Faculty Training - Lesson Planning for Interactive Learning


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Faculty Training - Lesson Planning for Interactive Learning

  1. 1. Key Ideas Lesson Planning Value Lesson Planning Process – Madelyn Hunter’s 8 Steps – Hook, Book, Look, Took – Interactive Learning
  2. 2. Warm Up Question Post(it) Your Values What do you know about LESSON PLANS? (Write notes or draw a picture on your giant post-it note – be prepared to share) 1. What is the point? 2. Why are does Herzing require it? 3. What goes into an effective lesson plan? (Or, what will make you look good?)
  3. 3. Blooms Taxonomy Old vs. New
  4. 4. Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information – Describing – Finding – Identifying – Listing –Retrieving –Naming –Locating –Recognizing Can students recall information?
  5. 5. Remembering What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Name ... Find the definition of… Describe what happened after… Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...? (Pohl, 2000)
  6. 6. Understanding Student grasps meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned –Classifying –Comparing –Exemplifying –Explaining –Inferring –Interpreting –Paraphrasing –Summarizing Can students explain ideas or concepts?
  7. 7. Understanding (Pohl, 2000) Explain why… Write in your own words… How would you explain…? Write a brief outline... What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Clarify… Illustrate…
  8. 8. Applying Student makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned – Implementing – Carrying out –Using –Executing Can students use the information in another familiar situation? c =
  9. 9. Applying (Pohl, 2000) Explain another instance where… Group by characteristics such as… Which factors would you change if…? What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, develop a set of instructions about…
  10. 10. Analyzing Student breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information –Attributing –Comparing –Deconstructing –Finding –Integrating –Organizing –Outlining –Structuring Can students break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships?
  11. 11. Analyzing (Pohl, 2000) Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Explain what must have happened when... What are some or the problems of...? Distinguish between... What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...?
  12. 12. Evaluating Student makes decisions based on in- depth reflection, criticism and assessment –Checking –Critiquing –Detecting –Experimenting –Hypothesising –Judging –Monitoring –Testing Can students justify a decision or a course of action?
  13. 13. Evaluating (Pohl, 2000) Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Defend your position about... Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to… would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if...? How effective are...? What are the consequences...? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose?
  14. 14. Creating Student creates new ideas and information using what previously has been learned –Constructing –Designing –Devising –Inventing –Making –Planning –Producing Can students generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
  15. 15. Creating (Pohl, 2000) Design a...to... Devise a possible solution to... If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Devise your own way to... What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Create new and unusual uses for... Develop a proposal which would...
  16. 16. What Does Bloom’s Taxonomy Look Like?
  17. 17. Lesson Planning is the Map
  18. 18. Madelyn Hunter’s Method Not this Madelyn Hunter
  19. 19. Background - Hunter’s Method Hunter is known for her research on learning method
  20. 20. The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate. Harry Wong, The First Days of Teaching
  21. 21. Stallings, J. (1985). A study of implementation of Madeline Hunter's Model and its effects on students. The Journal Of Educational Research, 78(6), 325-337
  22. 22. One year study of thirteen teachers in California’s NAPA Valley School district Two elementary schools Three month intervention 257 students with pre-study and post study scores in math and reading (Stallings, 1985) A Study of Implementation of Madeline Hunter's Model and its Effects on Students.
  23. 23. 8 Step plan based on her philosophies Objections: “Direct Instruction” – Full Scale Mocks – Modeling- Apprentice Method – Socratic Conversations Alone Background - Hunter’s Method
  24. 24. Prepare the Learner – Step 1: Review – Step 2: Anticipatory Set – Step 3: State Learning Objective(s) Instruction – Step 4: Input and Modeling (instruction) Checking for Understanding – Step 5: Measure Understanding – Step 6: Guided Practice Independent Practice & Closure – Step 7: Independent Practice – Step 8: Closure Hunter’s 8 Step Lesson Plan
  25. 25. Prepare the Learner Steps 1-3
  26. 26. A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on a cold iron. Horace Mann
  27. 27. Prepare the Learner Step One and Two: Anticipate and Review (I like to switch these in application) • A Warm-Up Activity (examples to follow) – Simple question – Example problem – Review previous relevant material • Motivational Activity – Visual Stimulation: video clip, audio clip, etc.
