Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis

135

Published on

ACM SIGCOMM Conference, August 2000

ACM SIGCOMM Conference, August 2000

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
135
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Routing Stability in Congested Networks: Experimentation and Analysis Aman Shaikh Anujan Varma Computer Engineering Department University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064  ¢¡¤£¥¡¤¦¨§ ©¡¢£¥¡¤! #$%! '(# Lampros Kalampoukas Rohit Dube High Speed Networks Research Bell Laboratories Holmdel, NJ 07733 ) ¡0£2134567% 4¤83§$49$6A@5$B3¦3¤ CD )E)AFG) ¡¤C3% 4£ ABSTRACTH 4!I4¤PQ@9$I4#(@6E¦38R1(4¤@4%4 ) £2%!¡08%I(#$S@4T¦3@VUW4¤XY%4¤¦ F 8¤%`@674¦T'¡¤¦a'¡¤#3!1D%b6E¦38c!!!6E4¤¦TPd¡¤6 ) #3%e67¦24#(@%§ ) %¡367¦38 @4f4#(@RgD¡01$¥¡¤¦$h4¤#3@67¦$8i67¦$`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@67%%qprR`@#sutv@9$wbP F Px%@y4¤P€@!5¡0‚S4¢©ƒb ) 4¡w4¤¦w4#3@67¦38‚1340@4%4 ) BCtT„#s¡¤¦@6APxt(67¦$8 @93‚`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@…t†¡0¦sf4¤C$#3`@¦$%!I134¤1D!@67%I4¤P‡@…U‡4w4£2£24¦fˆV¦ F @b¦$@Q4#3@67¦38c1(4¤@4%4 ) %§$‰‘(’Q“i¡¤¦s¥”e•B’–§U—93%¦a@93e4#3@67¦38 4¦@!4 ) @!5¡¢2c67y¦$4¤@67!4 ) ¡0@'YPx4¤£˜3¡0@5¡‚@!5¡02¤p†S(%©ƒ ) 41 ¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) Q@4S„#s¡0¦@67P™td@93ebfg%@‡40P¨%4¦38%`@674¦a4¦2@93 4¤C$#3`@¦$%!‚40PI‰‘(’Q“h¡¤¦si”e•B’j¡¤¥¡YPd#3¦$@674¤¦k40Py@93a@!5¡¢2 4¢©ƒb ) 4¡RPd¡¤@40'§¨„u#3%#$6E¦3823 ) ¡%t(%§D¡0¦sR1$¡¤5Xƒ@e!67l%%%‡pr‘1D F Px4¤£mnu@%¦3!6E©w£2'¡¤!#(%£2%¦@‚67¦q¡0¦on(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) ¦3@VUW4¤X 40Py4¤#3@S@4Y©¡ ) 6™3¡0@¥@9$a¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) %!# ) @%vu#$C$!%„u#3%¦@ ) t UWc#3!‘@9$I¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) P™5¡¤£2UW4¤XR@4267¦u©ƒ%`@678¡0@‘@9$Ifg%b@40P Pd¡¤@40W@9s¡¢@Q¡0e36A2%# ) @Q@4‘67¦$4¤1D4¤5¡¢@y67¦@4I¡¤¦2bn31Db6E£2¦u@5¡ ) !b@#$1p§g!#3b9f¡0‘¡‚U—6™(c5¡0¦$8c4¤P ) 67¦$Xw1(41s¡08ƒ¡¢@6E4¤¦†( ) ¡'t(¡¤¦s 1$¡¤5Xƒ@d(4¤1$1$67¦38Y1D4 ) 67%67%%v‰#(I%!# ) @d!934'Uq@9s¡¢@d67¦3'¡¤!% „#3%#$%67¦38d¡0¦s2134¤1s¡¤8¡0@674¦R3 ) ¡%t(e¡(©ƒ! ) ta¡¢fg%@—”e•B’er ‡ F !6 ) 67%¦$c@42%4¤¦$8`@6E4¤¦p§¨67¦Y!1$6A@I4¤PQ6A@y#3!c40PW¡d ) 6E¡0C ) c@!5¡0¦$ F 1D40!@1(4¤@4%4 ) B‰#(—ss¦s(67¦$8y3£24¦$`@!5¡¢@B@9$‘67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦$%I40P ! ) @67©ƒB@!'¡0@£2¦u@W4¤P–4¤#3@67¦$8c1340@4%4 ) £2%!¡¤8¤%‡Px4¤£t4¤@93 @!5¡¢2§uCtc#$!67¦$8‘!59$'(# ) 67¦$8I¡0¦s‚#3@6 ) 67l%67¦$8IC$#(fgu£¥¡¤¦$¡¤8£2%¦@ 1D4 ) 6E6Ee6E¦2@93e4¤#3@%§u@4S¡¤59$67%©ƒe`@5¡¤C ) B¡¤¦$‚4C$#3`@‡¦3@VUW4¤X 4¤1D5¡0@674¤¦p 1. INTRODUCTIONv 4#(@67¦$8‚1(4¤@4%4 ) e#$!%T67¦R@9$ˆV¦@¦$b@e@4u$¡%tan(b9$¡¤¦$8¤‘©¡¢ F 674¤#$e%4¤¦u@!4 ) 1s¡0bXƒb@W@4d(67!!%£267¦s¡0@e4#(@6E¦38c67¦(Pd4¤£¥¡¢@674¦T¡¤¦s @43@b£26E¦3u@93 ) 67©ƒ ) 67¦$!€4¤Ps1D67¦$8!!!6E4¤¦$w%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$'ICD F @…U‡%¦f1$¡¤6A40Pw4#3@b%x‡93%!S%4¦@!4 ) 1$¡¤5Xƒ@e#$!#$¡ )7) tw!9s¡¢ !4#3%€!#$59d¡0–Cs¡0¦suU—6™u@9d¡0¦s‘C$#(fg€!1$¡¤%uU—67@9c$¡¢@5¡—@!5¡¢P F s$§e¡¤¦$i@93Pd40§y¡0Y!#3C(yV%@a@4 ) 4!%{zW4¦$8¤%`@674¦q67¦o@93 ¦3@VUW4¤Xw%¡¤¦|9$67¦s(e@9$I134¤1s¡¤8¡0@674¦f4¤Pw4¤#3@67¦$8¥67¦3Px4¤£¥¡0@674¤¦ 401D67¦$8‚P™%!9w'„#$%`@e6AP€@9$B4¤#3@67¦$821(4¤@4%4 ) £2%!¡¤8¤% ¡¢|¦$4¤@¥67!4 ) ¡¢@'oPx4¤£}$¡0@5¡f@!5¡02~y¦3%'(4¤@5¡ ) %©u6E3¦$%Y40P %4¤¦$8`@6E4¤¦†¡¢@B1$#3C ) 67cbn359s¡0¦$8¤d1D467¦@B(#$I@4Tbn3%!!67©ƒd3¡0@5¡ @!5¡0‚§¨3%¦36E¡ ) 40PW!©u67%c¡0@!@5¡0bXud€¤ 8(7§p$‚Rƒ v “w„—¡¤¦sw`t(`@%£ £267!%4¦(ss8¤#35¡0@674¤¦r€ 837§$1D467¦@6E¦38‚(P¡0# ) @5„‡9s¡¤eCD%¦T%1D40!@' …A†‡ˆ2x‡93‚4Cuy`@67©ƒ‚4¤PQ@9$67‘1s¡01D‘67B@4w¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%‚¡¤¦sf„#s¡0¦u@6AP™t @9$Ifg@B40PW%4¤¦$8¤%`@674¦f4¦w@9$S`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@…tY4¤Pw@VUW4¥%4£2£24¤¦YˆV¦ F @¦3@24#(@6E¦38r1(4¤@4%4 ) ‚‰Š‰‘3’u“‹¡¤¦$k”‡•B’j‰ŒU—9$%¦i@9$ 4#(@67¦$8I1340@4%4 ) £2%!¡08%‡¡0e¦$4¤@Q67!4 ) ¡0@%¥P™4£3¡0@5¡B@!5¡0‚ ~Ž¦(#3£dCDc4¤PB13%©u674#3‚`@#s(6E‚9s¡'©ƒR3'¡ ) @2U—6A@9k©¡¢6E4¤#$2¡0 F 1D%@‘40PW4¤#3@67¦$8TCD%9s¡'©u674¤I67¦i@93dˆV¦@¦3@2… (§–u§Q†¢‘§Q†%(§W†'¢‡ˆ x‡9$!i`@#$367%R#3!'’n(1D67£2%¦@5¡0@674¤¦’@4v£2'¡¤!#(r¡0¦sq34 F #$£2¦u@d©¡¢674#$a¡0!1D%@¥4¤PB@93R4#(@67¦$8vut3¦$¡¤£267%%§‡¡¤¦sv@9$bt 6E3%¦@6APxti!%©ƒb5¡ ) `@5¡0C$6 ) 6A@Vt F ) ¡0@'r1(4C ) £2‘6E¦i@4u$¡%tgr SˆV¦@ F ¦$b@'h(4¤£2¥4¤Pe@9$%!a`@#s(6Ed9s¡'©ƒT¡ ) !4f@!6E%v@4|6E3¦u@6AP™t†@9$ 44¤@I%¡¤#$!B4¤PQ@9$%!c134C ) %£2%§¨¡0@!@%£21(@'R@4T¡¤¦s¡ ) t3ld@9$%£w§ ¡¤¦$i!#388`@'f%£2%367%BPd40‘@9$%£w‚zW9$67¦34¢th… ¢‡‡¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%'|@9$ (t(¦$¡¤£267%e4¤Pw4#(@6E¦38¥6E¦(Pd40£¥¡0@674¦|Ctw%4 )7) @67¦$8¥@!5¡¤%%4¤Pw@9$ 4#(@67¦$8‘@!5¡02y!%¦@‡4¢©ƒQ@9$—“‘(“–“B”uxkC$¡¤5X(CD4¤¦$e¦$@…U‡40XdPd40 ¡S†'‘ F 9$4¤#3w1D674ug€•WPx4#3¦s‘@9s¡0@w£24¤`@€4¤P$@9$Q4¤#3@67¦$8ygs#$b@#s¡ F @674¦3W67¦2@9$—“‘(“–“B”uxi406E8¤67¦s¡0@%T¡¢@W@9$—'(8e4¤Pg@9$—¦3@VUW4¤XD§ ¡¤¦$Y9s¡wbt3 ) S67¦@©¡ ) 4¤PW¡‚PdU{£26E¦u#(@%%y’€¡0n(!4¦i…A†¢¢‡w#3!' @9$v–G@!5¡¤%b4#3@—Y#3@6 ) 67@…t†¡¢@cƒRˆV¦@¦3@‘!6A@%I@4Y¡¤¦$¡ ) t(l%2@9$ 4#(@67¦$8dCD9s¡'©u6E40ePd40—1s¡0@934 ) 48¤67'¡ ) %4¦$36A@674¦$%§(4#(@67¦$8d`@5¡0C$6 )AF 6A@Vth¡0¦s†4#(@67¦$8f`t3£2£2b@!!t†•4¢©u67¦s3¡¤¦i¡¤¦$ v '3(t’… '‡y#3!' ¡Yt'¡0'r dUW4¤!@9i4¤P6E¦@`˜34¤£¥¡¤67¦v4#3@67¦38f@!5¡0%%2%4 )E) %b@'k67¦ †'™¤™¤š¢˜u™ƒ›|¡¤¦$r¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%'r@93‚ˆV¦@¦3@I67¦@`˜u(4£¥¡¤67¦r@4¤1D4 ) 480t§ 6A@d4#(@67¦$8f`@5¡¤C$6 ) 6A@VtvCD9s¡'©u6E40'§‡¡0¦s†@9$afg%b@‚4¤P8¤4'Ue@9i4¦ @9$!¥@…U‡4Y59s¡¢5¡¤@67`@67%%i‰¦324¤P—@9$2Xƒbtis$¦s367¦38I4¤P—@9$67 `@#sut2Ue¡0e@9$¡0@e@9$`@5¡¤C$6 ) 6A@VtTCD%9s¡'©u674¤—40P€ˆV¦@¦3@e4#(@%e9s¡0 38¤5¡('iU—6A@9v8¤4'Ue@9¨ H ¡0CD4¢©(6A@l2@c¡ ) r…A†¢‘¢‡‡%4 )7) %@'v3¡0@5¡ Px4¤£{@9$W”e•B’f4¤#3@67¦$8y£2%!¡¤8¤%w8%¦35¡0@'SCtICD4¤53b€4#3@b ¡0@œss©ƒw4¤P3@9$uˆV¦@¦3@'r œ1$#3C ) 67Qbn359s¡0¦$8¤W1D467¦@–(#367¦$8e¡—¦$67¦$ F £24¦@921D674u¥67¦f†%™™u‡x‡93t‚Px4#$¦$¥@9$¡0@Q@9$©4 ) #$£2—4¤P–”e•B’ 4#(@67¦$8S£2%!¡¤8¤yUe¡0e!%©ƒ5¡ ) 4¤5(e4¤Pp£¥¡¤8¤¦$6A@#s(y£240e@9$¡¤¦ n(1D%@%Y¡¤¦s|¡2£¥¡'y`4¤6A@…tY4¤Pu@9$S67¦3Pd40£¥¡0@674¦YU‡¡¤'(#$¦$$¡¤¦@ ¡¤¦$c1$¡0@9$4 ) 4867'¡ ) Wˆ…¦‚¡!#3C$!'„#$¦u@–1s¡¤1Dby…A†%0‡ˆ§ƒ@9$btc6E(%¦@67s$' '¡0!4¦$eCD%936E¦$a£¥¡0¦t¥4¤P–@934!B#3¦$n(1D%@%¥4¤#3@67¦$8‚£2!¡¤8 ¡¤¦$†3!67CD'r%£2'(6EIPx4¤S@9$%£w H ¡0CD4¢©(6A@l2@d¡ ) r…7†¤†§—†¢‘'‡ 9s¡'©ƒd¡ ) !4Y!9$4'U—¦f@9s¡0@B!6E8¤¦$6Ass%¡¤¦@S%4¤! ) ¡¢@6E4¤¦†n(67`@ICD@VUW%%¦ ¦$b@VU‡40XR#3¡¤8d¡¤¦$w6E¦3`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vtw4C$!b©ƒ'RPd40‘”e•B’–DžQ¡05¡¤39$¡¤¦ @c¡ ) i… ‘u†‡‡!9$4'U‡'f@9s¡0@I@93¥¡024#(@67¦$8w1D4 ) 67%67%S@9s¡¢@I'¡¤¦ '¡0#$!e”e•B’f4¤#3@%w@4B4¤!%6 )E) ¡¢@¡0¦sc¦3%©ƒu%4¤¦u©ƒ8‡@4B¡`@5¡¤C ) %4¤¦3ss8¤#35¡¢@6E4¤¦pu•4¢©u67¦s3¡¤¦I@€¡ ) e… 0‡(!#$C3!'„#$%¦@ ) t‘(%!67CD'S¡¤¦ ¡059$6A@%b@#32Pd40d%4405367¦s¡¢@67¦$8Y4#(@6E¦38Y1D4 ) 67%67%‚¡0¦s†¡'©ƒ4¤6E367¦$8 4#(@67¦$8f6E¦3`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@67%2@9s¡¢@‚'¡0¦o¡¢6E!w3#$¥@4f%4¦(gs67@67¦$8f1D4 ) 6 F
  • 2. 6E% x‡9$%6Aa¡¤13134¡¤59o%!!%¦@6E¡ )7) t’67¦u©ƒ4 ) ©%2¡r`@5¡¢@6E|¡0¦s¡ ) t(!67 40P‡1D4 ) 67%67%‘@4a©ƒ6APxtY@9$¡0@y@9$tf(4T¦34¤@B4¦@5¡¤67¦r4¦3g$67@@9s¡¢@ %¡¤¦ ) '¡R@4¥4!6 )7) ¡0@674¤¦$‘67¦|”e•B’–¨•y6A2¦|¡¤¦$Rpq6 ) Pd4¦38|… ¡ ‡wn F 1 ) 4¤'I@9$QUW4¤`@`˜ƒ'¡¤!—%4¤£21 ) n(6A@Vt‘40Ps1D!Px4¤£267¦$8y!#$59d¡e`@5¡0@67 ¡0¦s¡ ) t(!67¥4¤PB”e•B’j4¤#3@67¦$8f1D4 ) 67%67%%’x‡9$ti(%©ƒ ) 41D%k¡0¦o¡0C F `@!5¡0@¥£24u3 ) 4¤PI”e•B’ ¡¤¦$k(ss¦3'i¡f¦u#$£cCD‚40PB%4¤¦s(67@674¤¦$ @9$¡0@‘%¡¤¦fCDc59$%5Xƒ'w@4a£¥¡¤XƒS!#3S@9s¡¢@‘”e•B’q4#(@%‘34a¦$40@ 4¤!%6 )7) ¡¢@W“$4¤Q'¡¤59¥4¤Pg@9$!y%4¤¦s(67@674¤¦$%§@9$btd!934¢UW'‚@9s¡¢@Q@93 4£21 ) n(6A@Vt†4¤Py`@5¡0@67'¡ )7) tib93%5X(67¦38f6A@267‚67@932“’€˜ƒ%4£21 ) b@ 40B“’€˜ƒ9s¡05g v %%%¦@ ) t§g(¡'©¡08I@y¡ ) €…A†'™¢‡–Pd4¤#$¦$R@9s¡0@y67¦w!%© F b5¡ ) '¡¤!%e¡0¦R¡ ) @b¦s¡0@y4#3@67¦38d1s¡¢@9Tbn367`@‡U—936E59R67e!#31D674¤ U—6A@9h%!1D%@d@4i1D!Px4¤£¥¡0¦$%T£2@!67% ) 67XƒT4¤#$¦$u˜ƒ@!671v@67£2§ ) 4¤!B5¡0@c¡¤¦sYC$¡¤¦suU—6E(@9w@4¥@9$S¡¤@#$¡ ) 1$¡0@9Y@5¡¤Xƒ¦fCtR1s¡¤5X F b@%ix‡9$67‚67‚¦$40@‚!#(1367!67¦$8f!6E¦3%T4¤#3@67¦$8f1s¡¢@9h! ) %@674¦k6E¦ !©ƒ5¡ ) (%1 ) 4't'B4#(@67¦$81(4¤@4%4 ) u67–C$¡¤!'I4¦S!9$40!@%`@ F 1s¡¢@9 F s3`@¥€G3’u“w„4¤S¦$%¡0%`@ F n(6A@I%4£213#3@5¡¢@6E4¤¦$B@9$¡0@‘#3!2%4¦3`@5¡¤¦@ 1Db!Pd4¤£¥¡0¦$%‘£2b@!6E% ‚R4¤`@|4¤Pc@9$rbn367`@67¦$8k`@#s(6Ew4¦ 4#(@6E¦38oCD%9$¡'©(6740|¡¤!!#3£2 ) 6E¡0C ) Y¡¤¦$ ) 4¤! F P™%Y( ) 6E©!th4¤Pe4#(@6E¦38i4¦@!4 ) £2%!¡08%% H 4!!%Q4¤Ps@93‡4#(@6E¦38B1340@4%4 ) £2%!¡¤8¤%Q3#$Q@4B%4¦38%`@674¤¦24¤ b!4¤I£¥¡%tw%!# ) @I67¦r1D67¦$8R!!!6E4¤¦rP¡06 ) #(%%§œU—9367b9i6E¦f@#3¦ £¥¡%t ) '¡o@4v4#(@YgD¡¤13a¡¤¦so4¤#3@67¦$8v67¦3`@5¡¤C$6 ) 6A@67%% ˆV¦q4#( `@#$(t|U‡24¦$!6E(I@VU‡4T4#3@67¦38w1340@4%4 ) %§Q‰‘3’u“q¡¤¦$r”e•B’–§ CD'¡¤#3!Y4¤PB@93%6AaU—6E(|3%1 ) 4't(£2%¦@2¡0¦sh@9$w67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦@24 ) @93t|1 ) ¡%tf67¦i@4u$¡%tgr ‘ˆV¦@¦3@‘67¦3P™5¡¤`@!#$b@#3‚pr‚9s¡'©ƒc1D F Px4¤£2'Tnu@%¦$!67©ƒBbn31Db6E£2¦u@5¡¢@674¦w¡0¦sw(%©ƒ ) 4¤1D'R¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u( ) 2@4†'¡¤1(@#3R@93w`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@…t’¡0¦si4¤C$#3`@¦$%!¥134¤1D!@67% 40Pu‰‘3’u“v¡¤¦$R”e•B’i67¦R%4¤¦$8`@'R¦$b@VU‡40X¥%¦u©(6A4¤¦$£2%¦@e¡0—¡ Px#$¦3@674¦Y4¤P€@93B@!5¡02‘4¢©ƒb ) 4¡RPd¡¤@40'§g„#$%#3%67¦$82( ) ¡'t(%§s¡¤¦s 1$¡¤5Xƒ@€!67l%%€p†w@9$%¦S#$!'I4#(w¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) Px5¡0£2U‡40XI@4e%©¤¡ )AF #$¡0@‡@93‡fg%@u40PsP¡0@4¤u!#$59‚¡0 ) 67¦$XS134¤1s¡08ƒ¡0@674¤¦23 ) ¡%t(u¡¤¦s 1$¡¤5Xƒ@Iu4131$67¦$8a1D4 ) 67%67%%‚ˆ…¦Y@9$67B1s¡01D'§¨U‡d1(%!%¦@‘!%©5¡ ) 805¡¤139$W!934'U—6E¦38S@93ut(¦s¡¤£267%w40P–”e•B’rPx4¤e©¤¡0674¤#$Q4¤#$¦$d@!6E1 @67£2%T€ v xex‡5„IU—9$6759h'¡¤¦hCDa#$!'h¡¤‚¡|8¤#$6E3 ) 67¦3TPd40d@!5¡¢2 ¦$867¦3%67¦$8(axœ4w4#(IXu¦$4'U ) '38¤§œ@936EI67‘67‘@9$ds3`@S¡0@!@%£21(@ @4c`t(`@%£¥¡0@67'¡ )E) ta¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%@93But3¦$¡¤£267%Q4¤Pœ4¤#3@67¦$8S1340@4%4 ) ¡0¦sR©¤¡ ) 6E$¡¢@B@9$!# ) @eU—67@9Rnu@%¦$!67©ƒBbn31Db6E£2¦u@% x‡93Y4¤8¡¤¦$67l'¡¢@674¦ 4¤PB@93w1s¡01Da67T¡02Pd4 )7) 4'U—£¢†67¦ u%@674¦’‘ UWB(%!67CDe@93—¦$@…U‡4¤Xd!