly. clothes. One way to bring about greater awareness Recommendations for resident training include: of water saving measures is to post educational • Give residents a live demonstration of how posters outlining steps residents can take when to program their thermostat, or have building doing laundry. Displayed in target areas such management help new residents to program as shared laundry rooms or next to in-unit their thermostat upon occupancy; provide laundry appliances, these can serve to remind an easy-to-read cheat sheet that residents and encourage residents to wash full loads, use a can reference when they need to change the cold-water wash cycle and consider air drying their programming. clothes. If using a clothes dryer, remind residents • Distribute a tip sheet to residents on ways they can conserve energy; offer ongoing resident to clean the lint filter before each load. These tips education by posting information around the will save water and energy, as well as prolong the building. useful life of many clothing materials. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 49
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E Information about how much water can be saved prone to illness or experiencing a chronic lack of (on average, 390 gallons a month1) from cutting wellness work less. This, in turn, can affect their shower times by just 5 minutes a day and turning financial stability, as well as their families and off the faucet while brushing teeth are just two of a their social lives. It can also become a problem for wealth of quick tips that could be included in a tip building owners and managers, as employers. sheet provided to residents at move-in. Fortunately, there are options. Using green cleaning products can reduce the toxic vapors within a whole building, as well as within individual units. It also cuts down on the amount of toxic waste contaminating local landfills and ultimately, the surrounding habitats. Figure 3: Residential Indoor Water Use (Source: American Water Works Association)2 Providing cleaning kits equipped with 4.22 cLeAning Agents green household cleaners to new residents at move- A growing body of research points to the fact that in is a distinctive and effective means of focusing common household chemicals can be hazardous attention on the issue, encouraging a neat and clean to our health. Both employees and residents are approach to home maintenance, and identifying the exposed to cleaning agents and other substances healthy alternative products commonly available at used on a regular basis to keep buildings tidy and the local grocery store. well-maintained. Along with medical consequences, 4.23 recycLing adverse reactions to long-term exposure to such Nationwide, apartment-building units recycle chemicals can impact many areas of an individual’s about 10 percent less waste than single-family life. For example, healthy employees and residents residences, according to a 2001 study issued by the take fewer unplanned days off work, while those U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.3 You can help change this by encouraging residents to recycle 1 “Water Saving Tips” available at http://www.bewaterwise.com/ tips01.html more of their waste more often and supporting 2 “Residential End Uses of Water” Summary available at http:// www.waterresearchfoundation.org/research/topicsandprojects/ 3 “California Considers New Recycling Law” available at http:// execSum/241.aspx www.scrippsnews.com/node/25245 50 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E resident-led recycling programs. Provide each ban smoking in the building.2 Additionally, the unit with a container for collecting recyclables, apartments of smokers need more attention at and install recycling bins at all community garbage turnover. After a smoking resident moves out, new collection areas. You may find it necessary to flooring, paint and appliances as well as additional cleaning can result in turnover costs up to six times clearly mark trash and recycling containers, listing higher than those of a nonsmoker’s unit. On the the items and materials that are appropriate for other hand, managers of smoke-free buildings each container to avoid confusion and the mixing can save money by seeking insurance coverage of trash and recyclables. from one of the providers who offer a discount on 4.24 no sMoking PoLicy properties where smoking is prohibited. Allowing residents Remember, there is to smoke inside their After a smoking no law protecting apartments or while resident moves out, the right to smoke. using community new flooring, paint, Landlords are free facilities will not and appliances as to implement no only negatively well as additional smoking policies affect the health and cleaning can result in in buildings and comfort of neighbors turnover costs up to 6 (both smoking and times higher than those on properties, and nonsmoking), but of a nonsmoker’s unit a growing number of health-conscious can also increase residents are seeking maintenance costs out – and even expecting – indoor environments and fire risks. In fact, nationwide statistics revealed that are smoke free. that smoking was the leading cause of fire deaths in multifamily buildings in 20051 , and is the cause 4.25 tooLs of up to 40 percent of all apartment building fire AOL’s Global Warming Calculator deaths each year. Because of this, and because of This user-friendly online calculator can help the pervasive and serious effects of secondhand residents discover ways to cut back in order to save smoke, HUD has issued a statement strongly energy and the environment. encouraging all public housing authorities to ban smoking at their sites. ➜ reference.aol.com/planet-earth/global-warming/calculator Additional Tools As a proven health threat, secondhand smoke needs to be controlled at any multifamily residential Room-by-Room Energy Savings Tips: Environmental property. Expert opinion has identified the Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR® only effective means of eliminating the medical This interactive tool takes you room-by-room through risks associated with secondhand smoke is to a home to suggest energy savings tips for every area of life. Some of these tips apply directly to residents, 1 “Action on Smokng and Health Press Release” available at 2 “Environmental Tobacco Smoke” available at http:// http://ash.org/ashprhud www.ashrae.org/content/ASHRAE/ASHRAE/ ArticleAltFormat/20058211239_347.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 51
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E but many will prove helpful to management in the Trolley Square Living Green Manual selection of building improvement measures. Homeowners Rehab, Inc. wrote this manual to provide English- and Spanish-speaking residents ➜ www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=popuptool. atHome at Trolley Square with green living guidance, in both site-specific and general terms. Use this as You can also read about a number of ENERGY a template or a model for developing resident STAR®’S household tips for saving energy, guidelines for your properties. organized by room, at the link below. ➜ www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=products.es_at_home_ Trolley Square Green Living Guide tips ➜ www.greencommunitiesonline.org/tools/resources/ 4.26 resources Trolley Square Manual Para Vivir Verde ➜ www.greencommunitiesonline.org/tools/resources/ Flex Your Power Smoke Free Housing Flex Your Power is California’s statewide energy This site provides landlords with resources and tips efficiency outreach campaign. It is a great resource for energy conservation tips and recycling ideas you for implementing no smoking policies. can pass on to residents. ➜ www.smokefreeforme.org/landlord.php ➜ www.fypower.org/res/tools/energy_tips.html Additional Resources Reasons to Explore Smoke-Free Housing: co- Recycling Guidelines for Multifamily hosted by Enterprise’s Green Communities program Housing Design and the National Center for Healthy Housing These guidelines, published by This web-based Stopwaste.org, offer Don’t let the humble training session ideas concerning scope of ‘easy fix’ brought together measures fool you – over national experts and design choices that time, the returns in terms practitioners for a can help make of financial savings and dialogue around multifamily buildings conser vation of resources implementing smoke- more recycling- can be considerable. free policies for multi- friendly. unit buildings. ➜ www.stopwaste.org/docs/1720381662005mfu- ➜ www.practitionerresources.org/showdoc. designguidelines.pdf html?id=67279&topic=7.%20Healthy%20Living%20 Environment&doctype=Spreadsheet Recycling: Earth 911 This website provides a tool for finding the recycling locations nearest to you. ➜ earth911.com/recycling/ 52 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E 100+ Tips for Reducing Water Use: Water The same applies when replacing cabinets and Use it Wisely countertops. Low- and no-VOC products have This website highlights over 100 ways to reduce both health and comfort benefits, reducing the water consumption. volatile organic compounds released into the air from new products and upgrades, while also ➜ www.wateruseitwisely.com/100-ways-to-conserve/index.php reducing uncomfortable smells. 4.27 unit turnover ProtocoLs Choosing materials that can be recycled will also The access gained during unit turnover provides reduce any impact on the environment, and you may an excellent opportunity for implementing green be able to cut down on disposal costs if old materials upgrades and maintenance without disturbing are diverted from your local landfill upon removal. residents. Transitioning to green asset management is a process, and somewhere along the line most Cleaning and Pest Control properties undergo a retrofit or rehabilitation at A temporarily unoccupied unit offers a great opportunity the building level. Turnover, however, opens the to implement the low-impact cleaning and pest control door to green upgrades at the dwelling unit level. protocols discussed in Section 4.14 (p. 46): Green Cleaning Planning is key, so the first step is for the green asset and Pest Control. There is also no better time than when management team an apartment is to identify all the Transforming a unit turnover empty to vacuum and upgrades that could checklist into a green seal cavities that may potentially be made unit turnover checklist is harbor unwanted relatively simple. pests. Cleaning at the apartment level, and then and ventilating an evaluate each one for cost effectiveness. apartment thoroughly at turnover can also prevent future health issues and prolong the life of building and finish Some of the most obvious improvements are energy materials. and water efficiency upgrades, but these are not the only choices open to the team. Transforming a Prescriptive Replacement turnover checklist into a green turnover checklist is Managers typically use turnover to assess a first step, and will go a long way toward improving appliances and mechanical systems and their operations and maintenance on your property. There components to see what might need replacing. In are several areas of focus at turnover; many have already been covered, but we will briefly revisit them choosing your replacements, make it a point to here from a turnover perspective, along with a few select energy and water efficient products. When new suggested changes. you consider lifecycle costs – not just upfront costs – in your evaluation, you will find that many of the Materials items that use the least amount of energy or water When painting or replacing carpet or other are also the most cost efficient. flooring, choose low- or no-VOC products. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 53