  28. 28. Warm Up Activity
  29. 29. Rationale for Warm Up Activities Start of class Begins Transition into learning Reinforces Long Term Memory Addresses Attendance Issues Early Assessment Or Pre-test
  30. 30. Warm Up Activity Brainstorm (1 of 4 ideas) Give a topic and ask learners to think of anything related to it. Write the responses for all to see, or ask a volunteer to do the writing. You can use this to elicit vocabulary related to your lesson.
  31. 31. Warm Up Activity Question of the Day (2 of 4 ideas) Ask 1-2 simple questions and give learners 5 minutes to write their answers. Choose a few people to share their answers with the group. If you want to encourage involvement, let the class know that you will randomly call on people to share. (we did this today)
  32. 32. Warm Up Activity Yesterday (3 of 4 ideas) Have learners respond to a statement about yesterday, such as "Yesterday I learned." Students can ask follow up questions to learn more such as, “What good is that?”“How did you feel?" "What did find hard or easy?" “How is that useful?" etc. Try this with 1-2 different learners each day in front of the class or in groups as a ROUNDTABLE. Advance warning is up to you.
  33. 33. Warm Up Activity Mystery Object/Theme (4 of 4 ideas) Bring an unusual item connected to your lesson plan. One learners are unlikely to recognize. Spend time eliciting basic descriptions and guesses about what it is and how it's used. If possible, pass the item around. To encourage observation and inference, don't answer questions. Write down descriptions and guesses until someone figures it out or you reveal the mystery.
  34. 34. Warm Up Activity Mystery Object/Theme (4 of 4 ideas)
  35. 35. After a few minutes of guessing and discussing (usually with some hints) they discover that it is a mousetrap. A "Y" shaped mousetrap lures a mouse into an open end of the "Y" by means of smelly bait located at a closed end of the bottom of the "Y". The "Y" is pivotally supported horizontally by a stand. As the mouse walks past the pivot point, a ping pong ball rolls from the opposite short "Y" tube member and down to the entrance of the open ended tube member.
  36. 36. • Tell students what they will learn • Tell them how they will be assessed Prepare the Learner Step Three: State Learning Objective(s)
  37. 37. Start/End Agenda
  38. 38. Start/End Agenda Start/End of Class Begins Transition Into Learning Reinforces Long Term Memory (examples follow) Increases Student Satisfaction Alerts Learner to Goals
  39. 39. Two Ways Start/End Agendas Reinforce Long Term Memory Adds structure and associations Assigns VALUE! (O'Donnell & Brown, 2011)
  40. 40. Adds structure and associations Assigns VALUE!
  41. 41. Adds structure and associations Assigns VALUE!
  42. 42. Adds structure and associations Assigns VALUE!
  43. 43. Step Four: Instruction Input • Summarizing definitions • Demonstrating basic skills Modeling • Demonstrate the application of concepts and skills with a “worked- through” example • Teacher demonstration
  44. 44. Many Learning Ideas and Methods Demand Our Attention How Much We Cover in Class? Higher Order Thinking vs. Teaching Towards a test How Many Tests or Quizzes? Amount of Lecture? (Lecturette) Attendance? Difficult Topics to Teach? Diverse Leaners? Others?