@#$1a¡¤¦$d@9$e£2@9$4u(4 ) 480t‚#3!'26E¦ 4¤#3Qn(1D67£2%¦@%wu%@674¦¥B67¦@!4u3#3%%w@9$—¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u( ) @9$¡0@e¡¢‘!#$C$!%„u#3%¦@ ) t¥#$!'T@4c%©¤¡ ) #s¡¢@B@9$B`@5¡0C$6 ) 67@…tw¡0¦s¥4 F C3#$`@¦3%!€134¤1D!@67%w4¤P¨‰‘(’Q“w¡0¦sc”e•B’–ˆ…¦c1$¡0!@67%# ) ¡¢'§ƒ67¦2u% F @674¤¦$‘uE†d¡¤¦$|( ‘2UW‚(%©ƒ ) 41Y ) 4¤!' F Px4¤£ ¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) bn31(% F !674¤¦$IPd4¤S@9$c4#3@‚gs¡¤1r¡¤¦s ) 67¦3X|%4¢©ƒ!tf@6E£2BPd4¤‚‰‘3’u“W§ U—93'¡0‘6E¦r(@674¦$B( R¡0¦sf( šTUWd67¦@!4u3#$‚¡¤¦f¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) P™5¡¤£2UW4¤Xh@4r%©¤¡ ) #$¡0@w@9$R¡¤£2w1(41D!@67%‚Px4¤R”e•B’–‡x‡93 P™5¡¤£2UW4¤X‘Pd40Q”e•B’|@5¡0Xƒ%€67¦@4B¡0%%4#3¦@–@9$eut(¦s¡¤£267%p4¤Pgx—z‡’ @9$¡0@‘67B#3!'YPd4¤‘ ) 6E¡0C ) d@!5¡¤¦3!£267!!6E4¤¦r40P‡”e•B’ £2%!¡08%%SˆV¦ u%@674¦|š¥U‡c367!%#3!B4#(Bn(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) %!# ) @¡¤¦sY%4¤£21s¡¢ @93%£Ž@4a@934!d4¤C3@5¡06E¦3'Y#$!67¦$8¥@9$c¡¤¦$¡ ) t(!67%S“–6E¦$¡ )7) t§¨6E¦iu% F @674¤¦r›cUWI134¢©u6™(S¡‚!#$£2£¥¡0!tT¡0¦sw!#$8¤8%`@yPd#(@#3S36A%@674¤¦$ Px4¤y4#(eUW4¤XD 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUPx‡93B¦$b@VU‡40X‚%4¤¦3ss8¤#35¡¢@6E4¤¦R#3!'a67¦a4#(en(1D67£2%¦@W%4¤¦$!67`@ 40Pp@9(%e4#(@%ux‡9$—4#(@‡¡¢y67¦@%4¤¦$¦$@'2#$!67¦$8S~ux—‚ ‰‘z F 02€`†¢››d‚RC$6A@¥¤0!%'„ ) 67¦$Xu‡@4SPd4¤£@93@41D4 ) 48¤tT!9$4'U—¦T6E¦ “–678¤#3r†¤’‰¦3wz‡” v ’wžyz €ˆ’–£¥¡0¦$%¦@‚žyze„c67‚`@5¡¤C ) 67!9$% CDb@VU‡%¦’'¡0b9’1$¡¤6Aa4¤P‘4¤#3@2@4r@!5¡0¦$!1D4¤!@R$¡¢@5¡†¡¤¦$i4¤#3@ F 67¦38‚@!5¡02ex‡93B4#(@#3!B@9$§¦©¨¨ !$#%('0)2143 …A†%š¤‡ P™5¡¤£2UW4¤XvPd40¥@!5¡¤¦$!1D40!@67¦$8rˆV’ 1$¡¤5Xƒ@‚4¢©ƒb¥¡¤¦o~Qx—‚ ¦3@ F U‡40XDwx‡9$QžzWˆ¤0ž’uˆ¨¡¤!!678¤¦$£2%¦@€¡¢e¡ ) !4!934'U—¦c67¦c“–6E8¤#3†¤ x‡9$y@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦T5¡0@B40P–@9$yžzW%§367¦R¡ )7) @93Bn(1D67£2%¦@%§u67 !@—@4R†£52‚RC$6A@¥¤0! 6 ¡¢@5¡r@!5¡02Y67a8%¦35¡0@'’Ctk¡r@!5¡0‚Y8%¦35¡0@40w%4¤¦$¦$@' @4|4#3@b2• v †¥@934#389v@9$f†75u š( š3 58¤¤‘0ši”w@93¦$b@‚!%8¤£2%¦@' ~h(£¥¡0!@C36A@e$‚w”‡‘555c@!5¡0‚8¦$5¡¢@4¤(¤¤¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%by`t(`@%£qCut “b@%4£ ut(`@%£2BU‡¡¤c#$!'rPx4¤S@!5¡02¥8¦$5¡¢@6E4¤¦p x‡9$Tn3¡¤@ @!5¡¤¦3!£267!!6E4¤¦i5¡¢@‚67S!b@I!4T@9s¡¢@‘@9$d3%!6A'|@!5¡02‚4¢©ƒb ) 4¡ ) %©ƒ ) 67—¡¤59$67%©'a4¤¦a@93%80%!e~Qx—‚ žzW—¡¢@e4#(@e• v †wˆV’ $¡¢@5¡¤805¡¤£2—¡0e@!5¡¤¦3!1D4¤!@'a40©‡@9$y~ux—‚ ) 6E¦3Xue#$!67¦$8c~~ H › %¦3'¡¤13!# ) ¡0@674¦¨kx‡9$w”€@9$b¦$@d8%¦35¡0@674¦o¡¤¦$v@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦ 134%!@5¡¤X%67¦@4a¡¤%%4¤#$¦@‘(67!%1s¡0¦$%67%B3#$I@42@9$I©¤¡0674#3 4¢©ƒ93'¡(T¡0!!4%6E¡0@'’U—6A@9q”€@9$¦3@2Px5¡0£2%%§e~~ H ›r’ 6 ƒy%§ ¡¤¦$q~Qx—‚ % )E) w67¦’4053a@4i¡¤59$67%©ƒw@93|!1D%%6Ass'’4¢©ƒb ) 4¡ ) %©ƒ ) kx‡9$R3%`@67¦$¡0@674¦iˆ`’j¡3(%!cPd4¤a¡ )7) 8¤%¦$b5¡0@'v@!5¡02 67y!b@y@4R†%™ƒ‘E†% ¡ 0š37†‚U—936E59Y%40!%!1D4¦$3—@4d@9$‘U‡40Xu`@5¡0@674¦ !9$4'U—¦Y¡¢@—@9$6789@e67¦Y“–678#(‚† x‡9$f#$!|40Pc@9(%Y4#3@bw¡ )7) 4'U—RPd40R@…U‡4i367`@67¦$@TPd40!Ue¡05 F 67¦$8a1s¡¢@9$@4TCDcPd40£2'wPd40‘Pd4¤!U‡¡05(6E¦38R@!5¡0‚d4¤678¤6E¦$¡0@'iCut @9$y”€@9$¦3@W@!5¡¢2y8¤%¦$b5¡0@4¤I€`†£5( š3 š( ‘¤„e¡¤¦s¥(%`@67¦$'d@4I@9$ †'™‘u7†' ¡ ¤š(7†aUW4¤Xu`@5¡0@674¤¦pp’9$%¦Y£c# ) @671 ) ‘Pd4¤!U‡¡05(6E¦38R1$¡0@9$ @4‚¡c3%`@67¦$¡0@674¦T¦$4u3n(6E`@'§u4¤#3@67¦$8c134¤@44 ) y! ) @e@9$y4¦$ U—6A@9R@9$‘£267¦36E£c#$£ %4`@'QˆV¦T4#3e%4¤¦3s$8#35¡¢@674¦Y#$¦$3—¦34¤£¥¡ ) %4¤¦s36A@674¦3%§y@93w4#(@6E¦38h134¤@44 ) R! ) %b@R@9$w@…U‡4 F 9341q1$¡0@9 €`†75u š3 š3 ‘@9 • v †A9 • v ‘§9Œ†'™‘u7†' ¡ ¤š(7†¢„¥¡¤c@93¥!9$4¤!@`@ 1s¡¢@92@4IPx4¤!U‡¡052@9$e8%¦35¡0@'‚@!5¡¢2€pq93%¦a¡ ) 67¦$XcP¡¤6 ) #3y67 67¦3Px!'iCtw@93c4¤#3@67¦$8a1340@4%4 ) %§œ@!5¡¢2d67I(6E©!@'Y@4R¡0¦s Pd40!Ue¡¢53'Y@934¤#$89Y@93I@9(% F 9$4¤1Y1s¡¢@9v€`†75( š( š( ‘B9 • v †C9 • v 5§9 • v ‘B9 †%™ƒ‘u7†% ¡ 0š37†¢„brx‡934¤#$8934#(@S@9367c1$¡¤1DIU‡ U—6 )7) Pdb@4‚@9$‘!934¤!@%`@y1s¡¢@9Y¡¤e@9$‘1(6E£¥¡¢!tT4¤#3@67¦$821$¡0@9¨§ ¡¤¦$|@4a@9$d¡ ) @¦s¡¢@21s¡¢@9r¡0B@9$d!%4¦$$¡0!tf4¤¦$2(67£26 ) ¡¢ ) t§ U‡YU—6 )7) Pxa@4†@9$w%80%! ) 67¦$XhPx4¤£ 4#3@bT• v †R@4¢U‡¡05( • v ‘S@9$¡0@eCD ) 4¦38y@4c@9$‘1367£¥¡¢!tR1$¡0@9Y¡0e@93‘1367£¥¡0!t ) 67¦$XD§ ¡¤¦$‚@4I@93—4¦$—@9s¡¢@W4¢©ƒb ) ¡01$WU—6A@92@9$—!%4¦s3¡0!t21$¡0@9a¡¤u@9$ !%%4¤¦s3¡0!t ) 67¦3Xg (4¤£2R%%¦u@ ) tk67¦u@!4u(#$%%o%4£2£2b%6E¡ ) 4#3@bf…A†£50‡‘%£21 ) 4¢t 1D4'U‡!Px# ) ¡¤¦shgsn(67C ) Y£2%59s¡0¦$67!£2dPx4¤TC$#3fgb¥£¥¡¤¦s¡08%£2¦u@'§ „#$%#3%67¦$8T¡¤¦$f!59$'(# ) 67¦$8(‚x‡93%!267¦$ ) #s(‚ut3¦$¡¤£267S1$#$!934#(@'§ `@5¡0@67fC$#(fgT¡ )7) 4'¡0@674¦¨§I¡¤¦$’67¦u@ )E) 678¦u@R!b93'3# ) 6E¦38v£2%59s¡ F ¦$67!£2a€13674¤6A@…t F C$¡¤!'v¡0¦s†9$675¡¢b9367'¡ ) „bi•4'U‡%©'§w£24`@c4¤P @9$B3%1 ) 4't%a4#(@e34‚¦34¤@e134¢©u6E3B!#3b9R¡css¦3 ) %©ƒ ) 4¤Pw!b F ©u67%R(6Afg%¦@6E¡0@674¦¨§QC3#3@S67¦$`@'¡¤v£¥¡¤Xƒ2nu@%¦3!67©ƒ¥#$!a4¤P—@9$ “–ˆ`“œ‰ „#$#$%67¦$8¥¡0¦sY!59$'(# ) 67¦$8¥£2%59s¡¤¦367!£2%x‡9367‘34%¦$4¤@ 134¢©u6E3‘¡0¦t¥6E!4 ) ¡0@674¦Y40—134¤@@674¦R40P–4#(@67¦$8d1(4¤@4%4 ) £2% F ¡¤8¤%cP™4£ $¡¢@5¡T@!5¡0‚|u6E¦3%24#(d67¦@%`@S67¦r@936ES1s¡01DS67 @4S`@#s(tc@9$yCD%9s¡'©u674¤‡40Pœ4¤#3@67¦$8I1340@4%4 ) —67¦¥%4¦38%`@'¥¦$b@ F U‡40X|%¦u©(6A4¤¦$£2%¦@%§g@9$ ) 67¦$267¦@!Pd¡¤%%I67¦r4¤#3In(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) !@#31TU‡bS4¦3s$8#('a@4‚4¤1D5¡0@‘67¦Y¡c`@!6Eb@“–ˆV“–‰£24u( v 4#3@SgD¡01$2€ ) 67¦$X F 34'U—¦i©ƒ%¦@‘¡¤‘!%¦†¡0¦sY%1D4¤!@'|CtY@9$ 4#(@67¦$8Y1340@4%4 ) „b§u¡¢a67¦$3#$'rCtr4¤1D5¡0@67¦38w@9$ ) 67¦$¥67¦u@b F P¡0%%u¡0@€¡y!#$`@5¡067¦$'I4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤3'S`@5¡0@€ˆ…¦S¡ )7) 4#3–n(1D67£2%¦@%§ @9$ ) 67¦$Xu¨%4¦3¦$%@67¦38—@93–4#(@–¡¢W¡ ) U‡¡%t3p41D5¡¢@674¦s¡ ) ¡0@¨@9$ 1$9t(!67'¡ )) ¡%tbw¡0¦s’%4¤¦u@67¦u#$YPx4¤!Ue¡¢5367¦$8i1s¡0bX@a@9$¡0@T9s¡'©ƒ ¡ ) '¡¤(tiCD%%¦k„#$%#3'i¡'U‡¡¤6A@67¦$8r@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦k%©ƒ%¦k¡0P™@2@9$ 4#(@67¦$8w1(4¤@4%4 ) %1D40!@S¡ ) 67¦$X F 34'U—¦r%©%¦@'‚ˆ…@I67B@93d4#(@ F 67¦$8Y1(4¤@4%4 ) S@9s¡¢@c67¦(Pdd¡ ) 6E¦3XfPd¡¤6 ) #3T3#3d@4 ) 4!!%cn(1D6 F %¦3%'d67¦d@93‡@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦240P—–VXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ—‘4¤c–V9$ )E) 4¤—S£2!¡¤8 @9s¡¢@Y¡¢r67¦@%¦s('o@4i3@£267¦3|@93i`@5¡¢@i40Pc@93i#3¦s( ) t F 67¦$8w@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦ ) 67¦$XD|u#$C$!%„u#3%¦@ ) t§p@93‚4#3@bSU—6A@9su5¡%U
  • 3. 192.168.63.0/24 192.168.64.0/24 localnetwork .1 .2eth 10BT eth 1/1/2 eth 1/1/1 atm 1/0/0.1 atm 1/0/1.1 SmartBits Traffic generator 10.4.4.0/24 .1 .2 full-duplex eth100BT .2 eth 1/1/0 atm 1/0/0.1 atm 1/0/1.1 .2 .1 atm 1/0/0.1 atm 1/0/1.1 .2 10.34.35.0/24 10.34.34.0/24 10.34.36.0/24 .1 .1 .1.2 HR1 HR0 HR2 ethernet 10BT ethernet 100BT ATM OC3 link VCI 34/VPI 0 VCI35/VPI0 VCI36/VPI0 eth 10BT ATM CBR VCs PCR=10Mb/sec  ¢¡¤£¦¥¨§©©!#§%$'(¦)¤£01¥32©546¡879A@¨©B©CD'(©5§%¡FEG©H7IA2QP ¡0¦tc4¤#3@%u67¦‚@9$‡Pd40!Ue¡¢5367¦$8I@5¡¤C ) e¡0!!4%6E¡0@'‚U—6A@9‚@9$‡Pd¡¤6 ) ' ) 67¦$XDT~y¦t|1$¡¤5Xƒ@B@9s¡¢@S'¡¤¦3¦$4¤@ICD‚Px4¤!U‡¡053%v¡¤S¡T%!# ) @S40P @93dˆV’ ) 44¤X(#31fPd¡¤6 ) #32¡¢2(4¤1$1D'gS(67¦3%‚3¡0@5¡¥1s¡¤5Xƒ@B¡¤¦s 4¤#3@67¦$8d£2%!¡¤8¤%—!9s¡0I¡c!6E¦38 ) I„#$%#3§u@9$B1(4C$¡¤C$6 ) 6A@Vt¥Pd40y¡ 1$¡¤5Xƒ@(¤¢£2%!¡¤8¤ ) 4!e@424%%#(67B¡01$1(4¢n(67£¥¡0@ ) tT'„#s¡ ) @4‚@93 4¢©ƒb ) 4¡RPd¡¤@40' ˆG@œ67–67£21D40!@5¡¤¦@g@4e£2¦u@674¤¦‘9$€@9s¡¢@p@93W~ux—‚‹6E¦@!Pd¡¤%–#$!' 67¦¥4#(‡n(1D67£2%¦@w£¥¡¤Xe#3!y40Pg@9$ 6 41 F P™4£ F “34¤¦u@u1D4 ) 67t ¢ @93e1s¡0bXƒb@W„#3%#$'S¡0@u@9$‡P™4¦@u4¤PD@93—„u#3%#$W6Euu41$1D%cU—9$%¦ ¡a1s¡0bXƒb@I¡0!67©ƒ%I¡¢@S¡¥Px# )7) „u#3%#$I@4R£¥¡0XƒS!1s¡¤dPd40‘@9$‚¦3U 1$¡¤5Xƒ@' ˆV¦k4#(T`@#$(th934¢UW%©ƒ'§e@93w@Vt(1Dw40PI(4¤1$1$67¦38†1D4 )AF 67to#$!'o34%a¦$40@R¡ ) @T@93wPd#3¦s$¡0£2%¦@5¡ ) 4#(@6E¦38†1340@4%4 ) ut(¦s¡¤£267%£¢|U—6A@9qCD4¤@9 6 41 F P™4£ F “34¤¦u@2¡¤¦s 6 41 F xœ¡¤6 ) @93 1(4C$¡¤C$6 ) 6A@Vtf4¤P‡(4¤1$1$67¦38R¡¥1s¡0bXƒb@‘67I¡¤1$1(4'n367£¥¡¢@ ) tY'„#s¡ ) @4 @93¥40© ) 4ƒ¡rPd¡¤@40'ix‡9$¥Cs¡0!6ET36Afg¦$%¥CD@…U‡%%¦†@93‚@VUW4 u4131$67¦$8‚1D4 ) 6E6E%§g9$4'U‡%©'§ ) 67%y6E¦T@9$I¡'©ƒ5¡08S„#$%#3%67¦$8‚( F ) ¡%thn(1D67%¦3%'hCutr1s¡0bXƒb@d@9s¡¢@2¡0T%©ƒ%¦@#$¡ )7) t†Pd40!Ue¡05(' ¢ @93 6 41 F Px4£ F “34¤¦@21D4 ) 67t ) '¡¤3¥@4†!£¥¡ )7) R„#$%#3%67¦$8†( F ) ¡%t(c!67¦3%21s¡0bXƒb@I„u#3%#$%i67¦rPx4¤¦@c40Pe¡R867©ƒ¦r1s¡0bX@S£26E8¤9@ ©ƒ%¦@#s¡ )E) taCDI(4¤1$1D'gu“$#3!@93£24¤¤§(Px4¤¡d867©ƒ¦wC$#(fg—!67l% ¡0¦sv@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦o5¡0@§Q@9$R„u#3%#$6E¦38r( ) ¡%tkbn31Db6E¦$%'hCt 1$¡¤5Xƒ@—67¦Y¡d`t(`@%£t#3!6E¦38d@9$ 6 41 F P™4£ F “34¤¦u@—1D4 ) 6EbtR67—67¦ F ©! ) t‚1(41D4¤!@674¤¦s¡ ) @4B@9$‡@!5¡¢2—40© ) 4ƒ¡dPd¡¤@40'Qx‡9(#3%§@93 „#3%#$%67¦38R( ) ¡'t|Px4¤I1s¡0bX@@9s¡¢@I¡0d%©ƒ%¦@#s¡ )7) tY@!5¡0¦$!£26A@!@' (%'¡0!%B¡0—%4¦38%`@674¦|804¢U—%Wˆ…@e67e¡ ) !4¥6E£21D40!@5¡¤¦@e@4‚£2%¦ F @674¤¦f93‘@9s¡¢@y©ƒ%¦w@9$4¤#$8¤9w1s¡0bXƒb@¡¢S@!5¡0¦$!£26A@!@'w¡0% )7) 4¢©ƒb@9$c~ux—‚ ) 6E¦3Xu%§D@9$c(4131$67¦$8¥1(4%%!‘¡¢@B@9$I4#(@67 –…1s¡0bXƒb@`˜u¡%Ue¡¢%—3§W¡¤¦$†!6E¦3%T¡ )7) ~ux—‚ ) 67¦$XuS6E¦v4¤#3d!@#$1v¡¢ 1D4¤67¦u@`˜@40˜ƒ1D467¦@'§s¦$4d% )7)p) 4¤!y4%#3y¡0@—@9$‘~ux—‚ ) ¡%t' x‡93w!67£21 ) R4¦3s$8#(5¡0@674¦k4¤P‘“–678¤#3r†w¡ )7) 4¢UW'o#3d@4r£24¤¦$6 F @40c@93d4#(@67¦$8Y1340@4%4 ) %©ƒ%¦@I'¡0!6 ) t§€1Db!Pd4¤£ ¡ )E) ) %©¤¡¤¦@ £2%¡¤!#3£2%¦@‡¡¤¦$a67¦@1(@‡@9$£w§U—9$6 ) B`@6 )E) 134u(#$%67¦38S@93 bfg%@2%¦3%4#3¦u@b'i67¦ ) ¡¢8a`t(`@%£2% v %!# ) @¥¡¤¦$i©ƒ%¦@ 1D4¤!@'|¡0@y#$¦ F @67£2‘Cta@9$‘4#(@6E¦38¥134¤@44 ) I¡0S%4 )7) %@% Ctw@93a†%™ƒ‘E†% ¡ ¤(7†¥U‡40X(`@5¡¢@674¦f%4¦3¦$%@%Y@4¥@9$c”€@9$¦3@ £¥¡0¦s¡08%£2%¦@1D4¤!@B40PW4¤#3@‘• v †¤‘“40@67%c@9$¡0@‘67¦|4#(‘!@#$1 4¤¦ ) ta@9$I~ux—‚ 8¤%! ) 67¦3X(I€67¦@!P¡0%%S† ¤5¤5uE†c¡0¦si†7¤58¤†7†¢„ 4¦$¦3%@'w@424#(@B• v †S¡¢d4¢©ƒ ) 4¡3%¨‘x‡93Px4¤§¨6A@B!#(P F s$%%d@4i£24¦367@40d@93R`@5¡0@T4¤Py@9$T4¤#3@67¦$8f1340@4%4 ) a¡0@d@9$67 4¤#3@'|pr¥3%©ƒ ) 4¤1D'v¡Y!@c4¤Py”wn(1D%b@‚¡0¦svx‡ ) ¤¤x‡Xr!6713@ ¡0¦sYz’1(48¤5¡0£2e@4d%4 )E) %b@B¡0¦sR1D4¤`@ F 1(4%%!—4C3!©ƒ'R$¡0@5¡u 2.1 Experimentation Methodologyˆ…¦h4#3‚n(1D67£2%¦@cU‡T`@#suth¡¤¦$i¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%T@9$aCD%9s¡'©u674¤240P @…U‡4R4¤#3@67¦$8T1340@4%4 ) %§u‰‘(’Q“q¡0¦sr”‡•B’€§p67¦r%4¤¦$8¤%`@'r%¦u©u6 F 4¤¦$£2%¦@%k”W40@9k1(4¤@4%4 ) a¡¢RU—6E3 ) ti#$!'i¡¤¦$i4¦$`@6A@#(@ @9$‘4¤¦$b`@4¦$I40P–@4u$¡%tgr yˆ…¦u@b¦$@—67¦3P™5¡¤`@!