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E Visit Section 3.10 (p. 25): Methods of Cost Analysis consistent mechanism for measuring and tracking for assistance with accurately calculating the the performance of your building(s). The task cost of green upgrades. For more information of developing and implementing such a system on replacement decisions, see Section 5.1 (p. 58): can be challenging, particularly in determining Selecting Upgrade Measures. which performance metrics are most important, at what phase in the building’s lifecycle these System Maintenance need to be captured, and how to use the data to With an empty apartment, system maintenance is inform future decisions. Fortunately, there are never invasive. Check the maintenance schedule several management tools available to simplify for the unit’s equipment and to see if any work and streamline the process. “Portfolio Manager,” due in the near future could perhaps be completed the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) early while there is no resident in the unit, thereby benchmarking program, is just one example of a avoiding the risk of having maintenance delayed system comprehensive enough to meet the needs of once occupants are in place. Section 4.1 (p. 38): most asset management teams (further details are Mechanical Systems and Equipment provides more outlined in the following section). Alternatively, detailed information on system maintenance. you can develop your own monitoring tool tailored 4.28 monitoring to meet the specific requirements of your portfolio. As part of supervising operations and maintenance Whatever tool you choose, be prepared to stick with on your property, one of the best ways to it over the long term, as analyzing performance maximize on-site efficiency is to monitor costs should be an ongoing task throughout the life of a and performance over time. This involves tracking building. The management team will be monitoring utility costs and performance for both energy and the building’s energy and water consumption, and water to identify the strengths and weaknesses of identifying the amount of resources consumed your management strategies. Monitoring helps by various building operations (for example, your management team recognize interventions heating, cooling, hot water heating, electricity, etc.) and practices that work well and are worthy of as months and years go by. The team will then replication across your portfolio. It also allows compare these consumption levels with benchmarks you to pinpoint poorly performing buildings, to assess efficiency and the effectiveness of any investigate and remedy anomalies and make improvements and other changes. informed improvement decisions concerning your operations and equipment strategy. Benchmarking Benchmarking is a monitoring tool that estimates However, in order to produce these results, accurate energy and water consumption and uses comparisons data must be used for the monitoring process. It with other buildings of the same type and location to is therefore critical that your team put in place a 54 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E rate performance. The building’s performance ratings number of units, square footage, percent heated, are then tracked over time to identify improvements percent cooled, market rate versus affordable and deficits. It is a first step in managing energy and housing, percent of square footage that is common water costs and can help save resources and money space, and more. There is not yet enough data for on its own or serve as the launching point for a more the EPA to create a comparative benchmark, but comprehensive program. Benchmarking systems in the future, multifamily buildings will be able to can stay simple, or increase in complexity to include be ENERGY STAR® rated. Specifically, Portfolio other factors that influence energy use such as plug Manager will eventually allow building owners loads, intensity of use for a building and climate. to manage energy and water consumption for all buildings in a portfolio of properties, and to set Benchmarking will make it possible for your asset capital expenditure priorities. management team to: • Track and assess energy and water consumption across an entire portfolio of buildings • Track greenhouse gas emission reductions and achievements • Identify under-performing buildings • Set investment priorities • Establish and target efficiency goals • Verify efficiency improvements • Develop an efficiency plan to achieve performance goals As mentioned above, there are a number of systems you can use to support your benchmarking efforts. David & Joyce Dinkins Gardens, New York, NY In this section of the manual, we will walk through the EPA’s Portfolio Manager, using it as an example Manage Energy and Water Consumption of how a benchmarking system works. Portfolio for All Buildings Manager is an interactive energy management Having entered the amount of energy (electricity, tool for tracking and assessing energy and water gas, etc.) and water consumed within a specific consumption across an entire portfolio of buildings building, along with the related costs, for a in a secure online environment. minimum of 12 consecutive months, you will be able to generate a weather-adjusted energy use In February 2009 the EPA added multifamily intensity (EUI), a metric for analyzing energy housing space as a “type” option for their Portfolio performance in multifamily housing. If a building Manager tool. This feature allows you to input the has less than 12 months of data available, that Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 55
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E data can still be entered and an EUI will be Data can be reviewed from within Portfolio generated when the twelfth consecutive month is Manager, or easily exported to Microsoft Excel for entered. The tool also allows you to manipulate the creation of charts or graphic representation. the data in a variety of ways. You can identify and investigate spikes or trends in energy consumption; Set Investment Priorities set goals for energy, water, or cost management Portfolio Manager provides a platform for tracking and track your progress toward them; compare both consumption and cost of energy and water. This levels of consumption with other buildings; provides a more complete picture of the avoided and track consumption against seasonal climate utility costs associated with increased efficiency. In shifts, weather conditions, maintenance personnel other words, if energy use decreased 10 percent at changes, resident behaviors, or any other factors a particular building, but energy rates increased you decide are relevant to building performance. 10 percent, the asset manager would see the full These analyses then provide a concrete foundation financial benefit of the increased energy efficiency on which to base the team’s strategies for saving rather than looking at energy costs as flat. Portfolio resources and money. Manager also allows asset managers to compare energy performance across their portfolio using Although it sounds complex, the tool actually ‘weather adjusted energy use intensity’ (EUI). EUI functions to streamline your energy and water data, is basically a measure of energy use per square foot, and can organize it both by building and portfolio- taking into account weather patterns that may have wide, depending on your needs. For example, one can: affected heating and cooling loads. Using this EUI • Track multiple energy and water meters for metric, asset managers can identify under-performing each facility buildings, and prioritize energy efficiency investments • Customize meter names and key information (starting with larger buildings that have the highest • Benchmark facilities relative to their past EUIs). The tool also can track energy-efficiency performance investments alongside savings. This provides asset • View percent improvements in weather- managers information about which upgrades had the normalized source energy highest benefit-to-cost ratio, and quickest paybacks, • Monitor any changes in the cost of energy and water which will support future investment decisions. • Share building data with residents and others In addition, the built-in financial tool allows you inside or outside the organization to compare cost savings across buildings in your • Enter unique operating characteristics, specific portfolio, as well as to calculate cost savings for a to each categorization of how space is used within a building specific project. Being able to quickly and clearly obtain figures showing annual energy costs, or the results of cumulative investments in facility 56 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • S E c T I o n 4 : o p E r aT I o n S a n d M a I n T E n a n c E upgrades, makes it easier to decide on which best For sample views of building information using practice management strategies are the right ones Portfolio Manager see Appendix D (p.92). for your site and portfolio. Energy Tracking Card Verify and Track Progress of Improvement This document is an example of an energy savings Projects card that can be used either by residents to track In certain instances involving contracts or real energy consumption within their dwelling unit, or by management to monitor energy consumption estate issues, a Statement of Energy Performance for a whole building. Typical energy savings (SEP) document will be required. For example, measures are included, in addition to space for SEPs are needed to: recording actual usage. • Satisfy LEED for Existing Buildings (LEED- EB) requirements ➜ www.rockingham.wa.gov.au/pdf/Health_and_ Environment/saving-energy/energy-tracking-card.pdf • Support mortgage, sale and/or lease transactions • Document performance in energy service 4.30 resources contracts • Communicate energy performance with DSIRE – Database of State Incentives for residents/owner/customers Renewables and Eff iciency Once you have established a record in your DSIRE is a comprehensive source of information benchmarking program, you will be able to on state, local, utility and federal incentives that generate a SEP for each building in your promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. portfolio as necessary. It will contain a summary of important energy information and building ➜ www.dsireusa.org/ characteristics, such as site and source energy intensity, CO2 emissions and gross floor area. 4.29 tooLs EPA’s Portfolio Manager The EPA’s Portfolio Manager is one option to consider using to benchmark your buildings, as well as track energy and water use, greenhouse gas emissions and the financial performance of your portfolio, all at one online location. ➜ https://www.energystar.gov/istar/pmpam/ For a quick overview of Portfolio Manager’s features, visit: ➜ www.energystar.gov/ia/business/downloads/PM_ QuickRefGuide.pdf Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 57
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Section 5 dEVELopInG a pLan integrated systems which always adds up to be more than the sum of its isolated component parts. For BuILdInG upGradES High performance can thus be achieved through 5.1 seLecting uPgrADe MeAsures selecting a cost-effective package of measures The list of upgrades described in this section of focused on resource efficiency, durability and health. the manual is not exhaustive, but you will find it The actual benefits accrued from each measure contains many of the most commonly installed you implement are highly dependent on how they retrofit measures. As your asset management team each interact with other building elements, new considers which options are most appealing for your and existing; in this systemic approach, no one specific requirements, there are several important measure by itself will guarantee high cost savings. factors to keep in mind, as discussed below. For example, increasing attic insulation will result in decreased heating and/or cooling loads; additionally, When you view the a smaller, less expensive furnace and/or air building as a whole conditioner may be able to handle the reduced loads. integrated system, you come closer to an Installing these upgrade measures together will be accurate understanding more cost effective than installing the most efficient of its true energy furnace and/or air conditioner on the market. profile. When combining various interventions, therefore, Integrated, Whole Building Design the order of their implementation becomes quite When you view the building as a whole important. Some general rules for this include: integrated system, you come closer to an accurate • Consider basic occupant health and safety issues understanding of its true performance profile. The first. interactions between all relevant components can be • Make envelope improvements before space assessed when a holistic perspective is maintained. conditioning improvements. This reflects the complexity, as well as the synergy, of • Increase energy efficiency before installing renewable energy systems. 58 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Avoid Lost Opportunities resident comfort, and reserve the opportunity for When structural or cosmetic changes are planned installing a high-efficiency air conditioning system as part of a building rehab, be sure to carefully for when your budget permits such an investment. consider whether opportunities might arise for 5.2 enveLoPe improving energy and water efficiency and be Building professionals call the outer layer of a prepared. Replacing the roof? Plan to insulate building “the envelope” because it envelops the and add radiant barrier while this physical space interior living space. The envelope refers to a is accessible. You won’t find a better chance to wide variety of elements including walls, roofs, make these upgrades anytime in the next 15 years. floors, windows and doors, all made with different Similarly, replanting the grounds or conducting materials but sharing one thing in common: they a complete landscape overhaul presents an ideal are the factors responsible for placing the greatest opportunity for improving or replacing your loads on energy consumption when it comes to existing irrigation system and upgrading its heating and cooling. That is why so much focus is efficiency with new technology. placed on ensuring these components are as energy It also pays to consider future upgrade efficient as possible. If you plan carefully, not only opportunities as you plan your present ones. If will you be able to avoid wasting energy, you can your team is aware of renovations or improvements actually use well-designed envelope components to that will be budgeted and scheduled for in the save energy through reflecting or retaining heat, as not-so-distant future, make sure what you do today appropriate for the season. does not block the even greater opportunities of tomorrow. Ask yourselves, “What is the scope of Air Sealing – Reducing Inf iltration our current upgrade work? What might the scope Infiltration is the unintentional exchange of of work be the next time around?” For instance, conditioned air with unconditioned air through suppose there aren’t sufficient funds to purchase cracks and leaks in the building envelope. Loss a high-efficiency cooling system right now but of conditioned air and the subsequent need to the team anticipates there will be in the not-too- condition newly infiltrated air requires a significant distant future. Rather than going ahead with expenditure of energy. In fact, air infiltration can installing a new cooling system now and having to account for up to 30 percent or more of the energy settle for a minimum-efficiency model, you could dedicated to heating or cooling a building.1 When you seal cracks, joints and other leakage sources, consider delaying the cooling system upgrade and you prevent this waste of energy and at the same making improvements to the building envelope time minimize moisture infiltration, make living instead. By opting for upgrades such as installing spaces draft and mold free, and greatly improve radiant barrier and insulation, you can reduce the cooling load, achieve cost-effective savings, increase 1 “Air Barriers” available at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_ home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11300 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 59