  45. 45. Learning Retention = Interactive learning
  46. 46. Learning Retention = Interactive learningLearning Retention = Interactive learning
  47. 47. Learning Retention = Interactive learningLearning Retention = Interactive learning
  48. 48. Learning Retention = Interactive learningLearning Retention = Interactive learning Interactive Learning is a Hot Topic in Education Theory
  49. 49. Wallace Library Online / Distance Learning Services, RIT Marianne Bhueler 2000 http://wally.rit.edu/information/CUNY2000/sld008.htm
  50. 50. Office for Distributed & Distance Learning http://www.fsu.edu/~ids/fac2002/Edgar%20Dale.htm •Lower levels of the cone involve the student as a participant. •Lower levels include more stimuli and are richer with regard to natural feedback. •Higher levels compress information and provide more data faster for those able to process it. •Upper levels of the cone need more instructional support
  51. 51. Central Missouri State University Presentation Title: “How Can Media Managers Influence Faculty to Use More IT? “ http://library.cmsu.edu/dean/aect99/sld006.htm
  52. 52. Central Missouri State University Presentation Title: “How Can Media Managers Influence Faculty to Use More IT? “ http://library.cmsu.edu/dean/aect99/sld006.htm
  53. 53. http://tlc.ousd.k12.ca.us/tlc/sitetech/agendas/documents_81202/Dale's%20Cone.pdf
  54. 54. ACU Adams Center for Teaching Excellence http://www.acu.edu/cte/activelearning/whyuseal2.htm
  55. 55. • http://ohioline.osu.edu/4h-fact/0018.html • The Edgar Dale Cone of Experience summarizes how learners retain information. • A person remembers 10% of what they read, 20% of what they heard, 30% of what they seen and 50% of what is seen and heard.
  56. 56. Interactive Learning Methods 6 Simple Activities • Three-step-interview • Roundtable • Structured Problem Solving • Think-Pair-Share • Visible Quiz • Stand Up and Share 6 Advanced Activities • Value Line • Send/Pass a Problem • Jigsaw • Paired Annotations • Team Learning • Inductive Learning Groups
  57. 57. Three-Step-Interview 1 of 6 Simple Activities • Ice-breaker for teams or as a way to reinforce important concepts • Instructor assigns roles and presents questions or information that needs to be “found” – Instruction via discovery • Work in pairs Step 1: Student A interviews Student B Step 2: Student B interviews Student A Step 3: Dyads from quads, (4 students total) and share their findings. Ideas can be shared with the class.
  58. 58. Three-Step-Interview Let’s Try It! Form dyads (groups of two) Find the one person with a matching card. 2 card meets with a 2 card 5 card meets with a 5 card etc…
  59. 59. Three-Step-Interview Dyad Question Consider: All of us use lecture. The classrooms that have given us our best learning have often been lecture heavy. We also have research showing that lecture alone yields low returns in knowledge retention. Question Posed : What is the reality of needing to lecture? Is lecture unavoidable? Can lecture be a best practice? Where have you included other teaching techniques? What teaching techniques work best for your classroom? What are the HARD and REAL questions?
  60. 60. Three-Step-Interview Let’s Try It! Form quads (groups of four) Find the one person with a matching card. 2 cards meets 5 cards meets etc…
  61. 61. Three-Step-Interview Quad Question Consider: All of us use lecture. The classrooms that have given us our best learning have often been lecture heavy. We also have research showing that lecture alone yields low returns in knowledge retention. Question Posed : What is the reality of needing to lecture? Is lecture unavoidable? Can lecture be a best practice? Where have you included other teaching techniques? What teaching techniques work best for your classroom? What are the HARD and REAL questions?
  62. 62. Three-Step-Interview Applied Academic Function Assess reactions to materials read Evaluate information Assess learning from a previous class Evaluate homework Social Function Engages active listening skills Energized classroom
  63. 63. Interactive Learning Cooperative Group Activities Group Selection Strategies – Number of Participants – Total Number of Groups – Group Topics of Focus – Member Selection Strategies • Playing Cards • Numbers/Colors • Random strategies (common clothing, school ID numbers, letters in names, birthdays)
  64. 64. Stand and Stretch Return to Your Original Groups
  65. 65. Roundtable 2 of 6 Simple Activities Allows students to brainstorm, review, or practice a skill Materials needed: Paper and pen/pencil Students respond to a question or problem by writing their response as they express their ideas aloud to the group Paper is passed to the left and next student responds likewise Process is repeated until all group members have responded
  66. 66. Roundtable Applied Academic Function Reinforcing ideas Discussion starter Identifies prior knowledge Practice skills Recall information Critical thinking Social Function Community and Team building
  67. 67. Roundtable Example Activity What Bothers You? This is an exercise that helps students think about problems. The instructor asks them to simply write down answers to the “what bothers you?” question, i.e., find problems that require solutions. This activity leads to a long list of problems that later can be redefined and solved. An example that I give the students on “what bothers me” is what I call the “speed bumps problem”. Every working day I experience at least 14 speed bumps on my way to and from work, and feel that there is a “problem.”