#3@#3‡‰‘3’u“v67 4¦3c40PQ@93c£24¤`@U—6E3 ) tf(%1 ) 4't'w67¦@!5¡ F (4£¥¡¤67¦w4¤#3@67¦$8a134 F @4%4 ) %§3U—9$6 ) ‘”e•B’h67‡@9$B(yPd¡¤@4‚`@5¡0¦s3¡052Pd4¤e67¦@ F 34¤£¥¡¤67¦ 4#(@67¦$8I1340@4%4 ) %Qx‡9$e4#(@67¦$8‘1 ) ¡¢@!Pd4¤£ #$!%Q¡‘š3 I”e 6 F…) 67Xƒ x—z‡’ ¤0ˆ`’j`@5¡¤5XD§‡4¢©ƒcU—9$6759o”e•B’j%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$%21D%b6E¦38dU—6A@9 ¦$6E8¤9uCD4¤67¦$8d4¤#3@% “$40y%¡¤59wn(1D67£2%¦@‡U‡‘`@#$(t2@93‘fg%@—40Pw¦$@…U‡4¤X¥%4¤¦$8¤% F @674¦f4¦Y4#(@67¦$8a134¤@44 ) BPd40‘4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤|Pd¡¤@40B5¡¤¦$8¤67¦$8¥Px4£ ‘›SR @4wš855TRaY‚R4¤¥13%6E! ) ti@9$‚@!5¡¢224¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤rP¡¤b@4¤VU ¡¤¦$a@93‘1s¡¤5Xƒ@eu41T134C$¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vt#WY¡¢I3s$¦$'T¡¤£¢ UYXa`%bcd` ` e WfXa`%bgcd` ` b e %!1D%b@6E© ) tDhœU—9$ ` 67B@9$d@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦r5¡¢@‚4¤P‡@93‚%40! F !1D4¦$367¦$8ažyz¡¤¦$ `%b @9$I5¡0@‚40P‡8¤%¦$5¡¢@'Y@!5¡02c“$#(!@9$ F £24¤¤§y@93fbfg%@T4¤Pd„u#3%#$6E¦38h3 ) ¡%tq67w¡ ) !4k%©¤¡ ) #$¡0@' ¢†@9$ C$#(fg‘!1$¡¤%§œ31D%¦s(6E¦38¥4¦i@93dn(1D67£2%¦@'§g67B!@‘@4a%6A@9$b ši‚RCtu@%T40i†%h‚RCt(@%‹~ya£2%¦@674¦3'o¡0CD40©§—@9$|n3¡¤@ „#$%#3%67¦$8|( ) ¡'t†3%1D¦s3I¦34¤@c4¦ ) tr4¦†@9$2@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦†5¡0@ ¡¤¦$i@9$¥C3#3fgS!67l%§wC3#3@c¡ ) !4|4¦r@93¥(4¤1$1$67¦38Y1D4 ) 67t†67¦†P F Pd@' 6 @5¡06 ) 'T¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@6E%¡ ) ¡¤¦$abn31Db6E£2¦u@5¡ ) %!# ) @‡%8ƒ¡¢5367¦$8 @9$efg%b@‡4¤P¨C3#3fgW!6El¡0¦s‚@9$en(1D%@'2„#3%#$%67¦38I3 ) ¡%t§Pd40 '¡0b9T(4¤1$1$67¦38S1D4 ) 6Ebt§(¡01(%!%¦@'267¦T(%@674¤¦$eS¡¤¦$¥š(€p† ¡ ) !4¥67¦u©ƒ%`@678ƒ¡¢@I@93‘fg%@y4¤P€@93‘!67l%I4¤PQ$¡¢@5¡d1s¡0bXƒb@e4¤¦w@9$ 4#(@67¦$8r1(4¤@4%4 ) ut(¦s¡¤£267%%ox‡9$a ) ¡0@67©ƒY!67l%w40PB@9$a4#(@ F 67¦$8‚1$¡¤5Xƒ@eU—6A@9R%!1D%b@e@4c@9$‘3¡0@5¡d1$¡¤5Xƒ@e£¥¡%ta6E¦@!4u(#$% ¡¥C$6E¡¤‘67¦Y@9$d(4131$67¦$8¥1(4Cs¡0C$6 ) 6A@6E‘4¤PW@93S4¤#3@67¦$8T1s¡0bXƒb@% x‡9u#$%§(@9$ ) 4!—5¡0@‘40P€4#(@6E¦38‚1s¡0bX@e£¥¡%tT©¤¡0!t¥U—6A@9Y(67fgb F %¦@e$¡¢@5¡‚1s¡0bXƒb@—!6El%ePx4¤—@9$‘¡0£2B4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤RP¡0@4¤'QˆV¦T4¤53b @4w!%26AP—3¡0@5¡R1$¡¤5Xƒ@I!67l%29$¡¤S¡¤¦tf!#$C3`@5¡¤¦@6E¡ ) fg%@I4¤¦r@9$ (t(¦$¡¤£267%‡40P–4#(@6E¦38d1(4¤@4%4 ) %§3U‡B4¦$!6E('T@9(%1D4¤!!6EC ) !67l%%‘Pd40c$¡0@5¡a1s¡0bXƒb@£¢‘¤š(§w‘¤›¤(§–¡¤¦$i†¢› 55RCtu@%%Sp†dPx4#3¦s @9s¡¢@—4#3@67¦38‚1340@4%4 ) (t(¦s¡0£26E‡U‡‘!67£26 ) ¡0ePd4¤e@9$!B@93% $¡¢@5¡i1$¡¤5Xƒ@2!67l%%%’“$4¤d@9s¡0@d'¡¤!4¤¦q¡¤¦$k¡ ) !4r3#3T@4r!1$¡¤% %4¤¦$`@!5¡¤67¦@%§–UW24¦ ) ti13%!¦u@‘!# ) @SPx4¤d‘›0wCt(@% v %!# ) @ Pd40B0š2¡¤¦$f†'›552Ctu@%‡'¡0¦wCDBPd4¤#$¦$T67¦†… ‘5¢‡G ˆV¦Y4¤#3yn(1D67£2%¦@eU‡S`@#s(ta@9$I!%¦3!6A@6E©u6A@VtR4¤Pw4#(@67¦$8¥134 F @4%4 ) y@4‚@VU‡4¥1$¡05¡¤£2b@£¢W@93S4¢©ƒb ) 4¡wP¡0@4¤d€ ) %©ƒ ) 40Pu%4¦ F 8`@6E4¤¦D„B¡0¦sf„u#3%#$6E¦38a3 ) ¡%tcx‡9$d1 ) ¡0@!Pd40£˜#$!%f67¦|@9$Sn F 1D67£2%¦@W!#31$1D40!@W`@5¡0@67yC$#3fgbW@93!9$4 ) 24¦a¡I1D‡139t3!67'¡ ) 67¦@!P¡0%TC$¡¤!67%i~336A@674¦s¡ )7) t§€@93¥#$!¥4¤Py~ux—‚}¡0¦s†!1D%%6As F '¡ )E) tI@9$W¡'©¡06 ) ¡0C$6 ) 67@…td40Pgz‡” v žyzW%§ƒ¡ )7) 4'UW'd#$–@4e!9s¡01D‡%80%! @!5¡0‚e@4S¡0C36A@!5¡0!t ) 4'Uo5¡0@%W~eW¡‘%!# ) @'§u!67¦3%y4¤¦ ) t24¤¦$ežz Ue¡0Q4¦3s$8#('cPd40W%¡¤59‚1$9t(!67'¡ ) 67¦u@b!P¡¤§6A@wUe¡¤w5¡0@93u!67£ F 1 ) B@42%4¤¦@!4 ) @9$‘£¥¡0n(67£d#3£„#$#$%67¦$8‚3 ) ¡%tRbn31Db6E¦$%'TCut @!5¡¤¦3!£26A@!@'Y1s¡¤5Xƒ@%c“$#(!@9$£240§D'(#$%67¦$8¥@9$cžyz @!5¡¤¦3 F £267!!674¦v5¡0@T¡ ) !4|'3#3%%I@9$a¡¤£24¤#$¦@S4¤Pe@!5¡022@9s¡¢@‚¦3%'3
  • 4. @4|CD¥8¦$5¡¢@'r@4YC367¦$8Y@932867©ƒ%¦vˆV’67¦u@b!P¡¤a@4Y@9$¥( F !6A'Y4¢©ƒ ) 4¡ ) %©ƒ ) yx‡9$6780'¡0@ ) tT'3#3%'R@9$‘'„#367£2%¦@ ¡0¦sw£267¦$67£267l%'a@9$I%4`@4¤Pu@9$‘@!5¡0‚c8¤%¦$5¡¢@674¦|'„#$671$£2¦u@ ¦3%'('dPd40W@9$—n(1D67£2%¦@%œˆV¦2!#$C3!'„#$%¦@u!%@674¤¦$WUWe6 )7) #$ F @!5¡¢@B@9s¡¢@e@9$4¤C$#$`@¦3%!e4¤P€4¤#3@67¦$8c1340@4%4 ) —@4‚%4¦38%`@674¤¦ 67€£¥¡06E¦ ) tS3@£267¦3'‘Cut‘@93 ) 4!€5¡¢@e¡¤¦$I@93‡„#$%#3%67¦$8y3 ) ¡%t ¡0¦sR67—67¦s(%1D%¦s(%¦@e4¤P€@93‘¡¤b@#s¡ )¨) 67¦$X¥@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦T5¡0@ xWUW4v„#s¡0¦u@6A@67%¥¡¢w#$!'h@4r59s¡¢5¡¤@67l%w@93RCD%9$¡'©(6740a¡¤¦s 4¤C$#3`@¦$%!‘40PW4#(@67¦$8a134¤@44 ) I6E¦f%4¤¦$8`@'i¦3@VUW4¤Xu£¢@93 @67£2T67@2@5¡0Xƒ%‚Px4¤T¡f4¤#3@67¦$8fgD¡¤1i@4r4%#3¥4¦3%R@93Y3%!6A' ) %© ) 4¤Pœ@!5¡¢2B4¢©ƒ ) 4¡T67—¡01$1 ) 67'a¡¤¦$¥@93y@67£2y@9$¡0@e6A@e@5¡¤X% Px4¤ ) 67¦$X‚¡0y`¡¤%¦$t2@4ICD— F %`@5¡¤C ) 67!93'a4¤¦$%y¡‘P¡¤6 ) #3y9s¡0‡4 F #3!'gux‡934#38934#3@e@931$¡¤1DeUWPdbe@4I@9$ys$`@—„#s¡0¦@67@…t ¡0y4¤#3@IgD¡¤1w@67£2S¡¤¦$RU‡c3%¦34¤@I6A@‘¡0ƒ‘‘ 6 €ƒ1 F @4 F 6 4¢U—¦s„ h ¡0¦s‘@4y@93Q!%4¦sc¡¤w¡¤0y!¡0%%¦3t‘%%4¢©ƒ!t‘@67£2§¤¡0¦s‘U‡e(%¦$40@ 6A@y¡¤ 6 ‘¢ƒ€ 6 4'U—¦ F @4 F ƒy1D„b xp42¡¤59$67%©ƒI¡c`@5¡0@67`@67'¡ )7) t|¡¤%#35¡¢@‘1$67@#3¤§$'¡0b9Rn(1D67£2%¦@ 67w%1D'¡¢@'dCD@…U‡%%¦w†£5B¡¤¦$T†'@67£2%—€d@93e¦(#3£dCD–4¤Pg¡¤£21 ) % 4 )7) %@'|Pd4¤I%¡¤59in(1D67£2%¦@eUe¡0‘1367£¥¡06 ) t|3b@£267¦$'YCt @93¡0£24#3¦u@u40Pp@67£2e'„#$6A'‚@4I%4 )7) %@W@9$%!e¡¤£21 ) —1D4¤6E¦@5„b zW4¤¦3ss3%¦3%‡67¦@©¡ ) –Pd4¤Q™›QR¡0¦sd™¤™( ›QR4¦3ss3%¦3% ) %©ƒ ) w¡¢ 4£21$#(@'a¡¤¦sT13%!%¦@'¥Pd40e@93‘ƒ‘‘ 6 ¡¤¦$ 6 ‘¢ƒ{„#s¡0¦u@6A@67%% ˆG@267¥6E£21D40!@5¡¤¦@d@4i ) ¡06APxtk9$bR@9s¡¢@‚@9$a4#3@TgD¡¤1h@67£2R67 67¦$3%1D%¦$3%¦@e4¤Pw@93‘n(6E`@¦$%I4¤PQ¡ ) @b¦s¡0@IPd40!Ue¡¢5367¦$8a1s¡¢@9$% •y4'U‡%©ƒb'§€@9$67c67c¦$4¤@I@!#3¥Px4¤c@9$¥¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bt†%%4¢©ƒ!tf@67£2 ˆ…¦†4#(In(1D67£2%¦@BU‡29$¡¢©2%4¦3!6™('i@…U‡4w1D4¤!!67C ) ¥'¡¤!%£¢ €6™„u¡I!67¦38 ) yPx4¤!Ue¡¢5367¦$8S1s¡¢@92n(67`@WCD@…U‡%%¦24¤#3@Q• v †e¡¤¦s • v ‘@9$¡0@e%4¤¦$!67`@e4¤P¨@9$e1367£¥¡¢!t ) 6E¦3X‚4¦ ) t§(¡¤¦sY€676™„u@VUW4SPx4¤ F U‡¡05(6E¦38¥1s¡0@93e¡0c¡¢©¤¡¤6 ) ¡¤C ) cCD@…U‡%¦R4#(@• v †I¡0¦sR• v ‘ €d@9(4#389|%6A@9$@9$S1367£¥¡0!tY40B@9$S!%%4¤¦s3¡0!t ) 67¦$X3„b‘ˆV¦Y@93 s3`@w'¡¤!¤§u¡`@5¡0@67‡4¤#3@e67w¡ ) !4‘67¦$`@5¡ )E) '‚67¦S@9$‡• v †Q4#3@bw!4 @9$¡0@w¡¢Px@Q¡e4#(@QgD¡01c4%#3%§¤@9$W1(67£¥¡0!t ) 67¦$X‘67€`@6 )7) #3!'I@4 Px4¤!U‡¡05i@!5¡¢2d@4T@93‚(%`@67¦s¡0@674¤¦r¦$4u(dx‡9$67‘%4¦(ss8¤#35¡0@674¤¦ 1(4¢©(6E(%2©¡ ) #s¡¤C ) w67¦3Pd40£¥¡0@674¦i%8ƒ¡¢5367¦$8i@9$w¡¤0y`¡¤%%¦3th F 40©!tT@67£2‘4¤¦Y¡ ) 6E¦3Xa@9$¡0@—%£¥¡06E¦3y4¢©ƒb ) 4¡('R1D4!!67C ) tw3#3 @4†@93Yn(67`@%¦$%Y40P‘@!5¡02w@9$¡0@¥%£¥¡06E¦3¥#$¦s¡¢fg%@'kCuth@93 4¤#3@dgs¡¤1i4¦i@93‚!1D%%6As$‚67¦u@b!P¡¤¥ˆV¦|@9$‚!%4¦$i'¡0!§€¦$4 `@5¡¢@67d4#(@%I¡0‚67¦3`@5¡ )7) '¨dx‡9$bPd4¤¤§€¡0P™@S¡a4¤#3@SgD¡¤1f4¦ @931(6E£¥¡¢!t ) 6E¦3X24%%#(%§$1$¡¤5Xƒ@e¡¢Pd40!Ue¡05('a@4S@9$3%`@6 F ¦$¡0@674¦i@934¤#$89h@9$T!%%4¤¦s$¡¢!th1s¡¢@9phpq9$6 ) R@93R!%%4¤¦s3¡0!t 1$¡0@9 67w67¦hfg@'§B@9$f@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦„#$#$i¡¤!!4%6E¡0@%U—67@9 @93—1367£¥¡0!t ) 6E¦3X‚u5¡¤67¦$%§(¡0¦s‚%©ƒ¦u@#$¡ )7) td1D67¦$8ICD@VUW%%¦‚@93 4¤#3@‘4¦$¦3%@'wU—6A@9i@93c1(67£¥¡06 ) t ) 67¦3Xw67B F %`@5¡¤C ) 67!93'¨ ~‡@‡@9$¡0@‡@67£2§u@93y@!5¡0‚%©ƒ!@Q@4c@9$y1367£¥¡0!t ) 67¦$XDux‡93 F Px4¤§w67¦v'¡0!|€6x„@93¥3#35¡¢@674¦†40Pe@93 6 ‘0ƒ @67£2¥3%1D%¦$3I4¦ @93‚@!5¡0224¢©ƒb ) 4¡r4¤¦r@9$d1367£¥¡0!t ) 67¦$XD§œU—936 ) ¥67¦r'¡0!|€6E6™„b§ 6A@d3%1D¦s3S4¦†@932@6E£2‚%„u#36A'i@4f(5¡06E¦†@93‚@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦ „#3%#$W¡¤!!4%6E¡0@%dU—67@9S@9$Q1367£¥¡0!t ) 67¦$XS¡¤¦$I@93e¡¤C36 ) 6A@…tc40P$@93 4¤#3@67¦$821(4¤@4%4 ) @4‚5¡¤136E ) tw£24u(67P™tT@93‘%4¤!!1D4¦s(67¦$8¥%¦@!!t 67¦iˆ`’’Pd40!Ue¡05(67¦$8R@5¡0C ) ‚67¦f4¤#3@B• v †‚¡0¦s|!%¦sY@!5¡02d40© @931(6E£¥¡¢!t ) 67¦$X¥¡¤8¡¤67¦pwpq93%¦¥13%!¦u@67¦38c@9$—%!# ) @%§(U‡e F Pxw@4y@93‡n(1D67£2%¦@–1D!Px4¤£2'S6E¦c'¡¤!‘€6™„–¡0CD40©e¡¤ ¡£¢¥¤ #§¦ b§ ¡0¦sT@4c@9$4!6E¦R'¡¤!¥€676™„—¡0©¨ ¢¤ #§¦ en(1D67£2%¦@% 3. ANALYTICAL MODELSˆ…¦T@936E—!%b@6E4¤¦p§3U‡I3©ƒ ) 41R¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) £24u( ) —Px4¤y%`@67£¥¡0@67¦$8 @93w(#35¡0@674¤¦k40P@9$Tƒ‘‘ 6 €dgD¡01i@67£2¢„S¡¤¦$ 6 ‘¢ƒ €ˆ¡0y`¡¤%¦$t %4¢©ƒ!t$„œt( ) %–Pd40wCD4¤@9‚‰‘3’u“w¡¤¦$c”e•B’–”WPx4¤e134%'367¦38 Px#3!@93QU—6A@92¡‘(@5¡¤6 ) '2(6E!#$!!674¦¨§ƒU‡—`@5¡0@e@…U‡4I¡¤!!#3£213@674¦3 @9$¡0@y¡0‘4£2£24¦¥@42¡ )E) 4#(e¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) £24u( ) £¢ †ex‡9$¥4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤rP¡¤b@4¤d£¥¡¤67¦$I%4¤¦$`@5¡¤¦@'wx‡9$67‚¡0!!#$£21 F @6E4¤¦d£¥¡¢@b93%œ@9$Wn(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) !@#31d¡0¦sc£¥¡0Xƒ%–6A@w'¡0`t @4S4£21s¡¢e!# ) @WPx4¤£ @93¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u( ) ‡¡0¦s‚@9$ n(1D67£2%¦@% ‘ue”u©ƒb!tj1s¡¤5Xƒ@h9$¡¤v@9$k¡¤£2’1(4C$¡¤C$6 ) 6A@Vt Wq40PYCD%67¦$8 (4131D'B6A!%!1D%@67©ƒQ4¤P(6A@–!67l%u4¤€6A@œ!4¤#3%¤wx‡9$67œ1(4C F ¡¤C$6 ) 6A@VtfWv(%1D%¦s(B4¦ ) ti4¤¦i@93‚4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤iP¡0@4¤'T‚R40 F 40©'§BU‡r¡ ) !4q¡0!!#$£2i@9$¡0@w@93†(%%67!674¦40P2u41$1367¦$8 ¡o1s¡¢!@6E# ) ¡0f1s¡0bX@Y67|£¥¡3r6E¦$3%1D¦s3¦u@ ) t’Px4¤f'¡0b9 1s¡¤5Xƒ@'ax‡9367d¡0!!#$£213@674¤¦†¡ )7) 4'U—d#3I@4R#$!‚@9$c@9$%40!t 4¤PW‚w¡0Xƒ4¢©u6E¡¤¦Y1(4%%!!%Px4¤¡¤¦$¡ ) t(l%67¦$82@9$S(t(¦$¡¤£267%—4¤P @9$T4¤#3@67¦$8i1340@4%4 ) %q~ ) @9$4#389i©ƒ6APxt(67¦$8f@9$T©¡ ) 6E F 67@…tR40Pw!#$59w¡0¦Y¡¤!!#3£213@674¦w67y36A2%# ) @'§3@93B%!# ) @—Px4£ 4#3e¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) ‡ ) 4¤! ) tT£¥¡¢@b92@934!P™4£qbn31Db F 6E£2¦u@%§œ!#$8¤8%`@67¦$8w@9$¡0@I@9$¥¡0!!#$£21(@6E4¤¦r67I'¡¤!4¤¦s¡¤C ) 6E¦T135¡0@67% 3.1 Route Flap for OSPF (U2D)x‡9$‘CD9s¡'©u6E40e4¤Pu‰‘(’Q“h3#(67¦$8‚¡cƒ‘‘ 6 bt3 ) ‘%¡¤¦RCD‘£24u( ) ' #$!67¦38|¡¤¦ (#' ¤ ‚w¡0Xƒ4¢©ib9$¡¤67¦pYˆ…¦†4¤5(S@4wPx%!9i¡0¦s £¥¡¤67¦@5¡¤67¦d@93e‰‘3’u“Y¡¢y!¡¤%¦$tcU—6A@9‚4#3@bQ• v ‘§4¤#3@u• v † @!5¡¤¦3!£26A@w¡T–V93 )7) 4—B1$¡¤5Xƒ@€%©!t!‡!%4¦$3€Xu¦$4'U—¦c¡¤I–V•y )AF ) 4ˆ…¦u@b©¡ ) —(‚p†cU—6 )7) PdbS@4a@9$S@6E£2bS¡¤!!4%6E¡0@%rU—67@9f@9$ 9$ )E) 4Y67¦@©¤¡ ) ¡0#$%¤Yx‡93¥4¤#3@S4¤¦†@9$24¤@93S!6E3§w• v ‘§ 3 ) ¡0%‡• v †e(4'U—¦a6AP¨6A@e(4%W¦34¤@W%%67©ƒy¡I93 )7) 4c1$¡¤5Xƒ@uPx4£ • v †BU—6A@9$67¦('0) !%%4¤¦s3—U—9$6759Y67yXu¦$4'U—¦Y¡0T– v 4¤#3@ 6 '¡ F ˆV¦@©¤¡ ) —(ep†‘U—6 )E) (%¦$40@‘@9$‘4#(@B('¡w67¦@©¤¡ ) @6E£2bB¡0 $'1) B”u©!tR@67£2S• v ‘c%%%67©ƒ%B¡a93 )7) 4a1s¡0bX@yP™4£ 4#3@b • v †§36A@y!