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES resident comfort. Sealing can be accomplished Department of Energy has created an insulation simply and inexpensively by adding weather- calculator to suggest an appropriate insulation level stripping to doors and windows, patching holes and for each area of the country. caulking joints in the building envelope. Insulation is most effectively installed when it Insulation is placed so that it is in physical contact with Each part of the building envelope has its own the material that creates a physical barrier to air unique properties concerning the transfer of heat. movement in that location – dry wall or sheathing, Heat flows through a building from warm places for example. It is also important to avoid any to cool places whenever there is a temperature voids, gaps, or compressions. If you want to check differential between zones, such as between a how well your insulation has been fitted to your kitchen and a connected garage, for example. building, a HERS rater can conduct a Quality In doing so, heat passes through both the solid Insulation Installation inspection and provide you materials that make up a building, and the air with feedback. that fills any empty space within. The greater the temperature difference, the greater the heat flow Radiant Barriers from a hotter zone to a colder one. In multifamily buildings, the summer sun can Insulation resists this heat flow. Thus, insulating heat an attic to temperatures as high as 140º any barrier between conditioned and unconditioned F. This heat radiates down into dwelling units, space will increase the energy efficiency of a increasing their temperature as well, and causing building or home. Important things to know when air conditioning systems to work much harder planning to add insulation are: and use more energy. A simple and cost- • Increasing attic insulation is a viable option for effective solution for keeping the sun’s heat from most existing multifamily buildings, and is most penetrating the roof and heating up the attic is a cost effective in low-rise building types. radiant barrier. A radiant barrier can reduce attic • Increasing wall insulation is best achieved temperatures by as much as 30º F and block up to in rehab projects that include the removal of drywall down to the studs, but it can be 97 percent of radiant heat gain, saving energy and achieved under alternative circumstances. increasing comfort.1 Additional energy savings are Insulation can be blown in through a hole possible in buildings that have their HVAC and drilled in each stud bay for filling wall cavities. ductwork located within the attic space, because • Raised floors and exposed slabs can also benefit radiant barriers effectively reduce heat gain in this from the addition of insulation. equipment as well. The energy performance specification, or R-value, of an insulation substance is the measure of that material’s resistance to heat transfer. Recommended 1 “Radiant Barriers” available at http://www.toolbase.org/ R-values vary by climate conditions, and the U.S. Technology-Inventory/Roofs/radiant-barriers 60 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Radiant barriers are typically made up of a Some of the factors that affect window reflective layer of aluminum foil or plastic film. performance are: The essential characteristic of radiant barriers • Type of material used for frame and sash is their high reflectance and low emittance.1 • Size of space between glazing layers Reflectance indicates how much radiant heat is • Type of gas between glazing layers reflected by a material, while emittance refers to • Type of spacer between glazing layers how much radiant heat it gives off, or emits, at a • Type of coating(s) on glazing layers certain temperature. Opaque materials with high reflectance will have low emittance. Radiant The National Fenestration Rating Council has barriers are designed with reflective surfaces on developed a window evaluation system based on either one or two sides. If a one-sided radiant three basic window properties: barrier is installed in a building, the reflective side • Insulation value (U-factor) – the measure of must face an air space to be effective. heat transfer from difference in air temperature • Solar radiation control (Solar Heat Gain Radiant barriers reflect the radiant heat from the Co-efficient or SHGC) – the measure of heat sun and so are most effective in hotter climate transfer by solar radiation zones and in low-rise buildings. Two-sided radiant • Visibility (Visible Transmittance or VT) barriers can also provide some energy savings The U-factor and SHGC required for optimal during the winter when cold weather means heat window efficiency vary depending on whether the energy inside a building is radiated out towards building is in a heating or a cooling climate. Each the cold exterior. In this case, the second side of climate zone has its own characteristic mix of heating the radiant barrier reflects heat back towards the and cooling days throughout a yearly seasonal cycle, interior of the building, so that very little radiates and the best option will vary accordingly. to the outside. In climates where the predominant need is Windows for cooling indoor spaces, customized window Historically, windows have been the weak link in a design can pay off when paired with other high- building’s thermal envelope. Single pane windows, efficiency envelope components, yielding enough which are commonly found in multifamily of a reduction in the cooling loads on the building apartment buildings built more than 25 years ago, to allow downsizing of the air conditioning have about the same insulating value as a sheet of equipment. The savings in air conditioning metal. The introduction of dual glazing was a great equipment costs can help cover the extra costs improvement that nearly doubled the insulating involved in installing high performance windows value of the window. and other customized envelope components. 1 For opaque materials, the sum of reflectivity and emissivity factors is 1. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 61
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES 5.3 Heating, ventiLating anD air High Eff iciency HVAC Equipment conDitioning (Hvac) eQuiPment The simplest place to start when improving the Improving a building’s energy efficiency by efficiency of your HVAC equipment is with the installing high-efficiency heating or cooling ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR® equipment and distribution systems does not have products have gone through a certification process to involve a prohibitively high initial investment. to be designated as energy efficient. Looking for By combining your equipment upgrade with new the ENERGY STAR® label is a relatively quick measures to boost the efficiency of your building and easy way of sorting through your purchasing envelope, and then accurately calculating the options to identify those which can bring you the building load so that your new equipment can highest energy savings. be properly sized, you may find the cost of a new energy-efficient system to be surprisingly affordable. Even higher efficiencies are published by In addition, the utility savings generated by this organizations such as the Consortium for Energy package of upgrades can either serve as payback on Efficiency (CEE). Their “Directory of ARI the initial investment or be used to cover the cost of Verified Equipment” groups equipment into other energy efficiency measures. efficiency tiers and includes listings that are two levels higher than the ENERGY STAR® tier. In multifamily buildings, the most common systems are: Correctly Sizing an Air Conditioner • Heating and cooling (found in warmer climates) One of the most common – and most costly – • Split-system air conditioner with a gas furnace mistakes associated with air conditioning systems (forced air) is the purchase of equipment that is oversized for • Heat pump (through-the-wall or ducted) the job at hand. Oversizing is common because • Water-sourced heat pumps (high-rise vendors and building managers alike look at the residential) installation of bigger equipment as a kind of safety • Heating only (found in milder climates) net, a form of protection against future customer • Gas furnace (wall or forced air) complaints about inadequately cooled rooms. There • Hydronic fan coil (forced air) are also many “rules of thumb” and “ballpark” sizing All these systems can be made more energy methods that lead to overestimating the size needed efficient by: for new equipment to be a good match for a building. Oversizing is, however, an expensive mistake, in • Improving equipment effectiveness terms of both the inflated initial investment in new • Correctly sizing the air conditioners • Optimizing the design and installation of the equipment with unnecessarily large capacity, and the duct system extra costs of running the oversized equipment in the • Reducing fan power in air handlers years following its installation. • Ensuring adequate airflow over the indoor coil 62 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES The efficiency of cooling and heating equipment well designed or does not operate properly, then is based on properly sized equipment. When any the HVAC system as a whole will not be efficient. type of HVAC equipment is oversized, there is a A high SEER/EER2 air conditioner connected to significant compromise to its efficiency for several a leaky duct system can produce an overall energy reasons. First, the equipment cycles on and off performance inferior to that of a lower SEER/ more often (short cycling), which increases wear EER air conditioner connected to a tightly sealed and tear and in the end, raises maintenance costs duct system. Installing new heating or cooling and reduces life expectancy. In addition, short equipment does not negate the necessity of sealing cycling equipment uses an oversized fan that blasts air distribution ducts, and in fact only highlights cold or hot air through the need for careful the system in spurts, A high SEER/EER air maintenance of creating uncomfortable conditioner connected a distribution drafty conditions and to a leaky duct system in order to system can produce unnecessary noise. optimize the savings an overall energy Conversely, right-sized per formance inferior to potential of your systems are able to that of a lower SEER/ new equipment. supply a more even EER air conditioner And, duct sealing is provision of heating connected to a tightly actually a relatively sealed duct system and cooling, with inexpensive measure quieter operation. to implement, especially considering how effective it is for Along with all these improvements in comfort, improving HVAC system efficiency. properly sized equipment also yield significant energy savings. Switching from an oversized to a 5.4 WAter HeAting right-sized system can reduce energy usage by as Residents place high value on hot water that is much as 35 percent.1 reliable and arrives quickly. Unfortunately, many of the hot water systems installed in multifamily Duct Sealing buildings today suffer from unreasonable The equipment itself is only one part of the temperature fluctuations and slow delivery times. equation that applies to developing an energy- These problems lead directly to resident complaints efficient HVAC system. No matter how efficient and maintenance costs, as well as wasted energy the equipment is, if the distribution system is not and wasted water. 1 “Residential HVAC” available at http://www.cee1.org/resid/rs- 2 SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio, which is an ac/rs-ac-main.php3 efficiency measurement for air conditioners. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 63