  68. 68. Structured Problem Solving 3 of 6 Simple Activities Instructor poses a question or problem to students which requires higher order thinking skills. Students discuss the question or solve the problem in their group consisting of four members (each student is designated a number 1-4). Instructor calls a number (1-4) and asks that group member to be the spokesperson to share the group findings. (Generally 3-6 groups are asked to share to avoid repetition).
  69. 69. Structured Problem Solving Applied Academic Function Created meaning , promotes problem solving, critical thinking, and decision making; allows for verbalization of ideas and application of concepts. Social Function Allows students to work cooperatively to solve problems and to actively listen in a group setting
  70. 70. Structured Problem Solving Example Activity Use 6 popsicle sticks to make 4 equilateral triangles To teach the dimensional methodology we use many hands-on activities. For example, the concept of solving problems by adding a dimension is illustrated using a well known problem - use 6 popsicle sticks to make 4 equilateral triangles.
  71. 71. Structured Problem Solving Example Activity Use 6 popsicle sticks to make 4 equilateral triangles Students discover that by looking for a 3-D solution, the problem can be easily solved by constructing a pyramid
  72. 72. Think-Pair-Share 4 of 6 Simple Activities • Instructor poses a question to the class which usually involves evaluation, analysis, or synthesis • Students are given a fixed amount of time to think about the posed question • Students are then paired up with another student to discuss their thoughts • The student pair share their collective thoughts with the class
  73. 73. Think-Pair-Share Applied Academic Function Generates hypothesis, inductive and deductive reasoning, and application of concepts to real situations Social Function Participation, listening, and communication skills are strengthened
  74. 74. Think-Pair-Share Example Instructor Question to Student: Does the term sterile refer to an absolute? Or, how sterile is sterile? Activity: Students will use the think-pair-share structure to independently ponder the question, discuss their thoughts with the group, and share with the entire class their determinations about the question posed.
  75. 75. Visible Quiz (clickers) 5 of 6 Simple Activities Students in groups discuss the appropriate response to quiz questions (typically displayed on a LCD screen). Students are divided into teams. Each team has a set of large cards with the four letters that correlate to the multiple choice answers (typically a-d) and the letters “T” and “F” for true and false responses. At a given signal, one person from each team displays the letter representing the team’s response to the quiz question. The instructor provides the correct answer and may call on groups to explain their rationale for the answer that they provided.
  76. 76. Visible Quiz Applied Academic Function Provides both the instructor and the students with immediate feedback on learning Social Function Peer coaching takes place as the team members discuss each question *Examples may vary
  77. 77. Stand Up and Share 6 of 6 Simple Activities The instructor calls on a group member by his identifier (i.e. number twos). Each team’s designated group member responds with one response in a round-robin fashion. Favorite modification – divide a class by playing cards and call on students to answer questions by the draw-of-the -card
  78. 78. Stand Up and Share Applied Academic Function Effective to reinforce ideas or to provide the foundation for a discussion Assess prior knowledge, practice skills, recall information, analysis of ideas, critical thinking Social Function Builds positive interdependence among team members, listening *Examples may vary
  79. 79. Value Line 1 of 6 Advanced Activities Present an issue or topic to the group and asks each member to determine how they feel about that issue on a scale of 1-5 with one being strong agreement and 5 being strong disagreement. Form a rank ordered line and number the participants from one up (from strong agreement to strong disagreement). On the spot, can be used to form groups for debate, can form discussion groups of 4 by pulling one person from each end of the value line and 2 people from the middle of the group. * It allows the instructor to form groups for discussion.
  80. 80. Value Line Applied Academic Function Analyzing other view points, evaluation information, making decisions, thinking critically Social Function Learning to listen and respect the viewpoints of others Can be used to see values in a spectrum instead of black and white choices. People of good character can disagree.