@¡d@67£2—@9$¡0@e67y!59$'(# ) 'T@4dn(1$6A '1) B! F 4¦$3 ) ¡¢@'yˆ…Pw@9$‘@67£234%yn(1$6A§g• v ‘‚3 ) ¡0%@9$¡0@e@9$ ) 67¦$XB¡¤0y`¡¤%%¦3t‘67p34'U—¦p–“$#3!@93£24¤§4#3@ ) '¡¢¦$'‘4¢©ƒ¨@9$ P¡06 ) %T67¦@!P¡0%‘¡0eU—6A@9s(5¡%U—¦¥Px4¤£ @9$e4#(@6E¦38d¡0¦s‚@9$—Pd40 F Ue¡¢5367¦$8S@5¡¤C ) %Wx‡93B(P¡0# ) @—©¡ ) #$%WPx4¤2(!¡0¦s3 '1) ¡0!b@ @4T†£5S!%4¦$3—¡¤¦$aš5c!%4¦s(%§u%!1D%@67©ƒ ) tf…A†'¢‡GQx‡936Ee£2%¡¤¦$ @9s¡¢@Q@93—¡¢y!¡¤%¦$tdCD@VUW%%¦2• v †—¡0¦s‚• v ‘y8¤4%‡(4'U—¦267PDPx4#( %4¤¦$!%%#(@67©ƒ‚9$ )E) 4w1$¡¤5Xƒ@I¡¢ ) 4¤`@'a~y¦f67£21 ) 67%6A@S¡¤!!#$£21(@674¦ 9$be6Ew@9s¡¢@u9$ )7) 4‘1s¡0bXƒb@Q¡¢—!%¦@Qbn$¡0@ ) td©ƒ!t© ! !%4¦s(%§ ¡¤¦$T@9s¡¢@—CD4¤@9R@93B%¦$3—9s¡'©ƒ@93%6Ae ) 4bXue1D!Pd%b@ ) tT`t(¦$5934 F ¦$67l%%¨u~q ) 6E8¤9@–y`6A@!@e67¦¥@9$—@67£2¡¢@WU—9$6759a4¤#3@‡• v †y!¦s3 9$ )E) 4‘1$¡¤5Xƒ@w£¥¡%tS!# ) @u6E¦c@9$—¡¢y!¡0%%¦$btd8¤467¦$8I(4¢U—¦d%©ƒ%¦‚6AP Pd4¤#3%4¦3!%%#3@67©ƒI1$¡¤5Xƒ@y¡0S¦$4¤@(4¤1$1D'g—x‡9$67y£¥¡'tT4%%#('§ Pd40‡n3¡0£21 ) §6APg@93%—%4¤¦$!%#3@67©ƒe1s¡¤5Xƒ@u9s¡'©ƒ—CD%¦¥(4131D' ¡0@‚• v †§Q¡¤¦$h• v ‘R%%67©ƒ%d@93aPx4#3!@9i1s¡0bX@2¡ ) 6A@!@ ) w¡0Px@b '1) !%%4¦$3eU—6A@9w%!1D%@—@4d@93 ) ¡¤`@e%%%67©ƒ'T9$ )7) 421s¡0bXƒb@' ˆV¦f@9$67‘'¡0!§–@9$‚3'¡¤r67¦u@b©¡ ) @67£2'§¨@9s¡¢@‘Ue¡0c!@I@44 '1) ¡0@e4#(@B• v ‘§$U—6 )7) ) ¡¤13!cCDbPd4¤c¡0!67©¤¡ ) 40Pw@9$‘Pd4¤#3!@9Y9$ )E) 4 1s¡0bX@'§w@9$%Cti@!6E8¤867¦38r¡wgD¡01i¡0Px@b24¦ ) tr@93%a%4¦3!%%# F @67©ƒT(413%r“y4¤£¥¡ )E) t§w@9$24¤#3@‚9$¡'©ƒa¡2yV6A@!@67¦$8f%4£21D4 F ¦$¦u@—C3#$6 ) @—67¦u@4S@67£2‡U—9$4¤!‘n(1$6A!t¥%!# ) @—67¦R1s¡0bX@eCD%67¦$8 !%¦@y4#3@y4¦Y@93S¦3@VUW4¤Xa@4¥¡¢©46Ew`t(¦$5934¦367l'¡0@674¦|1(4C ) %£2 @9s¡¢@R4%#3T67¦ ) ¡¢8f¦$@…U‡40X(|… š¤‡ˆ xœ4h¡'©ƒ4¤6Eo@9$67T1(4C ) £w§ • v †—y`6A@!@5(!ICutR1$675X(67¦38T¡25¡¤¦$34¤£ ©¤¡ ) #$IPx4¤£˜¡2#$¦36APd4¤£ 367`@!67C$#(@674¦|4¢©ƒ¡¤¦Y67¦@©¡ ) €`†75 F!6 §–†£547 6 „b‰¦w4#(B1 ) ¡¢@ F Pd40£w§@9$e©¡ ) #$40P 6 67‡!@W@4¥†£5TR 40Pp@93y93 )7) 4d67¦@©¡ ) €8%'„b “40@‚@9s¡¢@c4¤¦ ) t|@9$‚@67£2S¡0!!4%6E¡0@'†U—6A@9r@9$‚@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦ 4¤Pw93 )7) 421s¡¤5Xƒ@%§9$!§$6E€yV67@!@b'¨‡x‡9$ '1) @67£2e67e¡ ) Ue¡%t( %!@‘@4T¡as3n('Y©¡ ) #3c~yPx4¤ 6 U‡d¡¤!!#3£2c@9s¡¢@‘6A@‘67‘!@B@4 ¡|©¡ ) #3a@9$¡0@28¤#s¡¢5¡¤¦@%%d@93T@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦i4¤P¡0@ ) '¡0`@2@93% 9$ )E) 4¥1s¡0bX@eU—67@9367¦|¡¤¦w67¦@©¤¡ ) 40P@ '1) I!%4¦$3%‡pq6A@9R@9367 ¡¤!!#3£213@674¦¨§pUW‚'¡0¦r£24u3 ) @9$dCD9s¡'©u6E40I4¤Pe‰‘3’u“q3#367¦38R¡ ƒ‘‘ 6 t( ) dU—6A@9r@93d@!5¡¤¦3!67@674¤¦v36E¡¤805¡¤£ !934¢U—¦r6E¦r“–678#3a‘ ‰#3S@VUW4 F 4#(@‚`t(`@%£ '¡0¦hCDT67¦v4¦3T40P—@9$2Pd4 )E) 4'U—67¦$8fss©ƒ
  • 5. 1 p/2 c=10 p c=10 p/2 c=10 c=10 1-p c=10 p c=10 p Start End c=10 1-p 1-p c=20 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 c=10 1-p   ¡ £¥¨§©¡ D£¢¥¤g§%$§¦©¨S@¤¡87 EdD4¨©5) §¤¡ ¨Q0¨Q) © !#$   P `@5¡¢@%y¡0@y¡¤¦ta867©ƒ%¦a@67£2¢ %' x‡9$ ) ¡¤`@Q9$ )7) 4I1s¡¤5Xƒ@u!%¦@QCtd• v †e£¥¡¤3e6A@u@4‘• v ‘uw‰#( @VUW4 F 4#(@‘`t(`@%£ 6E‘67¦|@9$67B`@5¡¢@2¡0@B@93dCD%8¤67¦$¦$67¦38T40P ¡dƒB‘ 6 t( ) %)( x‡9$ ) ¡0`@‘9$ )7) 4R1$¡¤5Xƒ@!%¦@BCtY• v †c36E|¦$4¤@y'¡¤59f• v ‘u§ C$#(@e@9$B1(%©u674#$—1$¡¤5Xƒ@e36Eg %10 x‡9$ ) ¡¤`@‘@…U‡4T9$ )7) 4R1$¡¤5Xƒ@‘!%¦@‘Ct|• v †d36Ef¦34¤@I¡¢!67©ƒ ¡0@e• v ‘§3C3#3@e@93B1s¡0bXƒb@yCDbPd4¤B@93%!B@VUW4236Eg %'2 x‡9$ ) ¡¤`@e@93%‘93 )7) 4‚1s¡0bXƒb@e!¦u@eCta• v †‘(6™T¦$4¤@—'¡0b9 • v ‘u %'3 x‡9$@ '1) €@67£2–¡¢@–• v ‘Qbn3136A%%€x‡93W¡¤0y!¡0%%¦3t‘CD@…U‡%%¦ • v †Y¡0¦si• v ‘|67a34'U—¦pqx‡9$67¥£¥¡0Xu‚@9$T%¦si4¤PB@93 ƒ‘‘ 6 t( ) w“y4¤@@9$¡0@‡@93¦u#$£cCDQ4¤P–4¦$!%#3@67©ƒB93 )7) 4 1s¡0bX@—(4¤1$1D'a'¡¤¦wCD‘67@93—@93%4¤—Pd4¤#3' ”u¡¤59d`@5¡¢@‡67¦d“–678¤#3—‘e%13%!¦u@w¡0¦c©ƒ%¦@€67¦S@93e‰‘(’Q“R`@5¡¢@ £¥¡0b9367¦$§067¦S@9367–'¡¤!u@9$u@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦S4¤Ps¡e93 )7) 41s¡0bX@'–~ ) !4 @93a36E¡¤805¡¤£ 67¦h“–6E8¤#3T‘R!9$4'U—S@9$‚@!5¡¤¦3!6A@6E4¤¦v134¤Cs¡¤C36 ) 6A@67% ¡ ) 4¦$8IU—6A@9‚@9$—%4¤`@‡¡0!!4%6E¡0@'¥U—67@92%¡¤59‚@!5¡¤¦$!6A@674¦¨§(3%¦34¤@' Ct540’x‡93w%4`@¥40PI¡f@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦k6E‚@93R@67£2R( ) ¡%tkCDbPd4¤w¡ ¦3Uj%©ƒ¦u@B4%%#3I40I'„#$67©¤¡ ) %¦@ ) tY@9$c@67£2S@4T@9$c¦$nu@‘93 )7) 4 1$¡¤5Xƒ@‚@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦¨ox‡93w¦$bn(@d`@5¡0@Y(%1D%¦$3d4¤¦k@93T4¤#3@ F 4£2‚40Pe@9$2¡0@674¦r@!678b!'rCti¡¤¦r©ƒ%¦@'§œ6 ¥U—9$b@9$‘@93 @!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦ 4¤Pc¡†93 )7) 4h1$¡¤5Xƒ@aUe¡¤T!#$%%!`Pd# ) 4¤T¦$4¤@' ~e !934'U—¦†67¦r@9$ds$8#(§–@9$d`t3`@£ `@5¡0!@‘Px4¤£ `@5¡¢@ %1 Tx‡93 bt3 ) d%¦s(U—9$%¦f6A@B'¡0b93%B@9$d¡¤C$!40C$67¦$8T`@5¡0@ %13 c~ )7) @93 @!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦3‘6E¦|@9$S£24u3 ) ¡0‚`t(¦3b9(4¦$67l%%Y@4¥@9$S%©ƒ¦u@e F ) ¡¢@'d@4B@9$‡@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦24¤P¨93 )7) 4‘1$¡¤5Xƒ@wPx4¤£ • v †W@4‘• v ‘u x‡93d`t(`@%£ £24¢©ƒ%y@4'U‡¡053y@9$c¡¤C$!40C$67¦$8a`@5¡0@ % 3 Px4¤£ 6A@ 1(%!%¦@‚`@5¡¢@T6AP—@9$¥¦3nu@d93 )7) 4|1$¡¤5Xƒ@c6Ed(4¤1$1D'gr’€¡0bX@ ¡¢Ru4131D'rU—6A@9v134C$¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vt Wœf”Q¡0b9†@67£2a¡w9$ )E) 4|1s¡0bX@ £¥¡0Xƒ%‡6A@e@4c• v ‘u§u@9$y`t3`@£qP¡ )E) —Cs¡0bX2@4I@9$B`@5¡¢!@67¦$8d`@5¡¢@ % x¨5¡¤¦$!6A@674¦3‘4#(@40PW`@5¡¢@ %10 '„#367S!4£2S£24¤In(1 ) ¡0¦s¡¢@6E4¤¦p v %'¡ )7) @9$¡0@c@9$a`t3`@£ 67‚67¦h`@5¡0@ % 0 6APy@9$ ) ¡0`@‚@VUW4i93 )7) 4 1$¡¤5Xƒ@w9s¡'©ƒeCD%¦2(4¤1$1D'g€“34¤£ %0 §6A@Q£¥¡%tI@5¡¤Xe%6A@9$Q4¦3 40I@VU‡4T£24¤‚93 )7) 4w1s¡0bXƒb@S(413BPd40S@93 ) 67¦$XY@4RCD2(% ) ¡0% (4'U—¦i(%1D%¦$367¦$824¤¦wU—9$@93@93I@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦|4¤Pu@9$‘Px4#3!@9 93 )7) 4B1s¡0bXƒb@–U—6A@9d%!1D%@€@4e@9$ ) ¡0`@Q!#3%%%!`Px# )7) tc@!5¡0¦$!£26A@!@' 4¤¦$S67B8¤'¡¢@‘40 ) %!@9$¡¤¦|š85¥!%%4¤¦s3%ˆV¦w@93Is3`@B'¡0!c@93 `t(`@%£t@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦$e67£2£2'36E¡¢@ ) tT@4d@93B@£267¦s¡¢@6E¦38‚`@5¡0@ %'3 U—936 ) a67¦r@9$2!%4¦$r6A@c@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦$I@4 %'2 Y~e%%4¤5(67¦$8w@4R@93 ¡0!!#$£21(@6E4¤¦wU‡I£¥¡(‘'¡0 ) 67'§g@9$B@67£2I67¦@©¡ ) CDb@VU‡%¦w@VUW4 !#3%%%!!67©ƒQ9$ )7) 41$¡¤5Xƒ@p6Eœ1$67bX'Px4¤£{¡—#$¦$6APx4¤£{(67`@!6EC3#3@674¦ 4¢©ƒr€`†75 F36 §c†75 7 6 „btx‡9$i©¡¢6E¡¤C ) f@9s¡0@T%13!%¦@R@9$ @67£2‘¡0@—U—936E59R@93BPd4#(!@9w9$ )E) 421$¡¤5Xƒ@—67y!¦u@e ) ¡¢@67©ƒ‘@4d@9$ ) ¡¤`@a!#$%%!`Pd# ) 4¤¦$Y67a¡r!#$£ 40PBPd4¤#3a67¦s(%1D%¦s(%¦@ ) thb934!%¦ #$¦36APd4¤£ ) t†367`@!67C$#3@%r5¡¤¦s(4£ ©¡ ) #$%%rx‡9$bPd4¤¤§Q@93¥@67£2 ¡0@‘U—9367b9f@9$dPx4#3!@9i9$ )7) 4w1$¡¤5Xƒ@‘8¤@B@!5¡¤¦3!£267@!@%f67S¡ ) !4Y¡ 5¡¤¦$34¤£q©¤¡06E¡¤C ) yU—67@9T¡S367`@!67C$#3@674¤¦TU—9$4¤!B£2'¡0¦a67‡%„u#$¡ ) @4 š852!%4¦s(%y‚R4¤%4¢©ƒb'§D@9$‘134¤Cs¡0C$6 ) 67@…tw40Pu@93‘@6E£2I¡¢@U—936E59 @9$€Px4#3!@9I1$¡¤5Xƒ@p8@¨@!5¡¤¦$!£26A@!@'yCD%67¦$8 ) %!œ@9s¡0¦‘š85e!%%4¤¦s( @#3¦3‡4#(@‡@4SCDd†76¤‘uQx‡9$67 ) @e#$‡¡¤!!678¦R¡c134¤Cs¡0C$6 ) 67@…t¥4¤PgW'6‘ Pd40%¡¤59R4¤P€@93@!5¡¤¦3!6A@6E4¤¦$ %0 9 %13 ¡0¦s % 2 9 %'3 ~y¦34¤@93e1D467¦@yUW4¤!@9Y¦$40@67¦$8¥67¦|“–6E8¤#3c‘‚67e@93S4`@y4¤Pw@!5¡¤¦ F !6A@674¦$% ~eaUWf£2¦u@674¤¦$'o%¡0 ) 67'§B%©!tk@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦ 67¦’@9$ ss8¤#3e%4¤!!1D4¦s(‡@4S¡S93 )7) 4S1s¡0bX@W@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦T¡0@!@%£21(@' Ctw• v †¤x‡93674%%#(%©!t†€`†£5 F 6 §–†£547 6 „e!%4¦s(%•y4'U F %©ƒb'§'U—67@9‘@93Qn(%13@674¦‘40P % 0 9 % 3 §¢U‡u9s¡'©ƒu¡¤!!678¦3'S¡es3n(' †75y!%%4¦$3€%4¤`@w@4'¡0b9S@!5¡¤¦$!6A@674¦¨w~y!!678¤¦$67¦$8‘¡e%4¦3`@5¡¤¦@w%4¤`@ '„#s¡ ) @4 % @4¥'¡0b9w@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦f!6E£21 ) 67s$%—@9$S¡¤¦$¡ ) t(!6E%B‰#3 £24u3 ) ¡ ) %¡(ti@5¡¤Xƒc'¡¢¥4¤Pe@9$2£¥¡067¦†fg%@c'¡0#$!'rCtf@9$ y`6A@!@—4£21D4¦3%¦@‡Ct¥134¢©u6E367¦$8I@VUW4c@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦R1$¡0@93WPx4¤£ % 0 @4 %'3 ¥“40@d@9s¡¢@I@!5¡¤¦$!6A@674¦ %0 9 %'3 9s¡0I¡R%4`@S40Pe‘5R! F 4¦$3e€8 '1) c ‘98%¤„b§U—9$67b9267u@9$e%!6E3#$¡ ) %4¤¦@%¦@W40P¨@67£2 $'1) ¡¢Px@u@VUW4‘#$¦$!#3%%%!`Px# ) ¡0@!@%£21(@%€x‡9$67Q¡ ) !4I£2'¡¤¦3€@9s¡0@ ¡d1$¡0@9¥Px4£ % @4 %'3 U—6A@9w¦34c%1D@6A@674¦3—4¤P€`@5¡¢@%eU—6 )7) 9s¡'©ƒ ¡c@40@5¡ ) 4`@e4¤P€š5‚!%%4¤¦s3%§(U—9$6759w67—'„#s¡ ) @4 ('0) •B¡'©u67¦$8a3!67CD'w@9$S£24u3 ) §sUWc@#3¦w@4¥%`@67£¥¡¢@6E¦38a@93In F 1D%@%‘@67£2u4¤P$¡eƒB‘ 6 t( ) W40€'„#$67©¤¡ ) %¦@ ) t@9$un(1D%@%‘@67£2 4¤P$£24¢©(67¦38—P™4£@93W`@5¡¢!@6E¦38y`@5¡¢@ % @4y@93u@b£26E¦$¡0@67¦$8e`@5¡0@ % 3 €ƒ!67¦$8y@9$‡@9$4¤!tc4¤P¨¡¤C3!4¤C36E¦38S‚w¡0Xƒ4¢©Sb9$¡¤67¦$—… ›¢‡ˆ§UWe'¡¤¦ '¡ ) # ) ¡0@e@9$—n(1D%@'¥(#35¡0@674¤¦24¤Pœ¡IƒB‘ 6 t( ) —Pd4¤—‰‘3’u“i¡0 ¡2Pd#$¦3@674¦i4¤P Wœc~j ) 4¤!'fPx4¤£˜bn31(%!!674¦fPd4¤@9$dbn31D@' gD¡01T@67£2‘¡0¡cPx#$¦3@674¦R40PIWw67—867©ƒ%¦wCD ) 4'U0¢ @ … AB‘CBd‡G€ Wg„ X ‘ 5 W 2 7 W 3 7 ‘5 W 0 7 W 2 7 ‘(€G› W 7q†£5ƒ„ W#7BW 0 7 †75 †!7 W €`†¢„ x–¡0C ) Y†¥13%!%¦@I@9$2n(1D%b@'rgD¡01r@67£2 @ … AB‘DBd‡…€ WD„S©¤¡ ) #$% ¡¤W%4£213#3@'cP™4£q”Q„sD€`†'„wPd40‡ss©e4¢©ƒb ) 4¡2P¡0@4¤‡Px4¤‡U—936E59 U‡‘%¡0!67'w4#(@—n(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) £2'¡0!#3%£2%¦@% x‡9$d£24u3 ) ¡0!!#$£2%B@9$¡0@B@93c`t(`@%£ ) 67%‘67¦f`@5¡0@ %' ¡¢@B@9$ CD%8¤6E¦3¦$67¦$8c4¤P–¡cƒ‘‘ 6 t( ) €pq936 ) y@9$67e67‡@!#$yPx4¤—@9$B‘'˜ƒ¦$4u3 n(1D67£2%¦@%§—¡†£267¦$40a%4¤!%b@6E4¤¦q@4†@9$Y£24u3 ) 67¥'„#$6A' @4¥£¥¡¤XƒI6A@¡¤1$1 ) 6E%¡¤C ) S@4T'˜¦34u3d4¦3s$8#(5¡0@674¦3%Bx‡93d(67fgb F %¦3%B67¦T@93B¢˜ƒ¦$4u(‘n(1D67£2%¦@W67‡@9s¡¢@e¡0Px@be@93yPx4¤!Ue¡¢5367¦$8 1s¡¢@9¥6E¦¥• v †—%©ƒb!@WPx4¤£ @9$e!%%4¤¦s3¡0!t ) 67¦$Xd@4I@9$e1367£¥¡0!t 4¦3§31s¡¤5Xƒ@ ) 4¤!!%yU—6 )7) 4%#3e4¦ ) tT¡¢Px@e@9$BC3#3fg—4¢©ƒb!gs4'U—% x‡9$bPd40§ƒPd40w@9$e'˜¦$4u(e%4¦(ss8¤#35¡0@674¤¦$%§ƒUWe9s¡'©ƒQ@4B¡$I@9$ „#$%#3‡s )7)AF #$1‚@67£2‡@4B@9$—n(1D%@%cgD¡01‚@6E£2e8¤67©ƒ%¦2Ct‚”u„sD€`†¢„ U—9$¦R%4¤£21$#3@67¦38I@93‘¡¤b@#s¡ ) n(1D%b@'¥gs¡¤1¥@67£2ux‡9$@67£2e6A@ @5¡¤X%e@42s )E) @9$S„#$%#3‘67¦w@#3¦Y(%1D%¦s(y4¤¦w@9$‘4¢©ƒ ) 4¡wP¡0 F @4¤B¡¤eU‡ )7) ¡0@9$S„#$%#3‘'¡¤1$¡¤%6A@…txœ¡¤C ) ¥†S!9$4'U—y@93c„#3%#$ s )7) ˜#31a@67£2ePd4¤e@93y@…U‡4dC3#3fg‡!6El%e#$!'¥67¦T4¤#3—n(1D67£2%¦@ ¡¤¦$fPx4¤c©¡¢6E4¤#$‘4¢©ƒ ) 4¡iPd¡¤@40%wx–¡0C ) w†¥¡ ) !4Y67¦3 ) #s3‘n F 1D%@%Ygs¡¤1|@67£2c©¤¡ ) #$yPd40‘@9$S1s¡¢5¡¤£2@#$!'Y67¦f@93S@…U‡4 ¢˜ƒ¦$4u(y%4¤¦3s$8#35¡¢@674¦$%ux‡93%!e©¡ ) #3%Q¡0—4C(@5¡¤67¦$'‚Ct‚¡$(67¦$8 @9$d„#$%#3Ss )E) ˜ƒ#$1|@6E£2S@4a@93dn(1D%b@'Y©¡ ) #3%‘(67©ƒ'YPx4£ @9$c£24u3 ) €dU—936E59f6ES¡ ) !4R'„#s¡ ) @4 @ … AB‘DBd‡G€ Wg„B©¡ ) #3%B40P‡@9$ ‘'˜ƒ¦$4u(S4¦3s$8#(5¡0@674¦s„b 3.2 Adjacency Recovery for OSPF (D2U)x‡9$YCD9s¡'©u6E40a4¤Pc‰‘3’u“j3#(6E¦38†¡ 6 ‘0ƒ˜t( ) |(67fgb¥Px4¤w‘'˜ ¦$4u(¡0¦s2'˜¦$4u(ybn31Db6E£2¦u@%–ˆV¦‚CD40@9¥@93—'¡¤!%%§u@93‰‘(’Q“