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Central Systems and Recirculation Loops Demand Controls Central systems are usually the best option in In this type of control system, the recirculation multifamily buildings, for several reasons: pump is managed so that it only circulates water through the loop when there is demand from • One large heater or boiler is cheaper to purchase and install than many small ones, and saves residents and the loop water is below a threshold space in each dwelling unit. temperature. This minimizes the amount of time • Larger heaters and boilers are more energy for which the pump is switched on, and also efficient than smaller ones. minimizes heat loss from water in the loop. These • Recirculation loops give residents quick access systems are especially effective in small buildings to hot water at a constant temperature. where there are likely to be long periods with no • Maintenance for central systems is easier and hot water demand. more convenient. • Systems can be located in a basement or other Temperature Modulation Controls area that minimizes water damage in the event With this control, the temperature of the water of a leak. in the storage tank is modulated so that it can Central systems take two forms trunk-and- be set on high during periods of peak demand, branch systems, and recirculation systems. In and remain at a lower temperature when there is larger buildings, recirculation loops are typically typically low demand (for instance, overnight). used because they provide hot water to residents This type of system may be especially helpful in the more quickly than trunk and branch, because they detection of faults such as leaks, crossover flows and are cheaper to install, and because they are more pump failure. energy efficient. Constant recirculation wastes a lot of energy, Pipe Insulation however, and increases maintenance costs related Pipe insulation is a very low cost measure to the pump and copper piping. The standard that allows your system to deliver hot water approach to addressing this issue is the installation more quickly at a higher and more consistent of a time clock control to automatically switch temperature, while saving energy. A length of off the recirculation pump during the hours when un-insulated pipe can result in a plug of cold water hot water is not usually required. There are also being carried into a dwelling unit, prompting additional controls that can be added to save more resident complaints and leading to long wait- energy, improve the level of service to residents, times for hot water. It is therefore important to and provide feedback to the building manager, and insulate the whole length of hot water piping in a these are described below. building, whether a trunk-and-branch system or a recirculation loop is used. 64 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Water Heater and Boiler Eff iciency Tankless heaters currently have a higher initial cost, Energy performance specifications allow designers but have a number of advantages over storage water and purchasers to directly compare the energy heaters: performance of different products. Products that have • They occupy less space than storage heaters. higher efficiencies will usually have lower fuel costs. • They do not require periodic cleaning of the sediment that settles to the bottom of tanks. Different energy performance specifications • They provide unlimited hot water. are used for water heaters than for boilers. This • Tankless heaters are more modular, so parts can is because storage water heaters are tested as a be replaced more easily. complete package, whereas central systems can • They typically have a higher energy-efficiency have components that are mix-and-match. Water factor (around 0.80 instead of 0.65), because the heater performance is typically described by an heater supplies water only when needed. energy factor (EF) while boiler performance is rated by thermal efficiency or by annual fuel utilization Solar Water Heating efficiency (AFUE). Both EF and AFUE have been Solar water heating is a mature technology that is determined by U.S. Department of Energy test almost always cost effective in sunny climates, and procedures and can be used in conjunction with local carries the additional benefit of reducing cooling fuel costs to estimate the annual cost of operation. load by shading the roof from hot summer sun. However, because they are calculated using different Solar systems are especially cost effective for larger test procedures, it is not possible to directly compare buildings. A great variety of solar systems are EF values with thermal efficiency or AFUE values. available, and most can easily be integrated with a gas-fired central system so that peak loads are met That being said, there is a way to evaluate the even when there is no sun. energy use of water heaters and that of boilers, through energy modeling software. The results are 5.5 LigHting anD aPPLiances reported in terms of annual Btu consumption, and Lighting Fixtures typically are generated for the purposes of code and The simplest way to save on lighting costs is to swap program compliance modeling. incandescent light bulbs for compact fluorescent Water heaters are available in two basic forms with bulbs (CFLs). CFLs today come in all shapes, and without storage tanks. Storage tanks are used sizes and color temperatures, meaning they are now to meet peak demand (such as for showers in the capable of producing light characteristics similar morning) by holding an ample supply of hot water. to their inefficient predecessor. CFLs use about Tankless (instantaneous) heaters must be able to one-third the amount of energy of incandescent meet this demand without the benefit of storage, bulbs and last up to 10 times longer, and so are a and therefore have larger burners. quick and cost-effective option for increasing energy efficiency in homes and common spaces. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 65
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Replacing T-12 lamps and magnetic ballasts with to set refrigerator temperatures between 35° and T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts is another easy 38° F, and freezer temperatures at 0°F. way to save energy and money. In addition, T-8 Dishwashers lamps are quieter, more efficient and have a more Heating the water for a dishwasher consumes pleasant color rendering. 80 to 90 percent of the energy needed to run ENERGY STAR® qualified fixtures (including it. Therefore, the most effective way to improve ceiling fans with lights) must not only pass specific energy efficiency is reducing the amount of water requirements related to energy efficiency, but also used and thus, the volume needing to be heated. meet color temperature criteria and demonstrate even Newer models not only use less water, they can distribution of light. Replacing old lighting fixtures offer features such as streamlined motor designs, with ENERGY STAR® fixtures can save up to 75 sensors that regulate the length of the wash, and percent of the energy used for lighting, and is also built-in temperature boosters for more efficient likely to improve the aesthetics of your building or water heating. All these improvements add up home. to significant reductions in water use when you replace dishwashers over 10 years old with an ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR® qualified appliance.1 Refrigerators Replacing a refrigerator purchased before 1993 Clothes Washers with a new one that is ENERGY STAR® qualified As with other appliances, replacing old clothes can cut refrigerator energy consumption by 50 washers is the best way to significantly impact your percent, without sacrificing automatic ice makers energy and water bills. New ENERGY STAR® and through-the-door ice dispensers. High qualified clothes washers require 50 percent less efficiency compressors, superior insulation and energy for operation than other new models,2 and more accurate temperature and defrost mechanisms 40 percent less water than standard washers. They increase the performance of these newer units. Top also extract more water from clothes during the freezer models generally yield an additional 7-13 spin cycle, which reduces clothes drying time and percent energy savings over side-by-side models. saves additional energy. When shopping for new washers, check the Modified Energy Factor (MEF) There are several other ways to save energy that can listed on each machine to learn the amount of be implemented with refrigerators of any age and energy it uses throughout the washing cycle. The style. These include positioning the refrigerator higher the MEF, the more efficient the washer is. away from any heat source, such as a dishwasher or oven, and out of direct sunlight; leaving a space between the refrigerator and the wall or cabinets to allow air to circulate around the condenser coils; 1 “Dishwashers” available at http://www.energystar.gov/index. and making certain the refrigerator and freezer cfm?c=dishwash.pr_dishwashers doors seal tightly. You can also encourage residents 2 “Clothes Washers” available at http://www.energystar.gov/index. cfm?c=clotheswash.pr_clothes_washers 66 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Pool Pump Replacement Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight solar Replacing an old, inefficient pool pump and energy directly into electricity, typically through controlling it with a timer to reduce operating the installation of solar cells and PV arrays. hours can reduce pool pump use by 75 percent.1 Worldwide, the energy produced by these systems Smaller, right-sized pumps operate more efficiently has doubled every year since 2002, and increased by and last longer than over-sized pumps. Typically, 110 percent in 2008 alone.2 you can reduce filtration PV systems offer strong to six hours a day and Augmenting your upgrade potential due to still achieve sufficient current power supply their ease of installation, circulation for keeping with renewable your pool clean while energy is easier and maintenance and use, as more practical than well as their flexibility limiting energy use. you may think. – it is relatively easy A variable speed pump to add onto them as is another energy-saving option you may want to needed. In multifamily buildings, a PV system consider when replacing a pool pump. Variable can deliver energy specifically meant for common speed capability allows the pump to operate at the space areas (hallways, laundry rooms and lobbies as minimum speed needed to accomplish its job with well as outdoor walkways and parking lots), or can maximum efficiency. be configured as a supplemental supply source for individual dwelling units as well. 5.6 PHotovoLtAic instALLAtions Up until this point, the information provided in The first step in exploring the possibility of harnessing solar power as a renewable energy source this section of the manual has focused on upgrades for your property is to complete all other energy- that save money as well as natural resources through saving measures available to you. By minimizing the optimizing your energy use. Now, however, we amount of energy you use and eliminating wasteful will consider the source of your energy; specifically, practices, your starting point for determining the how augmenting your current power supply with scope of your PV upgrade will be as economically renewable energy is easier and more practical than favorable as possible. After ensuring your site has you may think. Significant advances have been made reached its full potential for efficient energy use, any in solar energy technology and its application in PV system you install will be able to supply a larger percentage of the energy load; or alternatively, you recent years. These improvements continue to yield could choose a smaller system, spending less for your greater benefits, from enhanced equipment efficiency initial investment and saving more on operational to quicker recoup of your initial investment. costs in the years to come. 1 “Installing and Operating a Swimming Pool Pump for Energy 2 “Solar Expected to Maintain its Status as the World’s Fastest Efficiency” available at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/consumer/ Growing Energy Technology” available at http://www. your_home/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=13290 socialfunds.com/news/article.cgi/2639.html Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 67
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES The second step is to accurately size a PV system back into the grid. At times, a PV system will not to fit the building and grounds it will serve. This generate enough electricity to handle onsite loads, is critical because scaling the system correctly and the electric meter operates as usual, counting will have significant implications for both your the kilowatt hours drawn from the grid. Other startup investment costs and your ongoing energy times, the PV system produces more energy than savings. Factors that must be considered are the the building or property consumes, causing the total amount of electric power needed, the extent electric meter to run backwards. At the end of a of available roof space, and the level and location billing cycle, the customer only pays for the net of shaded and sunny exposures. Not all existing kWh drawn from the grid. projects are ideally situated for the use of PV panels. While net metering works well for owner-occupied Projects with optimum orientation, roof slope and and single-family housing, it is less feasible in sun exposure are at a distinct advantage. A solar multifamily and rental properties. One PV contractor should be able to estimate the energy system with one converter typically covers an generation potential of your site so your asset entire multifamily building, thus only one meter management team can make an informed decision. is used. In order for net metering to be applied in The financial aspect of upgrading to a PV energy multifamily situations, an individual PV system source can be daunting, but recent developments would have to be installed for each dwelling unit so in marketing as well as government support for that each could have its own meter. However, the alternative energy have led to a diversity of new option of installing so many small systems is cost funding options. Many solar installation companies prohibitive and impractical. have come up with alternative payment methods that Virtual net metering solves this problem. With reduce upfront costs for solar installations. Some virtual net metering, one meter measures energy will install a system for free and charge the client fed into the grid, and other meters for individual a reduced rate for each kWh. Others will install dwelling units measure energy drawn from the a system with an agreement to claim rebate or tax grid. The PV system feeds energy straight into the incentive funds on behalf of the owner. What was grid rather than into the building, and the meter once so cost prohibitive that it became nonviable for counts energy going in that direction only. At multifamily housing has now become achievable. the end of the building cycle, the total credits for Along with options for funding the initial energy fed into the grid are divided amongst the investment in a system, unique new approaches residents, reducing the utility bill for each dwelling now exist for making PV-generated power produce unit. This requires additional administrative labor ongoing financial rewards. Net metering is a from the utility company, but allows multifamily policy many utility companies have adopted to pay projects a chance to participate in solar incentive customers who feed electricity they do not need and deep energy reduction programs. 68 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES 5.7 tooLs Energy Design Resources: HVAC Design These design briefs and guidelines cover some of DOE Insulation Calculator the major topics related to energy efficient HVAC. Find the appropriate levels of insulation for your climate zone with this easy-to-use web tool. ➜ www.energydesignresources.com//technology/hvacdesign. aspx ➜ www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs%2Bwalls/insulation/ins_16.html Additional Resources ENERGY STAR® Bulk Purchasing California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC) Use this website to connect with suppliers who sell CLTC’s mission is to stimulate, facilitate and ENERGY STAR® qualified products in bulk and at discounted prices. accelerate the development and commercialization of energy-efficient lighting and daylighting ➜ www.quantityquotes.net technologies. 5.8 resources ➜ cltc.ucdavis.edu/ A Guide to Energy Eff icient Heating and Cooling High Efficiency Water Heaters: Provide Hot This ENERGY STAR® publication describes Water for Less: Environmental Protection Agency how you can know when it’s time to upgrade your (EPA), ENERGY STAR® heating and cooling systems, perform maintenance on your equipment, check your duct sealing, or This document describes various water heating work with a heating and cooling contractor. technologies, their efficiencies and estimated savings. ➜ www.energystar.gov/ia/products/heat_cool/ GUIDE_2COLOR.pdf ➜ www.energystar.gov/ia/new_homes/features/ WaterHtrs_062906.pdf CEE-AHRI HVAC Directory CEE, the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, has Understanding Solar Thermal Systems: Home a directory of energy-efficient HVAC equipment. Energy Magazine The directory catalogues thousands of HVAC ➜ www.homeenergy.org/article_preview. systems that qualify for CEE’s residential and php?id=381&article_title=Understanding_Solar-Thermal_ commercial HVAC initiatives. Systems ➜ www.ceehvacdirectory.org 5.9 iDentifying financiaL resources Planning a strategy to finance green affordable AHRI Directory of Certif ied Product Performance housing involves a significant amount of research The Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration due to the variety and complexity of financing Institute (AHRI) directory is a great place to find programs and vehicles available today. There are certified heating and water heating equipment by policies that increase cash flow, Federal Energy type, size and efficiency. Efficiency Tax Credits, and many other program ➜ www.ahridirectory.org/ahridirectory/pages/home.aspx incentives. The focus of their support ranges Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 69
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES from energy efficiency and solar/PV initiatives to Green Home Financing programs, created to green building practices, among others. Together, support energy-efficient and conservation-minded these mechanisms facilitate investments in high- housing through green mortgages and home equity packages, among other financial vehicles. When performance buildings and facilitate gaining a return exploring your financing options, be sure to ask on that investment, while helping reduce design and your lender if they have a green financing initiative technical assistance costs and increasing a project’s that meets your needs. net income. The key to accessing the right financing for your project is to thoroughly explore all the 5.11 LoW-incoMe Housing tAx creDits AnD options, identify the appropriate combination of BonD finAncing funding programs, and put your best administrative Many states reward efforts to improve energy structures in place early efficiency in affordable housing properties when in the process. allocating funds The key to accessing through LIHTC There are several the right financing and bond financing categories of economic for your project is to thoroughly explore all programs. Some offer resources to help the options, identify competitive points reduce the cost of the appropriate and/or increased the green design combination of funding, while others process and analysis, funding programs, provide a threshold and put your best equipment, measures organizational basis boost. To qualify, and materials: structures in place projects typically need • Green Financing early in the process. to meet a series of • LIHTC and Bond green criteria, such as Financing the use of ENERGY STAR® appliances, as part of • Grants fulfilling minimum rehab requirements. • Government resources 5.12 grAnts • Utility Incentive Programs Grants that support environmentally friendly • Utility Allowances approaches to rehab and building come from a • Federal Energy Efficiency and Solar Tax wide variety of institutions and organizations. Credits Aside from government agencies, nonprofit and 5.10 green finAncing private foundations from many different sectors More than ever before, banks and mortgage offer funding assistance. Two of the most well companies are responding to the housing sector’s known of these are: interest in environmentally aware building and business practices. They have responded with • The Home Depot Foundation’s Grant Program has granted millions of dollars to support a 70 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES variety of environmentally focused, nonprofit information on green building requirements. organizations throughout communities in Examples of typical government programs are: the United States. Affordable Housing Built Responsibly is one of The Home Depot • State housing finance agencies may offer below Foundation’s funding program areas. market-rate loans through the sale of tax- ➜ www.homedepotfoundation.org/housing.html exempt bonds. • Enterprise Community Partners: Green • State Departments of Housing and Urban/ Communities provides grants, financing, Community Development (HCD) typically tax-credit equity and technical assistance offer programs, loans and grants to housing to developers who are creating low-income authorities, affordable housing owners and housing in accordance with The Green developers, and service providers. HCDs Communities Criteria. can provide information on other financing resources as well. ➜ www.greencommunitiesonline.org/ • State and local waste, air and water boards 5.13 government resources may provide grants for funding green building design and construction practices related to State and local government agencies are prime their area of jurisdiction. resources for exploring the availability of special • Redevelopment agencies and housing loans, grants and other programs that benefit green authorities oftentimes provide competitive building practices. Your local building or planning points for green building (and in particular, department may also be able to provide you with practices related to energy efficiency). Occasionally such points are required to qualify for funding. • Local governments may also offer to streamline the process of applying for permits (reduced fees, fast tracking, etc.) when designs or plans that meet green building practices are submitted. 5.14 utiLity anD PuBLic incentive Programs Some states have instituted a public goods charge whereby ratepayers are required to pay into a fund that is used to finance programs that promote energy efficiency and/or water conservation. To optimize your chances of qualifying to receive support, such as rebates or incentives, from one of these programs, identify their specific requirements before you finalize decisions concerning your upgrade or rehab. Look for specific information concerning appliance models or performance Sara Conner Court, Hayward, CA Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 71
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES thresholds; it is always easier to build these kinds However, the energy consumption model is of specs into your plans from the beginning, not available to buildings or residents receiving rather than try to accommodate them late in the assistance from Rural Development, Section 8 or process. If you need practical help or expert advice, any other HUD regulated program. utilities oftentimes will provide hands-on planning Two of these options provide an opportunity assistance to owners and managers investing in for a lower (and more realistic) utility allowance green rehab projects. schedule that more accurately reflects the post- One resource for finding such programs is DSIRE, rehab level of energy use after green upgrade and a comprehensive source of information on state, rehab measures have been implemented; these are local, utility and federal incentives that promotes Energy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowances and renewable energy and energy efficiency. However, the Energy Consumption Model. searching through the DSIRE database should not take the place of directly contacting your local Energy Eff iciency-Based Utility Allowance (EEBUA) Schedules utility for up-to-date regional information. This option is PHA-driven, whereby in addition to ➜ www.dsireusa.org/index.cfm?EE=1&RE=1 the standard utility allowance, some PHAs offer a lower utility allowance for proven whole-building 5.15 utiLity aLLoWances – oPtions for energy conservation (through energy building energy efficiency simulation models or third-party verification of a When energy efficiency measures are put into HERS rater). This Energy Efficiency-Based Utility effect, residents can expect to benefit from lower Allowance (EEBUA) Schedule is also an average of utility bills. In recognition of this and to provide consumption across the PHA jurisdiction’s housing a mechanism for paying back investments in stock, with the caveat that it reflects the average energy-efficient upgrades, such properties are energy-efficient project. Check with your local PHA before beginning a project to see if they offer granted lower utility allowances. These help owners such an allowance; if so, they will provide criteria to and managers to boost cash flow and qualify include as part of your planning process. for increased financing. The IRS allows owner/ developers of Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Energy Consumption Model properties to choose from five potential options for A 2008 IRS ruling allows LIHTC-funded projects estimating resident utility costs: to use an energy consumption model created with software approved by the agency administering • Public housing authority (PHA) utility LIHTC. A professional designated by the state’s allowance LIHTC allocating agency must be employed (at • Local utility company estimate the cost of the property owner) to carry out the • State agency estimate modeling, which takes into consideration building • HUD’s utility schedule model size, climate zone and energy efficiency measures • Energy consumption model 72 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES to create a project-specific basis for granting a tax credits through Dec. 31, 2013. To qualify, utility allowance. Before you begin your upgrade projects must be certified by a qualified HERS rater. project, check with your state’s LIHTC agency ➜ openpub.realread.com/rrserver/browser?title=/ASHRAE_1/ to determine their criteria for qualifying projects, ashrae_90_1_2007_IP_1280 building simulators and software. Energy Investment Credit (IRC Section 48) ➜ www.novoco.com/low_income_housing/lihtc/irs_ For All Buildings guidance.php This law provides tax credits for solar energy, fuel 5.16 feDeraL energy efficiency anD soLar tax cells and microturbines, small wind-energy systems, creDits anD DeDuctions geothermal heat pumps, and combined heat and Nonprofit developers are familiar with passing power (CHP) systems, and allows taxpayers to take LIHTC credits to their for-profit investor partners, the credits against the alternative minimum tax but many don’t realize that energy efficiency and (AMT), subject to certain limitations. These credits solar tax credits can be passed on a similar basis. were further expanded by The American Recovery and Tax credits granted by the Federal Energy Policy Reinvestment Act of 2009, enacted in February 2009. Act of 2005 are available for both energy efficiency Tax credits under this law are available for eligible and solar energy projects implemented as part of systems placed in service on or before Dec. 31, 2016. both new construction and rehab projects. As you explore this opportunity and identify the tax credits IMPORTANT NOTE: Because tax laws change applicable to your specific project, be sure to check frequently, seek professional tax advice on whether with your tax expert to confirm your eligibility. you qualify for any tax credits or deductions prior to implementing any measures.. Energy Eff icient Commercial Buildings Tax Credit (IRC Section 179D) High-Rise Buildings – New Construction 5.17 tooLs High-rise dwelling units (four stories and above) Green Communities Checklist - Enterprise qualify for the same tax credits as do commercial Community Partners buildings. If your rehab project allows you to Whether or not you are participating in the Green achieve energy usage that is 50 percent more Communities program, this checklist can provide efficient than ASHRAE 90.1-2001, you will be guidance for the decisions involved in your upgrade eligible for tax deductions equivalent to $1.80/ projects. square foot. Additionally, partial credits ($0.60/ ➜ www.greencommunitiesonline.org/tools/criteria/green_ square foot) can be taken for each component of criteria_checklist.pdf a building’s envelope (insulating, windows, etc.), lighting, or HVAC (heating and cooling system). Congress has extended the federal energy efficiency Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 73