  • 6. ‘%˜¦34u3 ¢˜¦34u3 ¢˜ƒ¦$4u( ‰©ƒb ) 4¡ š2‚w”’C$#3fgb š¥‚w”’C$#(fg †'‚‚w”’C$#3fgb “$¡¤@40 @ … AB‘CBd‡G€ Wg„  #$%#3‘“–6 )7) ˜ƒƒ1 @ … AB‘CBd‡G€ Wg„  #$#$‘“–6 )7) ˜ƒ1 @ … AB‘DBd‡…€ WD„ € Rd„ W €!%%4¤¦s35„ x‡67£2‚€!%%4¤¦s35„ €!%%4¤¦s(5„ x‡67£22€!%%4¤¦s(5„ €!%4¦$35„ ‘› 5( ‘5 ‘¤55( 55 †¢ ‘u† ‘¤u†¢u ‘†  ¡ ¡  ‘0 ¡ ¡  ›5 5(  55( 55 ¡ šƒ 5 ¡ š ¤( ¡  ¤u ¡  †£55 5( ›5 ‘55( 55 š( ‘ 5 ‘50š3 ‘5 †%( ¡ 5 ‘†'u ¡ 5 ‘ 55 5( ƒ ™u ›5 ‘ 5¤™ ™¤™( ›¤™ ¡  †£5ƒ› ¡  š55 5( ¡ 5 0š3 5 †¤ 50š ›u7†75 š37†'  ¡ ‘¤‘ ¡ ¤£¢ ) © ¥¤¢C '(© ¨Q©54 ¦ ¤) ¥¨©B §¦ ¤g' ¡FEd©©¨   § !#$   P ‰©ƒb ) 4¡ ”€n(1D%@'a“#3£dCDe40P @ … B¥‘ Ae‡G€ Wg„ “s¡0@4¤S€ R‚„ W • )E) 4‚1$¡¤5Xƒ@ €!%%4¤¦s35„ ‘› 5( ‘5 †¤ ‘› †'‘u › ›5 5(  †¤ › †'› †£55 5( ›5 ‘ 5 ‘ 5 ‘ 55 5( ƒ u 5 5 š55 5( ¡ 5 › 5 › 5 ¡ ¤£¢ ) © D¤¢C '(© ¨Q©545¦§¤g)8¥¨©f §© ¨Q§¦¦©§0 ¡FEd©¨   § !#$   ¡87   7¨D4¨©G©C '(©§%¡FEd©57D2QP S0 c=min(RTT,64) p S1 p c=min(2*RTT,64) 1-p c=RTT c=RTT 1-p c=RTT 1-p c=RTT 1-p Start SnSn-1S2 c=LOTime p 1 End   ¡ £¥¨§©D£¢¥¤g§%$§¦©¨S@¤¡87 EdD4¨©5) §¤¡ ¨Q0¨Q) © ! $ P ¡¤0y`¡¤%%¦3tYCD@…U‡%¦f• v †‘¡¤¦sw• v ‘d4£2%y#$1Y¡0!44¦i¡¤y4¦3 93 )7) 4w1s¡0bXƒb@‘67I¡¤C ) d@4a'¡¤59r• v ‘ ( d“$4¤‘@932‘'˜ƒ¦$4u(2n(1D F 67£2%¦@%§Q!67¦$%w@93R• v † 9v• v ‘ ) 6E¦3Xv67240© ) 4ƒ¡('¨§W@9$R93 )7) 4 1$¡¤5Xƒ@S£¥¡%tr8¤@‚u4131D'r%©ƒ¦v3#(6E¦38|¡ 6 ‘0ƒqt( ) i(67¦$ @93c1(4C$¡¤C$6 ) 6A@VtY40P‡¡21$¡¤5Xƒ@yCD%67¦$8a(4¤1$1D'|¡0@• v †I67 Wœ§s@93 1(4C$¡¤C$6 ) 6A@Vtd4¤Pp¡B9$ )7) 4I1s¡0bXƒb@u%¡¤59$67¦$8I• v ‘y67e€`† c WD„bw•%¦3%§ @93‘n(1D%@'T¦(#3£dCD‡4¤Pw9$ )E) 421$¡¤5Xƒ@—@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦|¡0@!@%£21(@ CDbPd4¤e@93W4#(@e%4£2%€#31d67u'„#s¡ ) @4 ( ($#£%' wx–¡0C ) e‘ ) 67`@u@93 bn31D@'r(#35¡¢@6E4¤¦i40P—¡ 6 ‘0ƒ t( ) w€ @ … B¥‘ Ae‡G€ Wg„!„Pd4¤I©¤¡0674¤#$ 4¢©ƒb ) 4¡RPd¡¤@40% 3.3 Route Flap for BGP (U2D)ˆ…¦f@9367‘!%@674¦fU‡‚67¦@!4u3#3%c@93cPx5¡0£2U‡40XY@9s¡0@B6E‘#3!'f@4 ¡0¦s¡ ) t(l%I@9$ICD%9$¡'©(674040PW”‡•B’€s“4¤@67%I@9s¡¢@y@93I67B¡dPd#3¦s3¡ F £2¦u@5¡ ) (6Afg%¦$eCDb@VU‡%¦d@9$—¡01$1(4ƒ¡¤59‚U‡e(%!67CD—9$‡Px4¤ £24u( ) 67¦$8‘”e•B’i¡¤¦$S@9s¡¢@u#$!'IPd4¤W‰‘(’Q“ ¢¤£2%!¡¤8¤%w8%¦35¡0@% CtT”e•B’’¡¢B@!5¡¤¦3!£267@!@%T4¢©ƒex—z‡’k@9$¡0@e8#$¡05¡0¦u@%e ) 6™¡0C ) ( ) 67©ƒ!twx‡93Pd40§36E¦¥4053Q@4c¡0%%#(5¡0@ ) t¥£24u3 ) @9$—1s¡0bX@ @!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦Y¡0¦s2@9$‘u4131$67¦$8S134%!—UW‘9s¡'©ƒe@4c@5¡¤XB67¦u@4 ¡0%%4¤#$¦@e6E¦@5¡0@674¦3yCD@…U‡%¦w”e•B’’¡0¦sTx—z‡’€ ( ˆV¦h'¡ ) 6A@Vt§Q@9$w¡¤0y`¡¤%%¦3ti%`@5¡¤C ) 6E!93£2%¦@¥¡ ) !4†67¦u©ƒ4 ) ©% ) 67¦$X `@5¡¢@‚3¡0@5¡¤C$¡¤!c`t3¦3b9(4¦36El%¡0@674¦|CD@…U‡%%¦Y@93I4¤#3@%§¨C3#3@y6E¦ 4¤#3en(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) !b@#$1T@93‘¡¢y!¡0%%¦$btR8¤@—%`@5¡¤C ) 67!93'TPx4¤£ • v †¤r 21D467¦@¥4¤P‘©u67U ¡¤2!44¤¦’6A@¥s3`@¥9$ )7) 4†1$¡¤5Xƒ@‚'¡0b93% • v ‘ ”e•B’Y1D%p1D674u367'¡ )E) tIn(59s¡0¦$8uXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒQ¡¤¦$4#3@u#$1g3¡0@ £2%!¡08%%uˆV¦24¤#3Qn(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) !@#$124#(@—#$1g$¡¢@y£2!¡¤8 ¡0¥67¦3P™'„#$%¦@'Tx‡9$bPd40§w67¦r@9$‚%`@S40Pe@9$¥367!%#3!!674¦†U‡ Pd4#$wn( ) #3!6E© ) tq4¦ Xƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒf£2%!¡¤8¤%%Žx‡93r1$#(1D4!f4¤P @9$aXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ%d6Ec@4f'¡¢‚£ @93 ) 67©ƒ ) 67¦$!24¤Pe@9$a1D%¥¡0¦s @4a3@b£26E¦3B@9$I41Db5¡0@674¦$¡ ) `@5¡0@#340Pu@93I#$¦s( ) t(6E¦382%4£ F £d#3¦$67'¡¢@6E4¤¦r1$¡0@9p‚”Q¡0b9r4¦$d4¤P‡@932”e•B’h1DI¡¤!!4%6E¡¢@%‚¡ @67£2'§—Xu¦$4'U—¦ ¡¤i–)(‘%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ%x‡6E£2b—k¡0¦sq(%¦$40@'oCt 1032Q§ U—6A@9Y%©ƒ!tw¡¤@67©ƒI!%!!674¤¦pyx‡9$In(1$6A5¡¢@6E4¤¦Y4¤Pw@9$ 032 @67£2 @!6788¤T@93R@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦q4¤PS¡r¦3U Xƒ%%1$¡ ) 67©ƒY£2%!¡¤8¤hˆV¦ @9$T¡¤C3!%¦$T40Py4¤#3@a#$1g$¡¢@¥£2%!¡¤8¤%%§Q@9367c@67£2Ss$%c%© F !t 4032h!%%4¤¦s(% H b@¥#$¥¡¤!!#3£2R¦34¢Ut@9$¡0@24¤#3@¥• v †T67 1D%67¦38IU—6A@9‚4¤#3@W• v ‘u§¡0¦s‚%4¤¦$!6E3bW@9$—£2%!¡08%ugs4'U—67¦$8 Px4¤£˜• v †I@4R• v ‘ ¢e4¤#3@B• v †c@!5¡0¦$!£26A@B¡aXƒ%%1$¡ ) 67©ƒd£2% F ¡¤8¤T©ƒ!t 4052’!%4¦s(% v 4#3@bc• v ‘T3s$¦$%S¡RU—67¦s(4¢Uq4¤P 3#(5¡0@674¦ 2 §QX(¦34'U—¦k¡0†–V•y4 ) $x‡67£2%—(§e(#367¦$8YU—9$6759k6A@dn F 1D%@I@4w%%6E©T¡¢@ ) '¡0`@d4¤¦$¥Xƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ¥£2%!¡082Px4¤£ • v †¤ x‡9$y%4¤!!1D4¦s(67¦$8c@67£2W67‡Xu¦$4'U—¦R¡0‚–V•y4 ) $x‡67£2—d¡¤¦$2U—6 )7) CDY(%¦$40@'o¡0 2uqˆ…¦i@93R4#(@6E¦38r1 ) ¡¢@!Pd40£}#3!'h6E¦o4#3 n(1D67£2%¦@ 052 ¡0¦s 2 U‡a!@S@4i5|¡¤¦so† ¡ 5Y!%%4¤¦s( %!1D%b@6E© ) tc“y4¤@67%S@9s¡0@@9$dX%%1s¡ ) 6E©d£2%!¡08%I¡¢d@!5¡¤¦3 F £26A@!@'d4¢©ƒQx—z‡’–ux‡93Pd40§u4¤5('2( ) 6E©!t‚67u8#s¡¢5¡¤¦@%'g x‡9s¡¢@a6E%§e¡iXƒ%%1$¡ ) 67©ƒY£2%!¡¤8¤Y@9s¡0@a¡¢!67©ƒ%a¡0@a• v ‘fU—6 )7) CD 13!%¦@'w@4T”‡•B’ 6APW¡¤¦$|4¤¦ ) t|6AP‡¡ )7) £2%!¡¤8¤%B!%¦@BCDbPd4¤c6A@ 9s¡'©ƒy¡ ) '¡¤(t2CD%¦¥!#$%%!`Pd# )7) ta3 ) 67©ƒb'‚@4d”e•B’–(x‡93Pd40§ Pd40‡@9$e¡¤0y!¡0%%¦3t2@4ICDeP™%!9$%¨§u• v ‘B£d#3`@u%%67©ƒy¡0@ ) '¡0`@ 4¦3dXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒc£2%!¡¤8¤cU—6A@9$67¦ 2 !%%4¤¦s(BPx4£ @9$d¡0!67©¡ ) 4¤PW@9$d1(%©u674#$‘£2!¡¤8¤¥x‡9$‚1(41D!@…t|4¤Pe4053%r3 ) 67©ƒb!t 67B67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦u@yCD%'¡0#$!S6A@‘¡ )7) 4'U—‘#$e@4¥Px4%#$‘4¤¦Y4¦3dXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ £2%!¡08‘¡¢@e¡S@67£2yU—93%¦R£24u( ) 6E¦38S@93gD¡01a@67£2ux‡9367e6EeCD F '¡0#$!‡6APDx—z‡’YP¡06 ) €@4y3 ) 67©ƒ€¡y867©ƒ¦cXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒuU—6A@9$67¦# 2u§0U‡ ¡0c8#$¡05¡¤¦@%%Y@9$¡0@¦$4¥4¤@93BXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒS£2%!¡08%B8¤%¦$b5¡0@' ¡0@€@93‡!4#(%—”e•B’|1D%€U—6 )7) 8¤@€@4y@93e3%`@67¦$¡0@674¦2”‡•B’f1D%b %6A@9$b' x—z‡’|#$!%œb@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦3–@4¡0b9367%©ƒQ ) 6E¡0C ) e1s¡0bXƒb@€3 ) 67©ƒb!t x‡9$—@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦¥67¦u@b©¡ ) §uXu¦34¢U—¦¥¡0 v x—‰c§ƒ67W¡‘Px#$¦3@674¦¥4¤P @9$e%#(!%¦@ v xexk`@6E£¥¡¢@¡0¦s‚@9$ v xexk`@5¡0¦s$¡¢5¥3%©u6E¡0@674¦¨ “$#(!@9$£240§g¡¥Cs¡¤5Xƒ40fiPd¡¤@40I4¤Pu@VU‡4a67B¡01$1 ) 67'Y@4 v x—‰‹Pd40 %©ƒb!tc#3¦$!#3%%%!`Px# ) @!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦2¡0@!@%£21(@€4¤PD¡867©ƒ%¦c1s¡0bXƒb@' x‡9$c4¢©ƒ5¡ )7) (t(¦$¡¤£267%40PQ@93d`t(`@%£ ¡02„#367@S%4¤£21 ) ngIxœ4 !67£21 ) 6APxta@9$‘¡0¦s¡ ) t(!67—U‡‘£¥¡¤Xy@9$BPx4 )7) 4'U—6E¦38a¡¤!!#$£21(@674¦$£¢ †ex‡9$c!6™(#s¡ ) @67£2S6E¦f@9$#$ 2 @67£267¦i4#(@‘• v ‘267 '„#s¡ ) @4 2 ¡0@€@9$u@67£2Q@9$Qs$`@–@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦2¡¢@!@%£213@ 4¤P–@93‘¦$nu@eXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒ‘£2!¡¤8I¡¢@e• v †B67y£¥¡¤3 ‘uex‡9$I67¦$6A@6E¡ ) v xexqPd4¤¡2x—z‡’’!%!!674¦|67e'„#s¡ ) @4‚@9$S¡¤ F @#s¡ ) „#$%#3%67¦$8Y( ) ¡'tr1 ) #$ ) 67¦$Xr1(41$¡¤8ƒ¡¢@674¦i3 ) ¡%t§w¡0¦s @9$B`@5¡0¦s$¡¢5w3©(6E¡¢@6E4¤¦w4¤Pœ@9$B£2'¡0!#3' v xex 67—l%4(
  • 7. ‰©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤ 6 41(˜Px4¤£d˜u“34¤¦u@ 6 4¤1(˜x–¡¤6 ) “s¡0@4¤ v xex H ‰Bx‡67£2 ”€n(1D%@'Tx‡6E£2 ”wn(1D%@%Rx‡67£2 € R‚„ €!%4¦s(5„   €!%%4¦$35„ €!%4¦s(5„ €!%%4¦$35„ › 5 ‘u ƒ  u ¤ ††¤†† ¡ ƒ ››55( 55 †755 ‘u 5  ›0š( 5 †£5ƒ¤u 5 ™¤š ¡ 55 ‘55 †  ¡ ƒ‘ 5 šƒ¤( š™ ™5u šš š855 5( ¡ 5 ™ †%š( š 5¤š3 ™› ‘¤5u ‘› ¡ ¤£¢ ) © D ¤ CD' © ¨Q ©H4 ¦)¤g' A¡FEd© ¨   §!! $ P ¡ @¨©#¦§¤g)8¥¨©52 ¢¡ ¡ ¡¤£   ¤g734¦¥ ! ¡ ¡FEd© ¤g§©2 ¤Ed© § ¤) ) A@ © ¦¦©§S)¤ ¤4 ¤ ¨S§%2 § f§%g'¨§ ¡ ¤¡ ) £ ¤7346A@¨©05¤g§©© 2© ¨Q¦734¨2 £ ¤7¨4©2© ¨Q¦7¨432 §©52' © ¨Q¡ ¦¦©5) 0P 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 ExpectedFlapTime(seconds) RTT (seconds) 50% overload 100% overload 200% overload 400% overload   ¡ £¥¨§©© ¤¢C '(© ¨Q©54 ¦ ¤H' A¡FEG© ¨   g§ ! $ ¦¦©§S2A¥¨2 ¡ ¡ ¡ § ¦ ¤g§%¡ ¥32 §¦¦©§%) ¤g4 ¤ ¨Qg§S2Q ( 2 !V2© ¨Q¦7¨432QP x‡93w¡0CD40©w¡¤!!#3£213@674¦3d%!# ) @‚6E¦i4¢©ƒ%`@67£¥¡¢@6E¦38f@93T¦u#3£ F CDb‡4¤Pg@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦a¡0@!@£213@uCut‚x—z‡’†CDPd40B¡0¦¥¡0y`¡¤%¦$t 67I(% ) ¡0'f34'U—¦i… ‘50‡ˆcx‡9$bPd40§œ6A@‘67‘¡0¦@6E6E1$¡0@'Y@9s¡¢@‘4#( £24u( ) U—6 )7) ) 678¤9u@ ) t|4¢©ƒ`@6E£¥¡¢@c@93Sgs¡¤1Y@67£2‘x‡93dn(1D6 F £2¦u@5¡ ) %!# ) @—13%!¦u@%R67¦Y(@674¦wš( ‚4¦3s3£q@9$67% x‡93B`@5¡0@y@!5¡¤¦$!6A@674¦R36E¡¤805¡¤£t#3!'¥@4S%4¤£21$#3@—@9$yn(1D%@' gs¡¤1S@6E£2€ƒ‘‘ 6 „¨Pd40‡”e•B’f67u!934'U—¦d67¦‚“–678#(—(w”u¡¤59‚`@5¡¢@e6E¦ @93B(6™¡08¤5¡0£q%13!%¦@‡@9$y@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦a4¤P–¡cXƒ%1s¡ ) 67©ƒy£2% F ¡08Iˆ…¦|'¡¤!‚40P‡¡¥!#$%%!`Pd# ) @!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦¨§g@9$S`@5¡0@c@!5¡0¦$!6 F @674¤¦2%4`@W6Eu'„#s¡ ) @4 v xex§U—9367b9267w@9$e@67£2e¦$%'('cPx4¤ex—z‡’ @4v%%67©ƒiC$¡¤5X’¡0¦ ¡¤5X(¦34'U ) %38£2¦u@'jˆ…¦q'¡¤!f4¤Pd¡†1s¡0bX@ ) 4¤!%§p@93S@!5¡0¦$!6A@674¦f%4`@‘804'U—I¡¤B67¦s(67'¡0@'Y67¦Y@9$c36E¡¤805¡¤£w§ ¡0c@93¥b@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦h67¦@©¤¡ ) 67¦3'¡¤!‚3#32@4w@9$¥Cs¡0bXƒ40f Pd¡¤@40¥@9s¡0@¥67a¡¤131 ) 67'i@4f@9$T%#3!%¦@ v x—‰ ©¤¡ ) #$¤opq6A@9k¡ š( ‚”e 6 ˜ ) 67Xƒ‘x—z‡’h6E£21 ) %£2%¦@5¡0@674¦¥67¦R4¤#3‡4¤#3@%§u@93 v x—‰ ©¤¡ ) #3e%¡¤¦$¦34¤@un(%%%‚¤šI!%%4¤¦s(y… ‘‘'‡ˆu~ ) !43§6A@Q67Q67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦@u@4 4¤C$!©‚@9s¡0@‘@93‚¦u#$£cCDB40Pe`@5¡0@%S67¦i@93236E¡¤805¡¤£ (%1D%¦s( 4¤¦a@93y¦u#3£dCDQ4¤Pp@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦$W@9$¡0@e'¡0¦TCDy¡0@!@£213@'2Ct x—z‡’h¡¤¦$f67‘%4¤¦$!'„#$¦u@ ) t|(%1D%¦$3%¦@B4¤¦i@93‚¡¤b@#s¡ ) v xex40P @93W%40!%!1D4¦$367¦$8y1D%67¦$8y!%!!674¦¨wx‡9$‡¦u#3£dCDp4¤P$`@5¡0@%# 267 @93‘£¥¡0n(67£d#3£ 67¦@%8be@9$¡0@—¡¢@6E`s$%—@9$BPd4 )7) 4'U—67¦$8¥%4¤¦s(67@674¤¦4¢ ( 2%$ X (' # 0 )021 4 043025 (76 €G‘¤„ x‡93%!6E3#$¡ ) @67£2§(3¦$4¤@%T¡0 H ‰Bx‡67£2d€ ) P™@—40©e@67£2¢„b§u'¡¤¦ CD‘4£21$#(@'a¡¤£¢ H ‰Bx‡6E£2¢X ( 2 c ' # 0 )021 4 083025 ( 6 €ˆ„ x‡93Wn(1D%b@'BgD¡¤1I@67£2y€ƒB‘ 6 „sPd40u”e•B’Y'¡¤¦I@9$¦SCDQ4C(@5¡¤67¦$' CtS!4 ) ©u67¦$8B@93—‚w¡0Xƒ4¢©Sb9$¡¤67¦c@9$¡0@u%40!