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES 5.18 resources Additional Resources Making Affordable Housing Truly Affordable: Citi Community Capital Advancing Tax Credit Incentives for Green Citi Community Building and Healthier Capital, a division of Communities – Global Certification Citi, and Helio Micro Green demonstrates that you Utility have created have achieved specific This report presents the first green energy green goals set for sector fund of its kind, your property, as an analysis of the the Green Energy verified through third- tax credit allocation Community Investment party professionals, policies of all 50 Fund™. The program and that a building’s states and identifies performance is was established to existing green building exemplar y in terms of initially finance up to energy efficiency and requirements for four megawatts of solar sustainability. affordable housing electricity production in projects. 2008, installed on qualifying commercial and public ➜ www.globalgreen.org/i/file/qap_report_2006.pdf sector facilities throughout the U.S., with an emphasis on underserved communities. 5.19 inforMAtion resources There are a number of resources available to The Green Energy Community Investment Fund was support green asset management including created to support the installation of solar electricity guidelines, recognition and marketing programs systems on commercial and public sector buildings. and tools. ➜ heliomu.com/green-energy-community-investment-fund.php Database of State Incentives for Guidelines Renewables and Eff iciency In California, Alameda County Waste DSIRE is a comprehensive source of information Management, otherwise known as StopWaste, on state, local, utility and federal incentives that has come up with a number of useful guidelines promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. for green building and asset management. Most ➜ www.dsireusa.org significantly, StopWaste has been instrumental in supporting and funding the California-based Build The Tax Incentives Assistance Project it Green. (TIAP) This website is a great place to find updates on The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has federal tax incentives. IRS forms are also available also recently produced guidelines concerning green for download through this site. residential retrofitting. REGREEN addresses the ➜ www.energytaxincentives.org 74 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • Section 5: DeVeLoPinG A PLAn FoR BUiLDinG UPGRADeS major elements of any green renovation project, program is available at www.usgbc.org/leed/eb. The including the site of the home, water efficiency, USGBC also has developed a guideline for home energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, retrofit (described in the previous section). and indoor environmental quality. The guidelines In addition, there are local and regional green blend product selection, building systems homebuilding programs that recognize sustainable integration and proven technologies to create renovations on existing residential structures. These effective green strategies. programs may be found through local technical Certif ication and Recognition Programs assistance providers, or by contacting Enterprise’s Participation in a certification program can be Green Communities team at greencommunities@ valuable in terms of both the financial rewards enterprisecommunity.org. that result from achieving certification, and the 5.20 Tools environmental benefits generated by the green Building Prof ile Worksheet, REGREEN practices implemented to meet certification guidelines requirements. Certification demonstrates that The Building Profile Worksheet, found on pages you have achieved specific green goals set for 161-163 of USGBC’s REGREEN guidelines, is a your property, as verified through third-party tool for documenting and analyzing information professionals, and that a building’s performance specific to your team’s projects, including factors is exemplary in terms of energy efficiency and such as context details, building characteristics, sustainability. For building owners and property building science issues and durability concerns managers who want this type of validation, there related to various building types. With this array are both national and local programs to consider. of data points, the team can determine priorities for The U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED for addressing building performance in a holistic way. Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance ➜ www.regreenprogram.org Program was developed to recognize sustainability Green Rehabilitation of Multifamily in the ongoing operations of existing buildings. Rental Properties: A Resource Guide The program includes consideration of energy This document provides guidelines for multifamily and water performance improvements, cleaning affordable housing providers and their consultants products and plans, and recycling programs. on how to prepare a green physical needs Residential buildings that have four or more assessment. It provides rehab recommendations that habitable floors are eligible to apply for certification incorporate green building principles as they apply under this program, but buildings must be in to energy efficiency, water conservation, resource operation for at least 12 continuous months before conservation, and healthy indoor environments. The they can be certified. More information on this information in this guide, published by Bay Area Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 75
    • SEcTIon 5: dEVELopInG a pLan For BuILdInG upGradES Local Initiatives Support Corporation and Build It Additional Resources Green, is applicable to both moderate rehab projects Technology Roadmap: Energy Efficiency in and substantial (or gut) rehabs. Existing Homes – Volume Two: ➜ www.nw.org/network/green/documents/ Strategies Defined: Housing and Urban LISCGreenRehabofMFGuide.pdf Development (HUD) Additional Tools This document is one in a series of technology Green Multifamily Checklist: Scottsdale Green roadmaps created to help the housing industry Building Program make informed decisions about research and development investments. These green criteria established for multifamily housing by the city of Scottsdale in Arizona can ➜ www.huduser.org/publications/destech/tech_rdEnergy. serve as a model for projects located in cities that html do not yet have their own programs. Multifamily Green Building Guidelines: ➜ www.scottsdaleaz.gov/Assets/documents/greenbuilding/ Alameda County StopWaste GB_Multi-Family_Checklist.pdf Architects and project managers will find 63 recommended measures for green multifamily 5.21 resources projects, along with eight case studies. Topics Blueprint for Green Affordable Housing covered in the guidelines include identifying which This guide for housing developers, advocates, public measures are appropriate in specific development agency staff and the financial community offers scenarios; choosing when in the project schedule to specific guidance on incorporating green building incorporate measures; the relative costs and benefits strategies into the design, construction and of individual measures; and where to look for operation of affordable housing developments. additional technical information or materials. ➜ www.globalgreen.org/publications/ ➜ recycle.stopwaste.org/mfdown/MultiFam.pdf LEED Affordable Housing – U.S. Green Building Council You can find a description of USGBC’s affordable housing initiatives on this webpage. Details concerning their partnership with The Home Depot Foundation, which assists affordable housing projects meet LEED for Homes requirements for certification, may be of particular interest. ➜ www.greenhomeguide.org/affordable/index.html 76 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES Section 6 caSE STudIES and BEST 6.1 tiPs for green asset managers pracTIcES Groups that have developed green asset management programs offer the following ideas: Affordable housing managers around the country • Assemble a team with representation from are pursuing innovative approaches to green asset project management, construction management, management. For many, becoming immersed in a asset management, property management, systems-thinking approach throughout the building’s maintenance and finance. lifecycle has amounted to nothing less than an • Develop a user-friendly system to measure evolution of their standard business practices. By and monitor building performance throughout involving team members with a variety of expertise, the lifecycle. The system should be part of a asset managers are embracing a collaborative approach feedback loop to influence future decisions about specific buildings and products in an to instilling green practices in all phases of their organization’s portfolio. construction and rehab projects design, construction, • Develop detailed operations and maintenance operations and maintenance. manuals for residents and property management Through these efforts, organizations like First to avoid losing critical information as a result of staff turnover. Community Housing in San Jose and Urban Edge in Boston have developed an internal knowledge base • Use bulk and centralized purchasing systems, and vendors that provide quality green products around green asset management. These groups and others or services at an affordable price. One way have graciously offered to share their ideas and experience, to manage this process is by selecting a group and we will continue to build upon these resources as of vendors that you pre-approve through an time goes on. These approaches can be applied whether RFP process and ensuring that the property you are self-managing or using third-party management. management team sources products through If you have additional resources or organizational lessons these vendors. you would like to share as part of this toolkit, please • Use online bill paying to allow for ease in contact Enterprise’s Green Communities mailbox at analyzing usage and cost data, particularly for utility bills. greencommunities@enterprisecommunity.org. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 77
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES • When developing new projects, use an Homeowner’s Rehab integrated design process that begins during 280 Franklin Street the pre-design phase and follows the building Cambridge, MA 02139 through its lifecycle; even include site 617. 868.4858 inspections and check-in meetings with team ➜ www.homeownersrehab.org members during operations and maintenance. • Carry out building performance testing and 6.3 cAse stuDies inspections before and after major investments or upgrades. Urban Edge • Engage in post-occupancy testing, including Urban Edge (UE) helps to develop and sustain utilities usage and occupant quality-of-life stable, healthy and diverse communities in Jamaica surveys. Plain, Roxbury, and surrounding neighborhoods in Boston. UE has developed and preserved over 6.2 resources 1,360 units of affordable housing since its founding Green Unit Turn: Seattle Office of Housing in 1974. Of these, 865 units have been developed This website provides a list of best practices in as nine LIHTC projects. Five LIHTC projects are green operations and maintenance as gathered in Years 11-15 of the affordability period, and two from experiences and recommendations of Seattle- are expected to close on their Year 15 disposition in based affordable housing owners and managers. 2009 and 2010. UE intends to retain ownership of The list features icons that provide a visual all of its expiring tax credit projects for the benefit indication of the primary sustainability benefit associated with each option. of its low- and moderate-income residents. ➜ www.seattle.gov/housing/GreenUnitTurn/default.htm What makes UE stand out from many of its peers is its green Year 15 disposition approach. Noah Contact information Maslan, Director of Real Estate, describes an intense Contact information for the organizations profiled focus on driving down energy demand, identifying below is provided here. Asset managers may wish to tour these projects or speak directly with staff the most significant capital needs, and making to develop ideas around improving their own green residential units and buildings as healthy as possible. asset management approach. In all cases, UE evaluates significant capital needs Urban Edge options, such as HVAC and water consuming 1542 Columbus Avenue, Suite 2 fixtures, with a Lifecycle Cost Analysis (LCA). Roxbury, MA 02119 617.989.9300 UE’s goal is to navigate the tricky path of Year ➜ www.urbanedge.org 15 reinvestment issues, arriving on the other side First Community Housing with a healthy balance sheet, healthy building 75 East Santa Clara St, Suite 1300 and a healthy relationship with its residents. San Jose, CA 95113 Communication and investigation is crucial to this 408.291.8650 ➜ www.firsthousing.org/ effort, and therefore UE is dedicated to collecting data and soliciting input about the physical needs 78 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES of the building from a variety of sources, including: early in the process before any decisions have been made about improvements, and regularly thereafter. • A full review of utilities Incorporating residents in the reinvestment process • Residents’ input gathered through has multiple benefits. No one knows a home questionnaires better, including the maintenance and repairs it • A review of work orders from the previous two years to identify major issues and establish needs, than its residents. Understanding this helps consistency with residents’ responses on the UE make informed, cost-effective reinvestment questionnaires decisions. Resident participation also helps reduce • Interviews with its third-party property everyone’s stress, builds trust and makes the process management staff go more smoothly. It was from their surveys that • Energy modeling and infrared thermal imaging UE learned its residents suffer disproportionately on the building, performed by qualified from respiratory diseases, most notably asthma. engineers UE does its best to make the units as healthy as The most pressing capital needs are prioritized possible, which is good for all parties. Healthier, within the constraints of budget, codes and time. more comfortable residents are more likely to Maslan and his report issues in the staff include as In its ef for t to be open building, become better many of the capital and transparent, UE neighbors and pay their needs as possible meets with residents rent on time. in the reinvestment early in the process before any decisions Rehab needs that are scope of work. have been made about identified as both High priority is improvements, and Year 15 reinvestment given to items that regularly thereafter. decrease energy factors and subsequent and water use, operations often can improve residents’ health, and address large capital be addressed in several ways. Major capital items items such as gutting a bathroom to address such as HVAC and windows are sent through a moisture issues, old plumbing, water use and lifecycle cost analysis. According to UE’s website, mold. When necessary, UE temporarily relocates “Lifecycle Cost Analysis (LCA) is a method of a family to another unit, but most rehabs are done evaluating a system or component’s total cost by with residents in place. Some less pressing, less measuring its initial and future costs. It can be disruptive items are scheduled for the operations seen as the total discounted dollar cost of acquiring, budget of the next 15-year period. operating, maintaining, repairing, disposing and replacing a material or system over a fixed period of Speaking with Maslan, one comes to learn the deep time. The analysis is a useful method for evaluating respect UE has for its residents. In its effort to be alternatives that serve similar purposes but differ in open and transparent, UE meets with residents their initial and future costs.” Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 79
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES After the LCA, a decision might be made to retain also noted the importance of a new position that those components with a long period of useful life was developed to oversee the work of the asset still remaining, and to address them if they wear management companies. The Sustainable Facilities out in the next 15-year period. Or the analysis Manager’s primary responsibilities are two-fold: 1) might come down on the side of replacement, in ensure the equipment is maintained properly and in which case an alternative with a lower lifecycle cost line with FCH’s sustainability goals, and 2) monitor will be selected. In all cases, the final decision is the maintenance schedules for asset management. green by nature, favoring durable components that This staff person performs random site inspections require less maintenance and have lower operating to ensure maintenance is appropriately timed and costs because they use less energy or water. contributes to improving building performance, which is particularly important for items such as For more information about Urban Edge’s green HVAC filters and appliance cleanings. strategies and activities, visit: ➜ urbanedge.org/green-housing.php FCH’s approach to implementing comprehensive protocols for green operations and maintenance First Community Housing has evolved over time. Initially, they required asset As a large developer in San Jose, Calif., First management companies to use certain green building Community Housing products. However, (FCH) has found that Carr y out building they eventually found it diversifying with multiple performance testing asset management and inspections more effective to require before and after compliance with certain companies has been a major investments product standards and successful strategy. The or upgrades certifications, rather than organization uses three specifying exact products. asset management This approach allowed the asset management companies to oversee its portfolio of more than companies to operate with more independence and 1,000 units among 14 projects. creativity. It also resulted in a rich dialogue between Michael Santero, FCH asset manager, says the the asset management companies and FCH around integration of green building into all phases of product performance and sourcing, ultimately leading to their projects has been a step-by-step learning the selection of better-performing products. Another process. The organization installed its first solar important aspect of FCH’s green asset management water heating system in 2000, and six years later strategy is its requirement that the operations and completed its first LEED certified building. maintenance information is transferred to site managers and residents through manuals and trainings. Though Santero plays a key role in the organization’s green asset management strategy, he 80 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES Homeowner’s Rehab 4. Reviews waste management practices during renovations and ongoing building operations Since its founding in 1972, Homeowner’s with a goal of increased recycling Rehab, Inc. (HRI) has shifted its focus from 5. Reviews the current capital needs assessment homeownership to rental housing that is affordable for each building with a refocus on energy for moderate- and low-income people in the conservation and indoor air quality Cambridge, Mass., market. HRI has developed improvements over 1,500 housing units, and today owns and The second element of HRI’s approach to green manages nearly 1,000. Green design has been asset management is to identify and implement incorporated into its new construction practices green and healthy property management practices. for over 10 years and more recently, HRI has They define practices and identify products with trained its eyes on greening existing units with the minimal impact on resident health inside homes, “Greening of HRI Initiative.” and establish green maintenance practices to reduce any toxins inside homes and buildings. In the Jane Jones, HRI’s senior project manager, explains their implantation process, HRI: four-pronged approach to promoting green building and living across their portfolio. The first is a capital 1. Assesses existing costs and standard upgrade improvement plan that involves using licensed maintenance practices with the intent of engineers to conduct energy audits on a sampling of upgrading standards to include greener cleaning typical building types to improve energy efficiency products and practices, and selecting healthier and health conditions, and to increase green aspects and more durable materials to use in unit turnovers and building renovations of the housing stock. While the engineers focus on a building’s envelop and systems, HRI staff assess 2. Learns from the similar efforts of others, such individual units using a checklist for inspections, as the Green Purchasing Program implemented paying particular attention to air infiltration, water by the City of Cambridge fixtures and non-ENERGY STAR® appliances and 3. Follows a program that helps reduce costs electric fixtures. With the audits, HRI: and brings a “one touch” green and healthy approach to building renovations and unit 1. Analyzes the mechanical, electrical and turnovers, repairs, pest control, and other plumbing systems and identifies improvements ongoing maintenance, including measures for to increase efficiency improving health and energy conservation while reducing toxins 2. Analyzes a building’s thermal envelope to determine its efficiency and to identify 4. Shares its materials and learning with other opportunities for improving health conditions nonprofit groups who can benefit from the by controlling moisture and excluding pests, Greening of HRI Initiative both factors associated with respiratory The third prong of HRI’s approach focuses on problems resident education. Jones explains that once 3. Reviews landscape watering practices, irrigation buildings are made more efficient and healthy for systems and plumbing fixtures to improve water conservation Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 81
    • SEcTIon 6: caSE STudIES and BEST pracTIcES the families living in them, resident education is over the course of a year. Cogeneration to reduce critical. Residents are helped to use and maintain heating and cooling loads, solar water heating, and the buildings in a green fashion on a long-term solar photovoltaic systems for producing electricity basis. Teaching are among the green living practices Teaching residents technologies HRI uses maximized the green living practices or is considering. chances that the maximizes the efforts HRI takes to chances that the The Greening of efforts HRI takes to HRI Initiative is green their properties green their properties launching by focusing are sustainable over are sustainable over on two properties, time. HRI wants time. HRI wants its Oxford Street and its residents to residents to understand understand how they how they can make Trowbridge Street, a positive impact on identified as two of can make a positive their own homes and the highest energy impact on their own also within the broader consuming buildings homes and within the environment. in HRI’s portfolio. broader environment. Both were built in Their success has 1935, and together contain 52 units. HRI currently been demonstrated in concrete results; for example, is completing an assessment of the mechanical the diversion of four tons of resident-generated equipment, water usage and electrical usage, after material to recycling during a six-month resident which improvements will begin in the areas that education program in a 42-unit building where no are deemed to be most critical to the environmental previous recycling had been done. performance of each building. HRI plans to sponsor workshops for its residents on energy efficiency, green living (e.g., non-toxic pest control and reduced household toxins), sustainability, climate change and recycling. Programs and workshops about the importance of the natural environment and energy conservation will be geared for residents, including the children. The fourth and final strategy in the Greening of HRI Initiative is installing renewable energy systems where feasible. The ultimate accomplishment would be to create a net zero building that uses no energy from local utilities 82 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 7: LIST oF addITIonaL rESourcES • Resources for ENERGY STAR® Partners Section 7 LIST oF addITIonaL www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_ rESourcES raters.nh_partner_resources U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) Rebuild America 7.1 government organizations This organization provides energy-efficiency U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) solutions for production housing. ➜ www.epa.gov ➜ www.rebuild.org • Links for New Homes • U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes. Energy (U.S. DOE EERE) hm_index http://www.eere.energy.gov/ • Home Renovations www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_ improvement.hm_improvement_index U.S. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) This site contains energy-related housing policy • Products www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_ news and discusses the role that energy-efficiency raters.pt_bldr plays in housing programs. • Information for Home builders, Lenders, and Raters ➜ www.hud.gov www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_ • Listing of HUD resources raters.pt_bldr www.hudclips.org/cgi/index.cgi U.S. EPA ENERGY STAR® Program • U.S. HUD Multifamily Clearinghouse www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/mfh/hc/mfhc.cfm ENERGY STAR® is a government-backed program helping businesses and individuals protect 7.2 energy-efficiency resources the environment through superior energy efficiency. ➜ www.energystar.gov American Council for an Energy-Eff icient • ENERGY STAR® Homes Program Economy (ACEEE) www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes. ACEEE is a nonprofit organization dedicated hm_index to advancing energy efficiency as a means • New ENERGY STAR® Homes Guidelines of promoting both economic prosperity and effective July 1, 2006 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_ environmental protection. raters.homes_guidelns ➜ www.aceee.org • ENERGY STAR® New Homes Partners in California www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=new_ homes_partners.showStateResults&s_code=CA Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 83