%!1D4¦$3€@4@9$ v xexv40P 67¦@%`@'€~yw¡¤¦cn3¡¤£21 ) ¤§”u„s(€š„œ!9$4'U—€@9$Wn(1D%@'I©¡ ) #$‡40P ”e•B’†gD¡012@6E£2e¡0e¡IPx#$¦3@674¦¥4¤PHWaPx4¤ v xexk©¡ ) #3y40Pw†!%4¦sg @ … AB‘CBd‡G€ Wg„ X † W@9 …A† 7BW#7i‘!W 0 7hš W 2 7 ¡ W 3 7 †'!W(A%7hƒ‘ WCB%7h0š W(D 7i›‘!W 9 ‡ €š„ x–¡0C ) BI!9$4'U—‡@9$en(1D%@%2gs¡¤12@67£2ePx4¤—”‡•B’i¡0—¡BPd#$¦3@674¦ 4¤Pu@9$‘@!5¡¢2c4¢©ƒb ) 4¡YPd40BCD4¤@9 6 4¤1 F Px4¤£ F “34¦@y¡¤¦$ 6 41 F x–¡06 ) 1D4 ) 67%67%%QˆV¦T@9367e1$¡0!@67%# ) ¡¢e!%%¦s¡¢6743§$@93BC$#(fg—!67l%‘Ue¡0 !@‡@4Sšd‚w”Qtu@%e¡¤¦$‚@9$ ) 67¦$Xd!1D%'2@4a†£5d‚RC367@¥¤¢!%Wx‡9$ F Pd40§$@93‘„#$%#3%67¦$8d3 ) ¡%t¥U—67@9 6 41 F xœ¡¤6 ) 1D4 ) 67tR67—š‚!%4¦s(% x‡9$a„#$#$%67¦$8w3 ) ¡%trU—6A@9 6 4¤1 F Px4¤£ F “34¦@S31D%¦s(S4¤¦†@9$ 4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤†P¡¤b@4¤¥¡0¦sr67d%„u#$¡ ) @4YšFEc€`† c Wg„b§€U—93Wh6ES@9$ 1s¡0bX@Bu41Y1(4Cs¡0C$6 ) 6A@Vt—ˆV¦T@9$67!1D%67s$I'¡¤!I@9$ ) 67¦$XR1(41 F ¡¤8¡0@674¦k3 ) ¡%tr6Ec¦$%8 ) 6E8¤67C ) w¡0¦s†67d678¦34¤'gfˆ…@c6ES67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦u@ @4‚4¤C$!©ƒ‘67¦Yxœ¡¤C ) Id@9$¡0@e”e•B’oCD%4£2%—!678¦36Ass'¡0¦u@ ) tT£24¤ 4C3#$`@—U—9$¦T@9$ 6 41 F P™4£ F “34¤¦u@‡1D4 ) 67tw67—67¦Rfg%b@' “–678#(eš‘6 )7) #$`@!5¡¢@%Q@93efg%@Q4¤P v xexh4¦¥”e•B’er QgD¡01d@67£2‡Pd40 ¡c¦u#3£dCDW4¤P€(6Afg%¦@—4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤aP¡0@4¤%W~yW'¡¤¦TCDB!%%¦aPx4£ @9$67s$8#(§¨6E¦3'¡0!6E¦38 v xex‡ ) '¡|@4T!£¥¡ )7) b‘gD¡¤1Y@67£2%%c~y n(1 ) ¡06E¦3'i%¡0 ) 67'§€@9$67‘CD%9$¡¢©u674¤I67In(1D%@%i!67¦$%‚@93‚¦u#$£ F CD4¤PWx—z‡’qb@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦f¡¢@!@%£213@—U—6A@9$67¦r¡ 2†U—67¦s(4'U 3'¡¤!¡0—@93 v xex’6E¦3'¡0!%% 3.4 Adjacency Recovery for BGP (D2U)ˆV¦f@9$67I!%@674¦iU‡¥3©ƒ ) 41v¡T£24u3 ) @4w'¡013@#(d@9$¥ut3¦$¡¤£ F 67%S4¤P‡@93¥”e•B’{¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bti%40©!tr1(4%%!%w‚R4u3 ) 67¦$8w@9367 134%!c'„#367S£24u( ) 67¦$8R@…U‡4Y%4¤£21D4¦$¦u@£¢I@93¥x—z‡’{%4¦ F ¦$@674¦†%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$£2%¦@S¡0¦si@932”e•B’!%!!674¤¦v%`@5¡¤C ) 67!93£2%¦@' “40@67%‚@9s¡¢@S@932%`@5¡¤C ) 6E!93£2%¦@I4¤Pe@93¥x—z‡’%4¦3¦$%b@6E4¤¦†13 F %'(%e@9s¡¢@—4¤P€@9$B”e•B’o!%!!674¦¨ ”e•B’ !%!!674¦†%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$£2%¦@I67‘C$6E(67@674¦s¡ ) 67¦i¦s¡0@#(2ˆG@‘67 1D4!!67C ) ‘@9$¡0@eCD4¤@9Y”‡•B’o1D%—67¦$6A@6E¡0@S¡¤¦$T%`@5¡0C ) 67!9|¡2”e•B’ !%!!674¦†U—6A@9i'¡¤59†4¤@93I!67£d# ) @5¡0¦$%4¤#$ ) t¥”e•B’h6E£21 ) %£2%¦@5¡ F @674¦3d¡¢2'„#$671$1D'|U—6A@9†%4¦3¦$%b@6E4¤¦v%4 )7) 67!674¦i3@@674¦v¡0¦s %!4 ) #(@674¦d£2b9$¡¤¦$67!£2Q…7† ¡ ‡ˆwˆV¦I#3¦$%4¤¦$8`@'c¦3@VUW4¤Xu–6A@w34 ¦$40@u£¥¡0@!@w67¦dU—934!eP¡'©ƒ40Q@93‡%4 )7) 67!674¦¥67u%!4 ) ©ƒ'¨–•4'U‡%©'§ 67¦w4#(!b@#$1T@93B@!5¡02‘@9$¡0@e'¡¤#3!%e%4¦38%`@674¦Yg$4¢U—e4¦ ) tR67¦ 4¦3|36A%@674¤¦p‹x‡93Px4¤§e@9$Y%4¤`@a4¤PI%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$67¦$8i¡†x—z‡’ %4¤¦$¦$@674¦R67¦a@9$B%4¤¦$8¤%`@'w(67@674¦R67—9$678¤9$e@9$¡¤¦T@9$¡0@—67¦ @9$41$1D4¤!6A@c(6A%@674¦¨ x—z‡’k#3!%—¡c@9(% F Ue¡%t¥9s¡0¦s(!9s¡¤X@4d%`@5¡0C ) 67!9Y¡c4¦$¦3%@674¦¨ “–6A`@'§@9$— ) 67%¦@ F %¦s‚40P¨@93—%4¦3¦$%@674¤¦a!¦s3Q¡SHG“’!%8£2¦u@ @4‘@9$e!©ƒQ'„#$%`@67¦38S@9$¡0@e¡‘%4¤¦$¦3%@674¦aCDy4¤1D%¦$%¨€“ynu@'§ @9$—!©Q!1D4¦s(uU—6A@9¥¡IIGB“B~ez5(q!%8¤£2%¦@Q@9$¡0@Q¡¤5Xu¦$4'U )AF '(8%u@9$yHG“o!%8¤£2%¦@Q%%67©ƒ'dPx4¤£ @93— ) 6E¦u@W¡¤¦$d'„#$%`@ Px4¤£ @9$Y ) 67%¦@¥@4v%`@5¡¤C ) 67!9’@93Y4¤@9$bT9$¡ ) PI4¤P‘@93Y%4¦3¦$% F
  • 8. ‰©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤ 6 41(˜Px4¤£d˜u“34¤¦u@ 6 41(˜x–¡¤6 ) “s¡¤b@4¤ v xex ˆV¦$6A@6E¡ ) v x—‰ “#3£dCD H ‰Bx‡67£2 ”€n(1D%@'Tx‡67£2 ”wn(1D%b@'Rx‡67£2 € R‚„ €!%%4¤¦s(5„ €!%%4¦$35„ 4¤P¡  0 S€4 p„ ¢D† ¢$‘ €!%%4¤¦s35„ €!%4¦$35„ €!%%4¤¦s35„ ›5 ‘ ƒ ¡ 5u† š †  ›¤™u ™™ †'‘¤u ¡ › †75u šƒ™ †755 ‘u 5 ( 55 › †  ‘¤u 55 †'u†¤ ™ ¡ † ¡ ™(7†'™ ‘55 †¤  ( ™¤™ › ‘ š ›¤u 55 ›u†¤E†£5 š›¤‘u š‘ š855 5u ¡ 5 ‘u š5  ‘ š š3†¤ 5  ¡¡ ¡¡ †%šƒ›‘u 5¤ ¡ ¤£¢ ) © ©¨ ¤¢C '(© ¨Q©54£¤4¤£ ¤ ¨S©H7¨Q0 §© ¨Q§¦¦©§0 ¡FEd©¨   § ! $ ¨Q737¨© ¨QA¡ 7 @ ©H75¨Q7¨£©52A¡ ¦76¡82 §IE A@¨© ¨T)8¡ ©57I# @¨© 2©§D¦¦©§ A@ © ¡¦¥ $ ¨Q¦737¨© ¨Q¡ ¦7 ¨ A@ © ¦§¤g)8¥¨©52 ¡ ¡ ¡ £ ¡873¡ ¡ ¤) ¡ ¡ ! £ 7D¥ E ¢(©§   0 2¨   ¤734 ¥ ! ¡ ¡FEG©¤g§©G2 ¤¦Ed© §#¤) ) §¦¦©§%) ¤g4 ¤ ¨Qg§S2 § §'¨§ ¡ ¤¡8) ¤g7346A@ ©50 ¤g§©©2© ¨Q73432 £  d2©§¨S¦73432 £ © ¤734   2© ¨Q¦734¨2V§%©52'(© ¨QA¡ ¦¦©5) 0 P OK cSYN sSYN OK OPEN BGP sST1 sST2 Ra1 Ra2 RnInit cST2cST1 R1 1 Start 1-p 1-p c=RTT c=RTT 1-p c=RTT 1-p 1 p p 1-p c=A2 p c=6 c=HoldTime-30 p p c=LOTime S End BGPStartTime c=RTT 1-p c=RTT 1-p 1-p c=RTT p c=6 c=24 p c=45+ConnectRetryTime p c=24 c=A1 1-p c=min(3*RTT, 64)c=0 c=RTT 1-p c=RTT 1-p   ¡ £¥¨§© D£¢¥¤g§%$§¦©¨S@¤¡87 EdD4¨©5) §¤¡ ¨Q0¨Q) © ! $ @¨©57¨Q7¨£©52A¡ ¦7 ¡82 §IE A@¨© ¨T) ¡ ©57D V@¨© 2©§7¦¦©§ A@ © ¡§¥ $ ¨S¦737¨© ¨QA¡¤¦7 P @674¤¦pq“–67¦$¡ )7) t§W@9$T ) 67%¦@2%!1D4¦$3‚U—6A@9’¡0¦o~ez5(˜!%8¤£2%¦@ @9$¡0@—¡0bXu¦34¢U ) '(8%‡@93‘IGB“B~ez5( !%8£2¦u@Q%%%67©ƒ%¥P™4£q@93 !b©ƒ'eˆ…P€@93S4¦$8¤%`@674¦f6767¦w@9$I ) 67%¦@ F @4 F !©ƒ36A%b@6E4¤¦p§ 4¤#3uPx5¡0£2U‡40Xc£c#$`@w£24u3 ) @93‡134%!W4¤Pg!#3%%%!`Px# )7) td@!5¡0¦$ F £26A@!@67¦$8y@VU‡4‘!8£2%¦@w4¢©ƒw@9$e%4¤¦$8¤%`@'267¦u@b!P¡¤¢–@9$eIGB“ ¡0¦sv@9$T~ez5( €d@4Y@9$YIGB“~yz5( !%8¤£2%¦@b„S!67¦$%a@9$%!a@VUW4 !8£2%¦@Q¡0e@!5¡¤¦3!£267@!@%c67¦‚@9$e%4¤¦$8¤%`@'236A%b@6E4¤¦pQ‰y@93 F U—67!§g4¤¦ ) ta@9$‘!#$%%!`Pd# ) @!5¡¤¦3!£267!!6E4¤¦Y4¤P€@93SHGB“~ez5(‹!%8 F £2¦u@‡¦$%'(e@4‚CDB£24u3 ) %¨ prw9s¡'©ƒu3%© ) 41D'B£24u( ) ¨@4e'¡013@#(u@93w¡0y`¡¤%¦$tB%4¢©ƒ!t @67£2%uPd40eCD4¤@92'¡0!%£¢w@9$es$`@W'¡¤!e%13!%¦@‡¡ ) 4'UWeCD4#3¦s ¡0¦s†@9$¥!%4¦sh¡0¦v#$1$1DbdCD4¤#$¦s†4¤¦v@9$¥n(1D%@'r%4¢©ƒ!t @67£2 ‰¦3%Y@9$fx—z‡’%4¤¦$¦$@674¦ 67R%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$'g§y@93f4¤¦ ) t 1$¡05¡0£2@S@9s¡0@I%£¥¡067¦$‘@4YCD¥£24u3 ) 'r67I@9$‚@67£22¦$'3' Px4¤—@9$”e•B’j–V41D¦$—‚£2%!¡08@4cCD!#3%%%!`Px# )7) tw( ) 6E©'a@4 6A@—1D%' “–678¤#3S›S!934'U—‡@9$`@5¡¢@I36E¡¤805¡¤£q@9$¡0@—£24u( ) W@9$‘”‡•B’k¡¤ F y`¡¤%¦$th%%4¢©ƒb!tv@6E£2aU—9$%¦k%4¦38%`@674¤¦’6726E¦h@9$R36A%@674¤¦ P™4£˜@932x—z‡’h ) 67%¦@‘@4T@93‚!©ƒb'¥(67£26 ) ¡0 ) t§¨@9$‚`@5¡¢@236 F ¡08¤5¡0£ !934'U—¦Y6E¦w“–6E8¤#3I‚£24u( ) —@93B'¡0!IU—93I%4¦38%`@674¤¦ 67e67¦T@9$41$1D4¤!6A@c(6A%@674¦¨ ˆ…¦i“–6E8¤#3|›§W`@5¡¢@%2ˆV¦36A@'§W¢(x†§Q¢3x—‘f¡¤¦$h'HGB“B‰ ( £24u( ) @93Y@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦q40P‘@9$iHG“ !%8¤£2%¦@%‹ˆV¦’“–6E8¤#3f(§—@93 ¡0£2w`@5¡0@a£24u( ) @9$T@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦k4¤PB@93YIGB“B~ez5( !%8 F £2¦u@'o“40@6Ew@9s¡0@ax—z‡’ ¡0@!@%£21(@d@4’€d¢„…@!5¡0¦$!£26A@¥¡vIGB“ 402¡fHG“B~ez5(Ž!%8£2¦u@d¡0@d£24`@S@93%2@67£2%£¢¥¡¢@ X 5(§Q(§ ¡0¦sa5S!%%4¦$3B… ‘¤‘¢‡ˆWˆGP–¡ )7) @9(%y@!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦3‡P¡¤6 ) §(@9$Bx—z‡’ 4¦$¦3%@674¦f%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$£2%¦@y6EB¡¤CD4¤!@%f¡0¦sw@9$S`@5¡0@c£¥¡¤59$67¦$ ©ƒ%¦@#s¡ )E) t¥@#(¦$e@4c@93‘ˆV¦$6A@—`@5¡¢@ 1-p OK cSYN c=LOTime S cST2 Rn OPEN BGP End 1-p 1-p c=RTT c=RTT c=RTT 1-p c=min(3*RTT, 64) p c=RTT c=RTT 1-p p p c=45+ConnectRetryTime 1 p 1 Start Init R1 c=6 p cST1 c=24 1-p c=RTTBGPStartTime   ¡ £¦¥¨§© 5¢©¤H§S$ ¦ ¨%@¤g¡87 EdD4¨©5) § ¤¡   ¨Q0¨T) ©6 $ V@¨©57¨Q¦7¨£g©H2¡ ¦7 ¡82 §%¦E A@¨© 2©§D¦¦©§ V@¨© ¨Q)8¡ ©57D ¢A@¨© ¡§¥ $ ¨Q¦7¨7¨© ¨QA¡ ¦7 P ˆV¦h“–678#(h›u§‘`@5¡¢@%Y5HG“‘‰ (‚§—5(x†v¡¤¦$ 5(x—‘i£24u( ) @9$ %©ƒ¦u@a¡0!!4%6E¡0@'qU—6A@9o@9$|¡¢@!@%£213@'i@!5¡¤¦$!£267!!674¦q40P‘@9$ ~ez5( !8£2%¦@@9$¡0@y67!%¦@B67¦Y%!1D4¤¦$!I@4¥@93‘%%%6713@4¤Pu@9$ HG“B~ez5( !%8£2%¦@yPx4£ @9$S!©ƒ'‘x‡9$d©¤¡ ) #3%40PW1$¡05¡¤£2 F @e~S†¤§D~‘u§$¡¤¦s H ‰Bx‡67£2B!9$4'U—¦w67¦R@9367—s$8#(I¡0I867©ƒ%¦RCut ”u„Dp€G›„b§i€ˆƒ„b§s¡¤¦$i€G„b§(%!1D%b@6E© ) t ¨ † X © ($#( )021  w€ˆ E  ¦E‡‘ 0 e 0š„ 6 c  €G›„ ¨ ‘ X © 0 #( )021  w€ˆ E  Ee‘ 0 e ¤šƒ„ 6 c 5 €ˆƒ„ H ‰Bx‡67£2¢X 2 c ' #( )0 1  w€ˆ E  Ee‘ 0 e 0š„ 6 €G„ ˆV¦vCD40@9i“–6E8¤#3%2›|¡0¦svw@9$¥%£¥¡06E¦367¦$8|`@5¡0@%c'¡¤1(@#3¥@9$ %©ƒ¦u@‚¡¤!!4%6E¡0@%kU—6A@9k@9$a@!5¡¤¦3!£26E!!674¤¦k40PB@9$T”e•B’ 4¤1D%¦ £2%!¡08I~eyU‡¡¤@93c'¡0!cU—6A@9Y@9$c”e•B’’gD¡01|@67£2§D@93In F ¡¤b@—`@!#$@#(B4¤P–@93`@5¡¢@‘£¥¡¤59$67¦$%‡3%1D%¦$3‡4¤¦T@93B¦$@…U‡40X 3 ) ¡%t(% x–¡0C ) BšS13%!%¦@W@93ybn31D@'¥¡¢y!¡¤%¦$t¥%40©!t‚@67£2eU—6A@9 ”e•B’–§¢Pd40€@9$u£24u3 ) !934¢U—¦S67¦d“–678¤#3—›‡Pd40u¡e5¡¤¦38Q4¤Ps4¢©ƒb ) 4¡ P¡0@4¤–¡¤¦sPx4¤œCD4¤@9 6 4¤1 F Px4¤£ F “(4¦@p¡¤¦s 6 41 F x–¡06 ) 1D4 ) 67%67%% “40@67%B@9s¡¢@eU—67@9 6 41 F Px4£ F “34¤¦@W@9$ v xexq(%1D%¦$3e4¦a@9$ 4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤’P¡¤b@4¤' x–¡0C ) i›r13%!%¦@¥@9$f¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bto%%4¢©ƒb!t @67£2YU—9$%¦ %4¤¦$8`@6E4¤¦h67w67¦q@9$i36A%b@6E4¤¦qPx4£}@9$f!©ƒ @4R@932 ) 6E¦u@S%¦$r4¤PW@9$¥x—z‡’%4¤¦$¦3%@674¦¨w“–678#(a(€ˆ¡„S¡0¦s €CD„‘6 )7) #3`@!5¡0@¥@9$¥fg%b@‚4¤P v xexj4¦†@9$a¡¤0y!¡0%%¦3t†%%4¢©ƒb!t @67£2yPx4¤e”e•B’i6E¦¥@9$y'¡¤!B@9$¡0@e4¦$8¤%`@674¦T6E—67¦¥@9$B(6A%@674¦ Px4¤£ @9$‚ ) 67%¦@I@4R@9$2!b©ƒc¡¤¦$i67¦r@9$d41$1D4¤!6A@T(6A%@674¦
  • 9. ‰©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤ 6 41(˜Px4¤£d˜u“34¤¦u@ 6 4¤1(˜x–¡¤6 ) “s¡0@4¤ v xex ˆV¦367@6E¡ ) v x—‰ “#3£dCD H ‰Bx‡67£2 ”€n(1D%@'Tx‡6E£2 ”wn(1D%@%Rx‡67£2 € R‚„ €!%4¦s(5„ €!%%4¤¦s35„ 40P   0 I€4 œ„ €!%%4¦$35„ €!%%4¤¦s(5„ €!%%4¦$35„ › 5 ‘u ƒ ¡ 5u† š ›¤™u ™¤™ ¡ ( ›‘ ¡¡ ™u† †755 ‘u 5 u 55 › ‘¤u 55 †¤†%š3 5u† †¢‘ ¡ ¤ ‘55 †  u ™¤™ › ›¤u 55 ‘ 5(†7†'› ‘¤™u 5(† š855 5( ¡ 5 ‘ š5  š3†¤ 5 š(†'™( ¢š ›0šƒu ™ ¡ ¤£¢ ) © D ¤ CD'(©§¨S©54 ¤4¤£ ¤ ¨Q©57)¨S0 §© ¨Q§¦¦©§0 A¡FEd© ¨   §!! $ ¨Q¦737 ©§¨SA¡ ¦7 @¨©57£¨Q7¨£©52A¡ ¦7 ¡82 §IE A@¨©f2©§7¦¦©5§ @¨© ¨Q)8¡ ©57D A@ © ¡§¥ $ ¨Q¦7¨7¨© ¨QA¡ ¦7 ¨ @¨©¦ ¤) ¥¨©52V ¡ ¡ ¡¤£ ¡873¡¤A¡ ¤) ¡ ¡ ! £ 7 ¥3E ¢(©§Y   0 2¨   ¤g734 ¥ ! ¡ ¡FEd© ¤g§©d2 ¤¦Ed© § ¤g)8) A@ © §¦¦©§%) ¤g4£ ¤¨Q§%2 §# §' § ¡ ¤¡8) ¤7¨4 A@ ©50£¤H§© © 2© ¨Q73432 £  d2© ¨Q¦7¨432 £ © ¤7¨4  G2© ¨Q¦73432§©52' © ¨Q¡ ¦¦©5) 0 AP 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 ExpectedRecoveryTime(seconds) RTT (seconds) 50% overload 100% overload 200% overload 400% overload 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000 ExpectedRecoveryTime(seconds) RTT (seconds) 50% overload 100% overload 200% overload 400% overload €ˆ¡ƒ„—zW4¦38%`@674¤¦Y6E¦wx—z‡’k ) 67%¦@—@4‚!©ƒy(67@674¦ €Cs„ezW4¦38%`@674¦Y67¦Yx—z‡’k!©ƒe@4‚ ) 67%¦@y36A%b@6E4¤¦   ¡ £¥¨§© ¡ ¤¢C '(© ¨Q©54 §© ¨Q ¦¦©§%01¡FEd©¨   § ! $ ¦¦©§%2A¥32 ¡ ¡ ¡ § 43¡£¢ ©§%©57I ¦¦©§S)¤ ¤4 ¤ ¨Q§%2QP¥¤ ¦)84 ¡ ¡FEd© H! 2© ¨Q¦734¨2 £¥ ¦737¨© ¨Q ¡Y©§0 ¡ ¡8Ed©  !2©§¨S¦73432 ¤g734 ! $ ¤H§% ¡ ¡FEG© ! 2© ¨Q¦734¨2QP !1D%@67©ƒ ) t¥x‡93‚67¦u@b%`@'f%¡3bc67BPx!'i@4i… ‘50‡QPd40S¡ (@5¡¤6 ) '¥367!%#3!!674¦¥4¦‚@93e4¤1D5¡0@674¤¦T40Pœx—z‡’–§u”‡•B’v¡¤¦sd@93%6A 67¦@5¡0@674¦p§$¡¤eUW )7) ¡0—Px4¤y¡d(@5¡¤6 ) 'T3%!671(@6E4¤¦w4¤Pœ@9$`@5¡¢@ £¥¡0b9367¦$ 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSˆ…¦o@9$67a!%@674¦¨§yUW|13%!%¦@an(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) %!# ) @aCs¡0!'’4¦ 3¡0@5¡B¡0¦sS£2'¡¤!#(%£2%¦@–%4 )E) %b@'‚#$!67¦$8y@9$‡¦3@VUW4¤XI%4¦(ss8¤# F 5¡¢@674¦‚(%!67CD'S6E¦d(@674¦d‘u–prW1D!Px4¤£2'In(1D67£2%¦@pPx4¤ CD40@9Y‰‘(’Q“v¡0¦sa”e•B’–sx‡93Bn(1D67£2%¦@e¡0@!@£213@‡@4c6™(%¦@6APxt @93dfg@‘4¤PW1s¡¢5¡¤£2@y!#$59r¡0B1s¡0bX@‘!67l%§pC$#(fgB!67l%w€40 %„u#367©¡ ) ¦u@ ) tr„#$%#3%67¦$8Y( ) ¡'t$„I¡¤¦$r¦$@…U‡40Xi@41D4 ) 48¤tr4¦†@93 `@5¡0C$6 ) 6A@VtT4¤P–@934#(@6E¦38d1(4¤@4%4 ) QˆV¦¥@9$n(1D67£2%¦@WU‡‘#3! 0š3§‘›¤u§¡0¦s2†¢›55Ctu@W1s¡0bX@% 6 #3Q@4y!1s¡¤‡%4¦3`@!5¡¤67¦@%§¤UW 1(%!%¦@y9$S4¦ ) tT@9$‘%!# ) @ePd40@9$c‘¤›¤ F Ctu@I1s¡¤5Xƒ@%yx‡93 !# ) @‡Pd40e¤š F ¡0¦sY†¢› 55 F Ctu@1$¡¤5Xƒ@e¡¢B¦$40@‡Pd#3¦s$¡0£2%¦@5¡ )7) t (6Afg%¦@2Px4¤£ @9$4!Y4¤!%!1D4¤¦s367¦38r@4v‘¤›¤†Ctu@%w… ‘5¢‡G pr `@#$(tw@93dfg@‘4¤P‡„#$%#3%67¦$8a3 ) ¡%t|4¦r‰‘3’u“oCtY!@!@67¦38a@93 C3#3fg—!67l%‘@4‚67@93—š¥‚w”Qtu@%e4¤I†%2‚w”Qtu@%% “34¤Q'¡¤592n(1D67£2%¦@'§¤@93—¦(#3£dCD–4¤P¨¡¤£21 ) Q4¤C3@5¡¤67¦3'd©¤¡067% CDb@VU‡%¦v†75¥¡¤¦$r†'(yˆV¦Y4¤#31 ) 4¤@eU‡S!9$4'U@93S£2%¡¤¦|¡¤eU‡ )7) ¡0‘@9$‚™›QR ¡0¦sf™™u ›SR %4¦(sD(%¦$%c67¦u@b©¡ ) ‘40PW@93‚%4 )7) %@% ¡0£21 ) w1D4¤6E¦@‚Px4¤2@9$agD¡01k@67£2r€ƒB‘ 6 „d¡0¦sv@9$R¡0y`¡¤%¦$t %4¢©ƒ!tY@67£2¥€ 6 ‘0ƒB„b¨”Q¡0b9|4¤PQ@9$%!S@67£2S67B@93%¦Y%4£21$¡0' @4I@9$en(1D%@%¥©¤¡ ) #3%‡4C(@5¡¤67¦$%a#3!6E¦38S@93¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u( ) 8¤67©ƒ%¦f6E¦iu%@674¦f(‘~ ) !43§¨'¡0b9f!@B40PQ!# ) @B67B13!%¦@'Y6E¦ CD40@9 ) 67¦$%¡0¥¡0¦s ) 48ƒ¡¢6A@9$£267w!'¡ ) ¤ixœ4r¡'©ƒ4¤6Ei£2'¡0!#3%£2¦u@ b!4¤2¡¢@c@93aCD867¦$¦36E¦38|4¤Pe'¡¤59hn(1D67£2%¦@'§–@9$2s3`@d£2'¡ F !#(%£2%¦@B67‘¡ ) Ue¡%t(‘6E8¤¦$40'¨Ip†c!9$4¤# ) f¦34¤@c9$S@9s¡0@B3#3 @4 ) ¡08¤w©¡¢6E¡0@674¦326E¦h!4¤£2R!@‚40P£2%¡¤!#3£2%¦@%§u@93 ) 4'U ¦s24¤P¨@9$y™™u ›SR %4¤¦3sD(%¦$y67¦@©¤¡ ) ‡£¥¡%t‚CD%4£2e¦$%8¡0@67©ƒ ˆ…¦R4¤#3e1 ) 4¤@%§3¦$8ƒ¡0@67©ƒ‘©¤¡ ) #3%e¡0I¡ ) U‡¡'t(e ) ¡¤£21D'¥@4R† 5u 4.1 OSPF experiments: the 2–node casex‡9$¥C3#3fgS!67l%¥Pd4¤S@9$T‘%˜¦$4u(T‰‘3’u“ n(1D67£2%¦@‘Ue¡0c!b@ @42šT‚w”Qtu@%%ex‡9$IgD¡01w@67£22€ƒ‘‘ 6 „—¡0¦sY¡¤0y!¡0%%¦3tw%%4¢©ƒb!t @67£2I€ 6 ‘0ƒB„€Px4¤—‘¤›¤ICt(@—1$¡¤5Xƒ@Q¡0e!9$4'U—¦¥6E¦¥“–678¤#3% ¡ ¡0¦s ™(§(%!1D%b@6E© ) tux‡9$B%!# ) @e1(%!%¦@'a6E¦a@9$%!1 ) 4¤@e3£24¦ F `@!5¡0@c@9s¡0@‘@93d67S¡T ) 4¤!2£¥¡0@59|CD@VUW%%¦i@93‚¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ )7) t 3b6E©'a©¤¡ ) #3%—6E¦w(%b@6E4¤¦$—uE†‘¡¤¦sT( ‘d¡0¦sa@93n(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) 4¦3%%ux‡9$67Q©¡ ) 6E3¡0@%W@93—£24u3 ) W#3!'dPd40e4C(@5¡¤67¦$67¦38Sbn31D@' ©¤¡ ) #$%IPd40‚@9$2gs¡¤1v¡0¦sv¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bt†%%4¢©ƒ!ti@67£2%%i‰‘3’u“Wr CD%9$¡¢©u674¤2U—6A@9k¤šv¡0¦sq†¢› 55rCtu@T1$¡¤5Xƒ@w… ‘ 50‡y6E2!67£26 ) ¡02@4 @9s¡¢@—4C3!©ƒ'TU—6A@9|‘¤›¤‚Ctu@1$¡¤5Xƒ@% 4.2 OSPF experiments: the 3–node caseˆV¦i4#(d'˜¦34u32n(1D67£2%¦@U—6A@9h‰‘(’Q“W§¨U‡267¦u©ƒ%`@678ƒ¡¢@‚@9$ fg%b@24¤PC$#3fgb‚!67l%§‡¡¤¦sv%4¤¦$!'„#3%¦@ ) tr@9$T„u#3%#$6E¦38r( ) ¡%t§ 4¦f6A@B`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@…t|1341Db!@6E%‘ˆV¦|1s¡¢!@67%# ) ¡0'§¨U‡c1D!Pd40£2'w@9$ n(1D67£2%¦@—U—67@9fC$#(fgy!6El%B4¤PQšR‚w”Qtu@%‘¡¤¦$††'T‚w”Qtu@%% ˆV¦Y@93%!cbn31Db6E£2¦u@—@9$c$¡¢@5¡21s¡¤5Xƒ@!67l%cU‡¡¤‘¡ ) U‡¡%t3Bs3n(' ¡0@‘¤›¤‚Ctu@%% x‡9$|£¥¡06E¦’36Afg%¦3%|CD@VUW%%¦’@9$|'˜¦34u3i¡¤¦si@9$i‘'˜ƒ¦$4u3 '¡0!B67‡@9s¡0@'§u67¦¥@9$ePd4¤£2be'¡¤!¤§(@!5¡¢2B67‡139ut(!67'¡ )E) ta(6E©!@' Px4¤£t@9$‘1367£¥¡¢!ta@4c@9$‘!%%4¤¦s3¡0!t ) 67¦3XaU—93%¦Y¡dgD¡01w4%%#(% “40@67%W@9s¡¢@€@9$Wgs¡¤1I@67£2B€ƒ‘‘ 6 „p67w3@b£26E¦3'I£¥¡¤67¦ ) tICt‘@9$ 4#(@67¦$8Y£2%!¡08a(4¤1v134%%!%Yx‡9$¥C$#(fgS!6ElT%4¤¦@!6EC3#3@% 4¦ ) ta¡‘s3n('2%4£21D4¤¦$%¦@u@4S@93yƒB‘ 6 @67£2§@4d¡0%%4#3¦@‡Pd40‡@9$ @67£2y6A@‡@5¡0XƒyPx4¤‡@93C3#3fgQ@4Ss )E) ¡¢Px@e¡0¦R¡¤0y`¡¤%%¦3t2%%4¢©ƒb!t Px4¤£ @93d13©(674¤#$ygs¡¤1|9s¡0BCD%%¦f%4¤£21 ) @'g‘x‡9$67B67B67£21D40 F @5¡¤¦@‘!67¦3%c@93‚¡¤¦$¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) 6EI¡01$1 ) 67'¡0C ) ‚4¤¦ ) tf¡0P™@‘@9$ (4¤1$136E¦38¥134C$¡¤C36 ) 6A@VtRPd4¤B4#3@8¤467¦$8a1s¡0bX@CD%4£2% WœBx‡9367 4%%#(W4¤¦ ) tcU—93%¦‚@9$eC3#3fguCD%4£2%wPd# )E) Q‰¦3%e@9$eC$#(fgu67 Pd# )7) §$@9$‘C$#(fge!67l%I9s¡¤e¦$4dCD'¡067¦$824¤¦Yn3¡¤@ ) taU—9$%¦|¡d4¤#3@ gD¡01k4%#3%q(%@674¤¦’(7†R13%!%¦@'v@9$Tn(1D%@'vgD¡01i@67£2
  • 10. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model 1 10 100 1000 10000 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¥¨§© I  ) ¤g' ¡ ¡FEG©©¨   §  H§D7¨D4¨© !#$   ©5CD'(©§S¡8Ed©57DA2Q ')¤ ¨%$©V2A¡¡ Q©  @ ¢D0D©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©§Y2A¡¡ T© © ¢ fP 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model 1 10 100 1000 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¥¨§©£¢D ¡ ©§¨S§¦¦©§0 ¡ ¡FEG© ¨   §  H§D7 4 © !#$   ©5CD'(©§S¡8Ed©57DA2Q ')¤¨S$© 2A¡¤ T©   ¢ 0D©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©§ 2A¡¡ T© © ¢ fP @5¡0Xu6E¦38¥6E¦@4a¡¤%4#3¦u@y@9$IC$#(fges )7) @67£2e•4'U‡©ƒ'§D!67¦$S@93 C3#3fgs )7) @67£2c67‘4¤5(‘4¤PW£¥¡¤8¤¦$6A@#s(c!£¥¡ )E) @9s¡¤¦|@9$cn F 1D@'ags¡¤1¥@67£2§u@9$gs¡¤1¥@6E£2ePd40e@93‘¢˜ƒ¦$4u(B%4¦(ss8¤#35¡0@674¤¦ 67y¦$4¤@en(1D%b@'R@4¥36Afgy!678¦$6As$'¡¤¦@ ) tRP™4£Ž@9s¡0@e4¤C$!©ƒ%w6E¦ @93e‘%˜¦$4u(‡'¡0!wx‡9$67€67–©ƒb67s$'ICut‘“–6E8¤#3% ¡ ¡¤¦$¥†£5( 6 #$Q@4 !1$¡¤%c%4¦3`@!5¡¤67¦@%§DU‡S9s¡'©ƒS4£26A@!@'R@93c F ¦$4u3Sƒ‘‘ 6 %!# ) @ Px4¤T†'f‚w”Qtu@%dC3#3fgc!67l%¥U—9$67b9h(4Y¦$40@‚(67fgbd!678¦36Ass'¡0¦u@ ) t P™4£ @93%6A‘šY‚w”ut(@c%4#3¦@1s¡¢!@2… ‘ 50‡ˆd“–6E8¤#3R†£5R¡ ) !4T©ƒ6 F s$%—@9$S¡¤%#35¡¤btw4¤Pu4¤#3¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) ¡¤¦$Y3%£24¤¦$`@!5¡¢@% @93dn(% )E) %¦@I£¥¡¢@b9|CD@…U‡%%¦f@9$d¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) !# ) @I¡¤¦$|@93 £2%¡¤!#3%T©¤¡ ) #$%eP™4£tn(1D67£2%¦@% x‡93CD%9$¡'©(6740—3#(6E¦38S¡ 6 ‘¢ƒ t( ) y67¦¥@9$y¢˜¦34u3y'¡¤!B67‡©!t (6Afg%¦@IPx4£ @9$¡0@S4C3!©ƒ'r67¦†@93a‘'˜¦34u3¥'¡0!Yx‡93¥%¡ F !4¤¦i67B@9$¡0@@93d1(6E£¥¡¢!t ) 67¦$Xv€• v †79h• v ‘¤„e(4%‘¦$40@%£¥¡06E¦ 4¢©ƒb ) 4¡(' ¢€4¤¦$%‡@93W4#(@‡gD¡01$%§3¡0@5¡y@!5¡¢2—67Q(67©ƒ!@'S40© @4c@9$‘!%%4¤¦s3¡0!t ) 6E¦3Xi€• v †79h• v 5„bwx‡9$67y¡ )7) 4'U—ePx4¤e@9$‘¡¤ F y`¡¤%¦$t†@4Y%40©2¡ ) £24¤`@‚67£2£2'(6™¡¢@ ) tr!67¦3%a@93¥©ƒ!trs3`@ 93 )7) 4c1$¡¤5Xƒ@e„#3%#$'2¡¢Px@W@9$—gD¡¤1¥£¥¡0Xƒ%u67@W@4S• v ‘wx‡9$yn F ¡0@—@67£2B¡0@—U—936E59T@93B9$ )E) 4‚1$¡¤5Xƒ@e'¡0b93%—• v ‘S(%1D%¦$3e4¦ @93d¦u#$£cCDe4¤PW1s¡¤5Xƒ@¡¤93'¡|4¤PW67@‘¡0@B@93c1(6E£¥¡¢!tY67¦@!P¡0% ¡¢@e@9$—@67£26A@e8b@e„#$%#3'¨wx‡93Px4¤§(@9$yC$#3fgb‡!67l%‘¡¢fg%@ %4¢©ƒ!t¥@67£2€•4'UW%©ƒ'§u@9$¡¢y!¡¤%¦$t¥%40©!t¥@6E£2y67¦a@93 '˜¦34u3Y'¡0!w67‚ ) ¡0@67©ƒ ) ti!£¥¡ )7) %4£21$¡0'v@4|@9$Tgs¡¤1h@67£2 40B@42@9$c¡¢y!¡¤%¦$tY%4¢©ƒ!tw@67£2I67¦f@93d‘%˜¦34u3d%¡¤!Sx‡93 bfg%@S4¤PeC3#3fgB!6El24¦i@932¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bti%40©!t|@6E£2d'¡¤¦iCD !%¦RPx4¤£ “–6E8¤#3%‘†¤†S¡¤¦s|†¢‘ 4.3 BGP experimentsprB9s¡'©ƒ1D!Pd40£2'T4¤¦ ) tY‘%˜¦34u3‘n(1D67£2%¦@WPx4¤y”e•B’–Dx‡93 C3#3fgu!67l%—67¦d@9$!en(1D67£2%¦@–Ue¡¤u!@w@4BšS‚w”Qtu@%%€~ywCD F Px4¤§¢UWQ%4¤¦$!6E3bœ@93u1$¡¤5Xƒ@¨!67l%%£¢œ¤š3§‘¤›¤(§¤¡0¦sd†¢› 55—Ct(@%§ C3#3@¥1(%!%¦@¥%!# ) @¥Pd4¤a4¤¦ ) tq‘¤›¤†Ctu@%%hx‡9$%!Y%!# ) @T¡¢ !934'U—¦†67¦v“–678#3¥†%Y¡¤¦$i†%š( v %8¡05(6E¦38wgD¡01i@67£2%2€ƒ‘‘ 6 „b§ UWW'¡0¦‘!%Q@9$¡0@¨@9$un(1D%@'B©¤¡ ) #3%–¡¢Q936E8¤9$p@9s¡0¦B@9$u£2'¡¤¦ ©¤¡ ) #3%B67¦i£24¤`@B40PW@9$c'¡¤!%dx‡9367‘%4¦(s$£24¤#3‘bn31D@5¡0@674¦ @9$¡0@S¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ )7) ti'¡ ) %# ) ¡¢@'i©¤¡ ) #3%‘!9$4¤# ) i4¢©ƒ`@6E£¥¡¢@c@93 ¡0@#s¡ ) gs¡¤1T@67£2%—¡0ybn31 ) ¡¤67¦$'a67¦|(%b@6E4¤¦wu u x‡9$e8¤5¡01$93QPd40—¡¢y!¡0%%¦$bt‚%%4¢©ƒ!tc@67£2c€ 6 ‘¢ƒ‘„€!9$4'Uo@93—n F 1D%@%T©¤¡ ) #$%‡Px4¤yCD4¤@9a• v †‘¡0¦sT• v ‘I67¦$6A@6E¡0@'R4¦$¦3%@674¦3% ”W40@9w@9$‘@9$%40@67'¡ ) ©¡ ) #3%y¡0 ) 4'UW@9$¡¤¦w@9$‘£2%¡¤¦Y©¤¡ ) #$% 67¦R£24¤`@e4¤P–@93'¡0!%%‡‰¦$y%¡¤!4¦R6Ee@9$¡0@e4¤#3—£24u3 ) —¡0!!#$£2 @9s¡¢@e%4¦3¦$%@674¤¦$e6E¦36A@6™¡¢@'wCtRCD40@9R@9$‘¦s3e(42¦$4¤@e67¦@5¡¤b@ U—6A@9|'¡¤59Y4¤@93B¡¢@‘¡ )E) €!%c(%@674¤¦iu š„byx‡9$6767y¦$4¤@e@!#$I67¦ '¡ ) 6A@…t–ˆV¦S4#(–4#(@œ@936Eœ6E¦@5¡0@674¦c134¢©ƒ'B@4eCDd–`(%`@!#$ F @67©ƒ%—2£240‘4¤Px@¦w@9s¡¤¦Rn(1D%@'g§D¡¤—U‡‘Px4#$¦$w4#(@e@9(4#389Y¡ 3b@5¡¤6 ) 'v6E¦u©ƒ`@6E8¡0@674¦i4¤Pe@9$2@!5¡0%%‚8¤%¦$5¡¢@'vCtr@9$ax—z‡’ ¡¤¦$|”e•B’ `@5¡¢@d£¥¡0b936E¦3%40PQ@93S4¤#3@%p†d4¤C$!©'w@9s¡0@ @9$Q%4¦3¦$%b@6E4¤¦c`@5¡¤C ) 67!9$£2¦u@–134%%!–Pd¡¤6 ) 'd!%©5¡ ) @67£2%–CD F '¡0#$!‚40PW67¦@!Pdb%¦$%d'¡¤#3!'fCtw@93d%4¤¦$¦3%@674¦f67¦$6A@6E¡0@'fCut @9$a4¤@93‚!6E(rˆG@‚67‚¡ ) !4i67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦@c@4f¦$40@a93¥@9s¡0@c@9$ ”e•B’f`@5¡0@e£¥¡¤59$67¦3W67£21 ) %£2%¦@5¡¢@6E4¤¦c4¤¦‚4#(€4#(@6E¦381 ) ¡¢@!Pd40£ 3©(6E¡¢@% ) 6789@ ) tYPx4¤£ @9s¡¢@‘(%!67CD'Y67¦|@93S”e•B’q!1D%%6Ass'¡ F @674¦k…7† ¡ ‡ˆ§–!1D%%6E¡ )7) tr67¦|@9$c1s¡0!@S('¡ ) 67¦$8aU—6A@9i%%4¢©ƒb!tYPx4£ P¡06 ) %¥4¦$¦3%@674¦¥%`@5¡0C ) 67!9$£2%¦@'–x‡9$67 ) '¡¤3Q@4I¡B936789$bQ@9$¡¤¦ n(1D%@%T£2'¡0¦T%%4¢©ƒb!ta@67£2B67¦w£24¤`@—'¡¤!% x‡9$c%!# ) @‘4C(@5¡¤67¦$%fPd40c¤šw¡0¦sh†¢›55RCtu@d1s¡0bX@‘3£24¦ F `@!5¡0@%d!67£26 ) ¡¢QCD9s¡'©u6E40e… ‘ 50‡ˆu~y–U—6A@9¥‰‘(’Q“W§0@9$W1s¡¤5Xƒ@w!67l% 34e¦34¤@y¡ ) @—@93BPd#$¦$$¡0£2%¦@5¡ ) ”e•B’’ut(¦s¡¤£267%% 5. CONCLUSIONˆV¦k@9$67R1$¡¤1DaU‡|`@#s(67'o@9$Y`@5¡0C$6 ) 67@…tq134¤1D!@67%a4¤PI4#(@ F 67¦$8c134¤@44 ) y67¦T%4¦38%`@'a¦$@…U‡40X(%€prB9s¡'©ƒ¡¤¦$¡ ) t(l%'a@…U‡4 U—6E3 ) th(%1 ) 4't'v1(4¤@4%4 ) £¢R‰‘(’Q“h¡¤¦sv”‡•B’€ux‡93%!R1(4¤@4 F %4 ) —U‡b‘b934!%¦Y(#$@4c@9$B67£21D4¤!@5¡0¦@e4 ) ‘@9$ta1 ) ¡%ta67¦R@9$ ˆV¦@¦3@u@4u$¡%t€p†e9s¡'©ƒ—#$!%aCD40@9T¡0¦s¡ ) t(!67e¡0¦s2n(1D67£2%¦ F @5¡0@674¤¦†@4w4C(@5¡¤67¦†67¦ F 313@9f#$¦s(`@5¡¤¦$367¦$8R4¤Pe@9$67cut3¦$¡¤£267% ¡¤¦$R@4¥„#s¡¤¦@6APxtT@9$%6Ae@4 ) 5¡0¦$%I@4‚@!5¡02S4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤¨—ˆ…¦|¡$(6 F @674¦v@4w@!5¡0‚T4¢©ƒ ) 4¡¨§w@93abfg%@S4¤Py!%©ƒ5¡ ) 4¤@93cPd¡¤@40 ‰}!#$59¥¡¤Q1s¡0bXƒb@W!67l%%%§(C3#3fgQ!67l%§3(4¤1$1$67¦38‘1D4 ) 67t¥¡¤¦$ ) 67¦3X 134¤1s¡08ƒ¡0@674¤¦|3 ) ¡%t(e‰ U‡bI¡ ) !42`@#s(6E%¨ p†—4¤C$!©ƒ—@9s¡¢@e‰‘(’Q“Wr QCD%9s¡'©u674¤e(%1D%¦$3u4¦ ) td4¦2@9$e@!5¡0P F ssc4¢©ƒ ) 4ƒ¡¤|Pd¡¤@40d¡0¦sY67‘67¦$!%¦3!67@67©ƒc@4a@93c1$¡¤5Xƒ@‘!67l%2(67 F @!67C$#(@6E4¤¦p§p@9$‚C3#3fgI!67l%§–4¤‘@9$21$¡¤5Xƒ@Iu4131$67¦$8w1D4 ) 6Ebtr67¦ fg%b@'wx‡9$67u!6E8¤¦$6Ass%¡¤¦@ ) td!67£21 ) 6Ass%d4#(W¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) ¡0¦s