    • SEcTIon 7: LIST oF addITIonaL rESourcES • The Top-rated, Energy-Efficient Appliances Cool Roof Rating Council http://aceee.org/consumerguide/index.htm Cool Roof is an independent organization which has established a system for providing radiative Alliance to Save Energy (ASE) property data on roof surfaces that may improve ASE is a nonprofit coalition of business, the energy efficiency of buildings while positively government, environmental and consumer leaders impacting the environment. supporting energy-efficiency resources and ➜ www.coolroofs.org advocating energy-efficiency policies. ➜ www.ase.org Enercom’s Energy Depot • Resources for Home builders ➜ www.energydepot.com http://ase.org/section/_audience/eprofessionals/ builders • Energy Library www.energydepot.com/epcorcom/library/library.asp • Policy Document Library http://ase.org/section/_audience/policy/library EnergyGuy Within this guide to selecting an energy American Solar Energy Society (ASES) professional is an abundance of energy-efficiency This is a national membership organization whose information, including a calculation tool for cost/ mission is to attain a sustainable U.S. energy benefit analysis of solar water heating. economy by accelerating the development and ➜ www.theenergyguy.com use of solar and other renewable energy resources through advocacy, education, research and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) collaboration among professionals, policy-makers ➜ www.fsec.ucf.edu and the public. • Building Science Basics ➜ www.ases.org http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/buildings/ basics/index.htm Consortium for Energy Eff iciency • Building Research Publications List This site contains information on energy-efficient http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/publist. php?dept=br products for residential, commercial and industrial applications. • Home Designs http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/buildings/ ➜ www.cee1.org/home.html homes/designs/index.htm • The Residential Section www.cee1.org/resid/resid-main.php3 Southface • Clothes Washers Southface promotes sustainable homes, workplaces www.cee1.org/resid/seha/rwsh/rwsh-main.php3 and communities through education, research, • Home Appliances advocacy and technical assistance. www.cee1.org/resid/seha/seha-main.php3 ➜ www.southface.org • Lighting www.cee1.org/resid/rs-lt/rs-lt-main.php3 • Whole House www.cee1.org/resid/hp/hp-main.php3 • HVAC www.cee1.org/resid/rs-ac/rs-ac-main.php3 84 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 7: LIST oF addITIonaL rESourcES Global Green USA National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Fosters a global value shift toward a sustainable ➜ www.nrdc.org and secure world through education, advocacy, • Affordable Green Housing partnerships and programs. Global Green USA http://www.nrdc.org/cities/building/fhousing.asp website provides case studies, publications and • Green Communities http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org/ information on energy-efficiency measures. ➜ www.globalgreen.org Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) Integrated Building and Construction PATH promotes innovation in housing Solutions (IBACOS) technologies. The goal of IBACOS is to help the homebuilding ➜ www.pathnet.org industry deliver high-performance homes that are designed and built to new standards of quality, Rebuild America including green criteria. This site provides general information about how ➜ www.ibacos.com energy affects various industries. ➜ www.rebuild.org/index.asp Iris Communications ➜ www.irisinc.com The Sustainable Building Sourcebook • Green Building Source Austin Energy’s Green Building™ Sourcebook oikos.com/index.php provides pertinent information on various aspects • Iris Catalog of Energy-Efficient Products of sustainable building strategies and possible oikos.com/green_products/index.php implementation issues that may be found in less familiar approaches to building. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) ➜ www.austinenergy.com/energy%20efficiency/programs/ Green%20Building/ Sourcebook ➜ www.lbl.gov • Home Energy Saver Calculator U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) http://hes.lbl.gov/ Information on the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification process is Low-Income Housing Rehabilitation for Sustainability and Affordability provided on this site. ➜ www.usgbc.org A report prepared by the Portland Energy Office in 2000. ➜ www.serapdx.com/resource/publ/Low%20Income%20 Housing.pdf National Fenestration Rating Council This is a nonprofit, public/private organization created by the window, door and skylight industry providing ratings on window, door and skylight products. ➜ www.nfrc.org Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 85
    • SEcTIon 7: LIST oF addITIonaL rESourcES 7.3 BuiLDing AnD energy-efficiency neWs BuildingGreen.com and GreenBuildingAdvisor.com BuildingGreen offers many publications, including Environmental Building News (www.buildinggreen. com/ecommerce/ebn.cfm?), the GreenSpec directory of green products (www.buildinggreen.com/ecommerce/ gs.cfm?), and the BuildingGreen Suite of online tools (www.buildinggreen.com/ecommerce/bgsuite.cfm?). GreenBuildingAdvisor.com is dedicated to providing the most useful, accurate and complete information about designing, building and remodeling energy-efficient, sustainable and healthy homes. ➜ www.greenbuildingadvisor.com Home Energy Magazine ➜ www.homeenergy.org • A review of the most efficient boilers http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/95/950909.html • A review of the benefits of radiant barriers in attics http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/92/920704.html • Fuel use in multifamily buildings http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/99/991112.html • New guidelines for multifamily water heating http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/96/960713.html • Allocation of Energy Costs http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/99/990714.html • Green Products for Multifamily Rehab http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/ eehem/00/001114.html Housing Zone This site provides up-to-date news on the multifamily housing industry, including news related to green building. ➜ www.housingzone.com/weeklynews.asp Trolley Square, Cambridge, MA 86 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx appendix a: audit Worksheet Project Name _______________________________________ No. of units _________________________________________ Building Number/Name ________________________________ Area of corridors _____________________________________ Total conditioned area for each building __________________ Area of non-res spaces Areas of each apartment types__________________________ (reception, common room etc) __________________________ Building Shell Wall Construction Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Wall Construction (wood, metal studs, ...) Size of framing members (2x4, 2x6, ...) Insulation Y/N Insulation Type (Batts, spray-on, ...) Thickness (in inch) or R value Radiant barrier or foil-faced batts (yes or no) Window Types Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type (Slider, Casement, ...) Number of Panes Dimensions of each window (W x H) (Ft-in) No. of such type of windows U-factor | SHGC Frame Type (Vinyl, Wood, Alum., …) Roof/Ceiling Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type of roof Insulation Y/N Insulation R value (or thickness) Insulation Type (batts, spray-on, ...) Radiant Barrier (Y/N) Cool Roof (Y/N) Lighting Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type of lighting (fluorescent, metal halide, incandescent) Magnetic or electronic ballasts Number of fixtures Number of lamps per fixture Notes to lighting Weather Stripping Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Weather stripping Y/N Appliances Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Refrigerator Cooking range Dish washers Washing machine Dryers Notes Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 87
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx Appendix A: Audit Worksheet Continued Project Name ______________________________________________________________________ Date __________________ Building Systems & Equipment Air Distribution System Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Forced Air by (heat/cool) equip. In conditioned space (Y/N/None) Duct insulation level Space Cooling Equipment Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type (package, split, PTAC, room) Manufacturer name Model Number Fan Size (HP/Amps) & Type Capacity (BTU-Hr) TXV (Y/N) Efficiency rating (SEER/EER) SEER / EER SEER / EER SEER / EER SEER / EER Space Heating Equipment Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type (furnace, heat pump, fan coil) Inside Unit Manufacturer Inside Unit Model Number Fuel type (Gas/Electric/LP/Water) Fan Size (HP/Amps) & Type Capacity (BTU-Hr) Efficiency AFUE/HSPF/COP Pump Volts/Amps Pump Qty Combined Heat/DHW (Yes/No) DHW Equipment Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Type (Central/Individual) Unit Manufacturer Unit Model Number How many DHW per building Fuel type (Gas/Electric/LP) Capacity (BTU-Hr) Efficiency (Energy DHW Distribution System Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Units No: Tank Capacity (gal) | Insulation (R) Insulation (R-value) (internal/external) Pipe insulation btw. tank and wall Recirculation Control Type Recirc. Pump (HP/Amps) & Qty. Potential for solar DHW? Controls connected and working? Notes 88 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx appendix B: data release authorization Form Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 89
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx appendix c: The central park Energy Flyover THE CENTRAL PARK North East Denver Housing Center ENERGY FLYOVER December Unit 101 How Much Energy Have You Used? Important Phone Numbers: Our Central Park @ Stapleton community focuses on sustainability! What does this mean? A part of being sustainable means SAVING ENERGY!! Northeast Denver gave you a head start by Maintenance Hotline: installing many energy efficient measures. We also had energy raters estimate the amount 303-377-6363 your Gas (Therms) and Electricity (Kwh or Kilowatt Hours) usage before you moved in. We used this to determine how much energy you should be using over the past 10 months. The good news? Many of you have “beat” the estimates and are using less energy than predicted!! Continental Divide: The graphs below allow you to see how YOUR unit compares to the estimate. 303-393-7368 Blue = Estimated Usage and Purple = How much you have used and other identical units. Xcel Energy: 800-895-4999 Natural Gas Usage from January 2008 to October 2008 Your Unit A Stapleton Master Community Association: Getting Better!! You have 303-388-0724 used 450 Therms, 26 more than predicted, but you have reduced the gap by 2 Denver Police: Therms since June. (Non Emergency): 720-913-2000 Use the tips on the back of the newsletter to keep on Park Hill Library saving energy! 303-331-4063 Poison Control: 303-739-1123 Electricity Usage from January 2008 to October 2008 Upcoming Event!!! Your Unit A Great Job!! You have used Gingerbread House Workshop! 4169 Kilowatt Hours, 1,254 less Kilowatt Hours than Where: Cherry Creek predicted. Dance When: Sat., Dec. 20th Here are a few Energy Tips from 1-3 PM to save even more: What: Gingerbread House Decorating Sessions, • Turn off lights and TVs Face Painting, and when you leave the house children’s ’holiday’ or a room for a long story time at period of time Hermitage Bookshop Of the 4169 kilowatt hours you used, 1861 kilowatts or • Turn your dishwasher off Cost: Free, but you have to 45% of your electricity was produced by the PV Panels on during the dry cycle and register at events@cherrycreeknorth.com your roof. This 45% equals a savings of $186.00. let them air dry to participate 90 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx Appendix C: The Central Park Energy Flyover Continued Page 2 THE CENTRAL PARK ENERGY FLYOVER Two Ways to Save Money on Winter Heating Bills! Use a Programmable Thermostat: • Simply setting your house's temperature lower while you are away from home or at night will save a great amount of money. • A programmable thermostat allows you to do this without having to worry about it each day • Don’t set or program the thermostat higher than you actually want it. It will not heat your house any faster • If you go out of town, set your thermostat to a low temperature, yet high enough to keep pipes from freezing • If you need any help programming your thermostat, please call Peter Rusin at 303-399-9337. Use Cold Water when Washing Clothes: • Use the cold water setting as much as possible • Use hot water only for very dirty loads • Always use cold water for the rinse cycle • Run the washer with a full load How Much Water Have You Used? Your Unit 1 You have used a total of 57,773 gallons of water since January or 39 gallons per square foot of your living area. Some of your neighbors have been able to use a little less. Tip: Turning off the water while washing your hands or brushing your teeth is a small step you can take to reduce your water consumption. Cold Air Coming in Above the Kitchen Stove? In November, Northeast Denver Housing Center and Frontier Mechanical went through each unit to investigate cold draft issues in each unit. One common problem has been the cold air coming into the unit above the stove. We have found a solution. The parts are on back order, but we will be installing them as soon as they arrive. This improvement will help to keep your unit more comfortable and lower your energy bill. If you have any questions on cold air entering the unit, please call Peter Rusin at 303-399-9337. For all other maintenance issues please call Continental Divide. Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 91
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx appendix d: Sample View of Building Information using portfolio Manager 92 Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing
    • SEcTIon 8: appEndIx Appendix D: Sample View of Building Information Using Portfolio Manager Continued Green Asset Management Toolkit for Multifamily Housing 93
    • Green Communities Initiative c/o Enterprise 10227 Wincopin Circle, Suite 500 Columbia, MD 21044 Telephone: 410.715.7433 www.enterprisecommunity.org www.greencommunitiesonline.org