  • 11. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model 10 100 1000 10000 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¦¥¨§©H!   ) ¤H' ¡ ¡FEd©©¨   § H§D7 4 © !#$   ©CD' ©§%¡FEd©57IA2Q '¤ ¨%$©5 2A¡¡ T©   ¢D0 ©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©5§f2A¡¡ Q© © ¢ YP 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) 1 10 100 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¥¨§© ¡ © ¨Q ¦¦©§%0 ¡ ¡FEG© ¨  § § H§I7¨D4¨© ! 1$   ©5CD'(©§S¡8Ed©57DA2Q ')¤¨S$©d2A¡¡ T©  @ ¢ 0D©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©§2A¡¡ T© © ¢ fP 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (16 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) 1 10 100 25 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with OSPF (16 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 3 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¥¨§©  D¡ © ¨Q ¦¦©§%0 ¡ ¡FEG© ¨  § § H§I7¨D4¨© ! 1$   ©5CD'(©§S¡8Ed©57DA2Q ')¤¨S$©d2A¡¡ T©  @ ¢ 0D©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©§2A¡¡ T© ¢ fP 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with BGP (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Flap(U2D)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Flap Time with BGP (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¦¥¨§©D  ¢) ¤g' ¡ ¡FEd©©¨   §  H§I7¨D4¨© $ ©CD' ©§%¡FEd©57IA2Q ')¤¨S$©#2A¡¡ T©   ¢ 0D©52 £ ¢3¥ ¢ ©§Y2A¡¡ Q© ©£¢ YP 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with BGP (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model (client-server) Analytical Model (server-client) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 50 100 200 400 Mean-Time-To-Recover(D2U)(seconds) Traffic Overload factor (%) Recovery Time with BGP (4 MB Buffer, 256 Byte Packets, 2 nodes) Experimental (95% confidence) Experimental (99.5% confidence) Analytical Model (client-server) Analytical Model (server-client) €ˆ¡„ ) 67¦3'¡0e!'¡ ) €CD„ ) 4¤82!'¡ )   ¡ £¥¨§©GI© ¡ © ¨Q ¦¦©5§0 ¡ ¡FEd© ¨  § §  I§D7¨D4¨© $ ©C '(©§%¡FEd©57IA2Q¢')¤ ¨%$© 2A¡¡ T©  @ ¢ 0D©52 £ ¢ ¥ ¢ ©§#2A¡¤ T© © ¢ fP
  • 12. ¦s¡¤C ) %B#$e@4a367©ƒS ) 4!' F Pd4¤£ n(13%!!674¤¦|@9$¡0@B¡¤%%#(5¡0@ ) t %¡¤13@#(%—6A@e`@5¡0C$6 ) 6A@VtT1341Db!@6E% 6 67©(67¦38i¡0¦i¡¤%%#(5¡0@R¡¤¦s¡ ) t(@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) Pd40¥”e•B’‹134¢©ƒ'r@4 CDS£24¤I59s¡ )E) %¦3867¦$8aCD%'¡0#$!I@9$Sn3¡¤@ePd40£ 40Pu@93d¡0¦s¡ ) tu@6 F %¡ ) £24u3 ) 3%1D¦s3y4¦Y@9$I4#3¦s F @!671w@67£2ICD@VUW%%¦|1D%67¦38 ¦34u3%%wx‡9$67d67SCD%'¡0#$!a”e•B’#3!%dx—z‡’ Pd4¤c ) 6E¡¤C ) ¥1s¡0bX@ @!5¡0¦$!£267!!674¦¨€ƒ!67¦$8e@9$e¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u( ) %§¤UW‡%4£213#3@'B@93 bn31D@'fgs¡¤1r¡¤¦s ) 67¦$XY%%4¢©ƒ!t|@67£2%BPx4¤c¡a5¡0¦$8240P v xex‡ ¡0¦s’U‡i!9$4'U‡%q@9$¡0@T@9$|%!6 ) 67%¦3%†40P‚”e•B’@4i%4¦38%`@674¤¦ (%'¡0!%QU—6A@9267¦$b'¡¤!67¦$8S„#$#$%67¦$8I¡0¦s ) 67¦$Xc134¤1s¡¤8¡0@674¦¥( F ) ¡%t(%Q“$#3!@93£24¤§@9$67‡!#$8¤8%`@%a@9s¡¢@e1s¡0bX@eu41$1367¦$8c¡¤¦s C3#3fgy£¥¡¤¦$¡¤8¤%£2%¦@e1D4 ) 67%67%@9s¡¢@y%3#$I@93S„u#3%#$6E¦38¥3 ) ¡%t 40P34¤#3@67¦$8—1(4¤@4%4 ) £2!¡¤8–67£2134¢©ƒ–@9$w4C3#$`@¦3%!œ40Ps”e•B’– prf¡ ) !4k1Db!Pd4¤£2%’nu@%¦$!67©ƒ|£2'¡0!#3%£2%¦@¥67¦ ¡¤¦qn(1D6 F £2¦u@5¡ ) ¦$@…U‡4¤Xf4¤Pe4¤#3@‘@4w©¤¡ ) 6E$¡¢@‚@9$‚%!# ) @IP™4£ 4#( ¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) £24u3 ) %—x‡93c3¡0@5¡2%4 )E) %b@'Y£¥¡0@59R@9$I¡0¦s¡ ) tu@67'¡ ) !# ) @yUW )7) §$@9$%CtT©¡ ) 6™3¡0@67¦$8‚@93I¡¤%#35¡¤btw4¤Pu4¤#3y£24u3 ) % ‰#(c¡¤¦s¡ ) t3!67c¡¤¦$rn(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) %!# ) @I ) '¡¢ ) t†3%£24¤¦$`@!5¡¢@ @93‡¦$'I@46E!4 ) ¡0@‡4#(@67¦$81(4¤@4%4 ) £2%!¡08%€P™4£‹3¡0@5¡e@!5¡¢P F s$eCtc£21 ) 4't367¦38‘¡%4¤£dC$67¦$¡0@674¦‚40Pg!b93'3# ) 6E¦383§ƒ„u#3%#$6E¦383§ƒ¡¤¦s C3#3fg67¦38r£2%59s¡0¦$67!£2‚67¦o40532@4i6E£21(4¢©ƒT@93w`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vti40P 4¤#3@67¦$8d134¤@44 ) % prQ1 ) ¡¤¦I@4ynu@%¦$@9$wU‡40X‘6E¦‘@936Eœ1s¡¤1Db–Ct‘£¥¡¤Xu67¦$8‡@93u@!5¡¢P F s$‘¡¤¦$ ) 4!—£24u( ) e£240y'¡ ) 6E`@67up†B¡ ) !421 ) ¡¤¦a@4c@67B@9$! !# ) @eU—6A@9|¡0@#s¡ ) £2'¡0!#3%£2%¦@‡67¦R@93‘ˆV¦@¦3@' H ¡¤CD4¢©u6A@l b@S¡ ) a…7†¤†§Q†¢‘¢‡u9$¡¢©d!9$4'U—¦|@9s¡¢@B@9$c67I¡T!678¦367s$'¡¤¦@‘4¤! F ) ¡¢@6E4¤¦vCD@VUW%%¦f@9$‚£2'¡0!#3'f”e•B’ 6E¦3`@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vtr¡¤¦$i¦3@VUW4¤X #3¡¤8¤vˆ…@cU—6 )E) CDa67¦@%`@67¦$8|@4|!%TU—9$¡0@dP™5¡¤@674¤¦o4¤Pe@9$! 67¦3`@5¡¤C$6 ) 6A@67%I6EB3#$I@4a%4¦38%`@674¦r¡¤¦$|4¤#3@67¦$8a1s¡0bXƒb@ ) 4!!%% pre¡ ) !4‘1 ) ¡0¦c@4ynu@%¦sI4#(Q£24u( ) –@467¦$ ) #$3‡40@9$Q(%1 ) 4't' 4¤#3@67¦$8I1(4¤@4%4 ) e!#3b9¥¡0Wˆ` F ˆ!D§¡¤¦$‚%£28¤6E¦38I!6E8¤¦s¡ ) 67¦38c1(4 F @44 ) 2!#$59h¡¤ H46 ’€ H ¡¤CD ) 6 6E`@!67C3#3@674¦i’€4¤@4%4 ) „a… ‘'‡e¡¤d¡ 1$¡0!@e4¤Pœ@9$BPd#(@#3UW4¤XD 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSx‡9367y%!'¡¢b9|67!#31$1D40!@'RCt|zW67!%4Tut(`@%£2%§ H #3%%¦@yxœ%59 F ¦34 ) 48¤67%%§D¡0¦s2@9$eƒ¦$67©ƒb!67@…t24¤P€z‡¡ ) 6APd40¦$6E¡¥‚Rˆ!z v ‰h1(4805¡¤£w pr‘@9s¡¤¦3Xa@93I¡¤¦34¦t(£24#$e%©u67UWePx4¤y@9$%6Ay©¡ ) #$¡¤C ) I%4¤£ F £2¦u@% 7. REFERENCES…7†b‡‘“40!@9w~e£267'¡¤¦T“@…U‡4¤XR‰1D5¡¢@4¤y•y4#31 €“B~e“‘‰‘•‘„b§(£¥¡¤6 ) 67¦$8 ) 67`@y¡059$67©ƒ%%§ 9@!@14¢ ¤¤'UeUeU‘ ¦s¡¤¦348( 4083 … ‘'‡ H $~y¦$3!!4¤¦p§$’– 6 44 ) ¡¤¦p§3“c$“$ ) (£¥¡¤¦p§3~I$“('3@!@¤§ ¡¤¦$R”ysx‡9$4¤£¥¡¤% H46 ’k(1D%67s$'¡0@674¤¦p ¤¡  (' ¤  £¢ '¥¤   § ‰@'¨†'™¤™™( … ¢‡I”yszW9$67¦$4't 6 t(¦s¡0£26Ee4¤P€ˆ…¦u@b¦$@ v 4#(@6E¦38dˆ…¦3Pd40£¥¡0@674¦¨ ˆV¦B! '#7¥¥(¦ ¤ C#¥¤  §¦ ) ¦ 3©¨ 2¦ 3B3 ¨¤§Du%13@' †'™¤™u … š0‡Sg$“ ) 4't$T¡¤¦$Ržc¡ƒ¡0%4C3!4¦psx‡9$St3¦3b9(4¦36El%¡0@674¦w40P ’–674u367 v 4#3@67¦382‚R%!¡08%% ¥£! ) ¦ 3 1 ' ¤ (8   # ¤ # ¤#  %$ # '' ¤£ §g‘u€G‘„(¢7†¢‘¤‘'˜s†%u§œ~e13'g†'™¤™¤š( … ›'‡ v D•44u(£¥¡¤¦p ¤(  '#§¦0)   # ¤1  #2¨   #7 ¦   3 #§¦8 ¨ 5$x‡9$ ”W%¦0y!¡0£26E¦ ¤zW#3£2£26E¦38—’w#$C ) 67!936E¦38¥zW4£21$¡¤¦t§(ˆV¦37§ ‚R%¦ ) 4¥’€¡¢XD§Dz‡¡ ) 6APx4¤¦$6E¡u§–†'™ ¡¡ … ¢‡ v $•4¢©u6E¦$$¡0¦p§szys~ ) ¡0@!@67¦$4¤8 ) #p§D•cD”u$(t§ 6 (‘%!!¦$%§ g£(‘#$£¥¡0'§(¡0¦sTp F D H %$~y¦R~e59$6A@%@#(Pd40‘@5¡¤C ) § ~y¦s¡ ) t3l%¡¤C ) ‘ˆ…¦u@b¦$@ v 4#(@67¦$83 ¥£  %$ #'30§ †'3€`†'„(¢ ‘¤™¢˜ƒ›§€†'™™¤™( … '‡ v $•4¢©u6E¦$$¡0¦Y¡¤¦$R~S v '$ut(~y¦w~e¦s¡ ) t(!67—4¤P€ˆ…¦@¦$@ ˆV¦@`˜ 6 4£¥¡¤67¦Rxœ41D4 ) 4¤8¤tw¡¤¦s v 4¤#3@I@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@Vtg3ˆV¦ ! '#7((¦ ¤£ C#¥¤  §¦ ¥£ 54 ¦ 36 87¢§¨†'™¤™ƒ … ¡ ‡SxD•cD•y67‚¦w¡¤¦$Y•c(pq6 ) Px4¦383D~e¦w~e¦s¡ ) t(!67—4¤Pu”e•B’ zW4¦u©ƒ8¤%¦$%I’€41Db!@6E%sˆV¦B! '#7¥¥(¦ ¤ C#¥¤  §¦ 0) ¦ 3 ¨ ¦ 3 39 @¤§$(%1(@'p†%™™¤™( … ™¢‡S”y$•¡ ) ¡¤C36 ¤¡  (' ¤  £A #)   ¤ ) ' ¦     ) '(pzW67!%4 F ’€%!%§ †'™™u …A†75¢‡Ižc3’– (‘#3£¥¡0'§3x$žS H ¡¤Xu!9$£¥¡0¦p§3¡¤¦$ 6 su@6 ) 6E¡(6E% ”Wt4¤¦sR”Q%`@y”wfg40!@7¢ v 4#(@e~e59$6A@%@#(%‡Pd40y@93 6 6Afg%¦@6E¡0@'R(©u67%%—4¤Puxp4£24¤!4'U——ˆV¦@¦3@' ¥£ ¦ #0BCBD) ¤   # ¤ 3 FE£ ¤ b§D¤3€G›¤„(¢E†'›‘%˜u¤š(§€†'™¤™ ¡ …A††b‡czy H ¡¤CD4¢©u6A@l§3~S(~y9u#0y!¡(§(¡0¦sa“W¡ƒ¡¤9$¡¤¦$6E¡0¦p3”wn(1D67£2%¦@5¡ ) u@#sut¥4¤P€ˆ…¦@¦$@y@5¡¤C36 ) 6A@VtT¡0¦sw”‡¡0bXuCD4¤¦$I“s¡06 ) #(%%sˆ…¦ ! '#7((¦ ¤£ C#¥¤  §¦ ¡  §¦ ) ¤ ¤ ) ¨ ¤¡  (' ¤   # ¤ ¨ ¨(GBIH #P)8B # ¤Q4 0) ¨  ¥¢ 1 #¨ (' ¤(  ¦ #0BRHS)   ¤ §S#$¦3d†'™¤™™u …A†¢‘'‡czy H ¡¤CD4¢©u67@l¤§g•c v $‚w¡ ) ¡0¦p§D¡0¦sw“W(ƒ¡09s¡¤¦36E¡¤¦p$ˆV¦@¦3@ v 4¤#3@67¦$8cˆV¦$`@5¡0C$6 ) 6A@Vtg$ˆ…¦§! ' #7¥(¦ ¤ C#¥¤  §¦ 2) ¦ 3 ¨ ¦ 3 39 87¢§$(%1(@'p†%™™u …A†'¢‡czy H ¡¤CD4¢©u67@l¤§D•c v s‚w¡ ) ¡¤¦p§s¡¤¦$R“W¡ƒ¡¤9$¡¤¦36™¡0¦pD‰y6E8¤67¦$—4¤P ˆV¦@¦$b@ v 4¤#3@67¦$8cˆV¦$`@5¡0C$6 ) 6A@Vtg$ˆ…¦§! ' #7¥(¦ ¤ C#¥¤  §¦ ¥£ T4 ¦ 3 @¤§¨†'™™¤™( …A†%š0‡c‚i H ¡¤#$C$¡¤5XDDz ) ¡¤!!67'¡ ) ˆ`’k¡¤¦$R~ v ’h40©y~Qx—‚i A 3UV) (   ¤£#' ¦ #0BDB ¤¡  XW AT4 ¦`Y0a£bdce7@7¢§(ƒ¡¤¦u#s¡¢!ti†%™™0š3 …A†¢›'‡f3sxD‚R4'tg¨ ! 4 a ) ¤   #BCG #¥¤ ¤ ¤(  (' ¤  A #0)   ¤£ ! '#   #7#¨ D~y$367!4¤¦(˜ƒpr% ) tR’u#3C ) 67!9$67¦$8¥zW4¤£21s¡0¦ut§ v '¡¤367¦$8(§D‚w¡0!¡¤59u#$!@!@%§Sƒ¡¤¦¨œ†'™¤™ ¡ …A†'¢‡f3sxD‚R4'ts‰‘(’Q“vžu!674¦w‘u A 3UV) (   ¤£#' ¦ #0BDB ¤(  W A4 ¦`Yda ¡ ¨ ¡@h §s~e136 ) †'™™ ¡ …A†¢'‡Ižc3’€¡0n(!4¦¨D”w¦s˜ƒ@40˜”u¦$ v 4#3@67¦38‚”W%9$¡'©(6740y67¦R@93 ˆV¦@¦$b@'3ˆ…¦§! ' #7¥(¦ ¤ C#¥¤  §¦ 2) ¦ 3i¨ ¦ 3 39 ep0§ ~y#$8(g†'™™¤( …A† ¡ ‡ Gd v X(9@e¡0¦sTx H 6$~”W4053•B¡¢@Ue¡%tY’€4¤@44 ) š €ˆ”e•B’ F šƒ„b A 3UV) (   ¤£# ' ¦ #0BCB ¤(  qW A4 ¦`Y0arbe7@7db¢§g‚w¡059 †'™™›u …A†'™¢‡cgs3¡'©¡08§$~S$zW4 )E) 67¦$%§D¡¤¦sT”—3•40fg£¥¡¤¦¨$x‡93 ”u¦$u˜ƒ@4¢˜u”w¦sw”€fg%@—40P€ˆV¦@¦3@e’€¡0@9|u ) %@674¦¨$ˆ…¦ ! '#7((¦ ¤£ C#¥¤  §¦ ) ¦ 3i¨ 2¦ 3B36 @¤§s(13@'g†'™¤™™( … ‘5¢‡S~S$(9$¡¤67Xu9p$~y¦s¡ ) t3!67—4¤P v 4¤#3@67¦$82’€4¤@44 ) @5¡¤C36 ) 6A@VtT67¦ zW4¦$8¤%`@'w“y@VUW4¤Xu%D‚Yax‡9$%!67%§$ƒ¦$67©ƒb!67@…ta4¤P z‡¡ ) 6APd4¤¦36E¡(§p3¡0¦@5¡‚zQ#$l¤§S#3¦$S‘ 555u … ‘u†b‡¥(‚$žQ¡05¡¤39s¡0¦p§ v s•4¢©u67¦s3¡¤¦p§$¡¤¦$ 6 $”w`@!6E¦¨s’–b!6E`@¦u@ v 4¤#3@I‰!%6 )7) ¡0@674¦367¦Rˆ…¦@`˜ 6 4¤£¥¡¤67¦ v 4#(@67¦$833ˆ!uˆ @%b93¦$67'¡ ) %1D40!@y™¢˜u†§DƒB$z ¤0ˆ…¦3Px4¤£¥¡0@674¤¦|(%67%¦3%% ˆV¦$`@6A@#(@§g†'™™¤( … ‘‘'‡c•c v 3pi6789@e¡¤¦$ap{ v $@%©ƒ%¦3% 1 ¦4!! ! (¨ ¨ )   '   ¦ s #¨ )tB ¡ aC1 ¦ uBRH ¨ vB ¤¡    # ¤ D~y$367!4¤¦(˜ƒpr% ) t ’u#3C ) 67!9$67¦$8¥zW4¤£21s¡0¦ut§¡ƒ¡0¦p¨†'™¤™ƒ›u

×