  81. 81. Value Line Example • Topics that may be used in the value line structure: – Any controversial practice in your field using medical technology to prolong life – Physician-assisted suicide – Cloning – Stem cell research – Drugs for multiple births – Merits of a government-run health care program and whether they consider it a right or a privilege.
  82. 82. Jigsaw 2 of 6 Advanced Activities Each member of a team is assumes responsibility for a specific part of a problem. They are responsible to master their portion of the assignment and teach it to their fellow team members. Group members break out and join members from other teams who are assigned the corresponding topic. The focus group work together to solve the various portions of the “puzzle.” The students return to their home teams and each member turns his/her portion of the assignment and teachers the other group members about the topic. Each student’s part is essential to the completion of the final project.
  83. 83. Jigsaw Applied Academic Function Encourages listening and engagement, and acquisition and presentation of new material, review, and informed debate Social Function Interdependence, status equalization, encourages empathy
  84. 84. Jigsaw Example U.S. History Class is divided into 5 or 6 groups Each group member is assigned a role of research regarding WWII • Member 1: Research Hitler’s rise to power in pre- war Germany • Member 2: Research concentration camps • Member 3: Research the British role in the War • Member 4: Research the Russian role in the confrontation • Member 5: Study Japan and its entry into WWII • Member 6: Research the development of the atomic bomb
  85. 85. Jigsaw Example continued In each of the groups, the assignments are distributed to students in the same way. Once research is complete, students will meet with students from other groups who had the same assignment as they had. Each team of “specialists” will share their research and findings adding to their understanding and making them “experts” on their topic.
  86. 86. Jigsaw Example continued The “experts” return to their original (jigsaw) group and educate the other group members about the topic. Once each “expert” has taught the group about their topic, the entire group has learned about the topic of choice (WWII). A great follow up to the Jigsaw is a group PowerPoint presentation
  87. 87. Paired Annotations 3 of 6 Advanced Activities A pool of articles focusing on a specific topic are identified or students may select their own articles. Students work individually to prepare a reflective commentary on one of the articles. They use a double-column format and cite key points exerted from the source on the left side and reactions, questions, commentary and connections on the right. Students return to class and are randomly paired with another student. The two partners read one another’s commentaries and make comparisons. They then prepare a composite annotation summarizing the article with their shared thoughts; a presentation may be given to the class if time permits.
  88. 88. Paired Annotations Applied Academic Function Metacognition (reflect on individual thinking skills), compare their thinking with that of another students, build critical thinking and writing skills Social Function Cooperation, interdependence
  89. 89. Paired Annotations Example • Use Worksheet • Mark Article with Annotations
  90. 90. Send/Pass a Problem 4 of 6 Advanced Activities Students are grouped by the instructor using the group selection methods noted previously Each group member generates a problem and writes it down on a note-card. Problems can also come from text books or instructor. Each member of the group then asks the question to other members If all group members agree on an answer, the answer is written on the back of the card. If there is no consensus on the answer, the question is revised so that a consensus may be reached
  91. 91. Send/Pass a Problem Applied Academic Function Discuss and review material or potential solutions to problems related to content information Social Function Working cooperatively Interdependence
  92. 92. Send/Pass a Problem Example PD202: Behavioral Interview Question (Leadership) Scenario: You are asked to lead a task where team members are set in their ways. They have seen folks come and go. You ask a team member to discuss how she can improve her efficiency and match her work with department changes. She listens and says “Thanks, but no thanks. I’ll keep doing things my way. Will that be all?” Student Activity: 1.) What do you do? 2.) Why is feedback important for a leader? 3.) You want to bring innovation. What are you first steps? 4.) Can there can be only one leader?
  93. 93. Team Learning 5 of 6 Advanced Activities Create collaborative learning environments in which adults can share the practical knowledge that comes from their life and work experience. Improve the quality of cutting edge projects and assignments. Serve as vehicles for the kind of shared reflection through which adult students make sense of and apply new knowledge. Provide a sense of community and support that is invaluable in helping working adults cope with the challenge of balancing school with other life demands.
  94. 94. Team Learning Charter List Contact and Availability Information What are the general expectations for all members of the team? Expectations for Time Management and Involvement (Participation, communication with the team, accessibility, etc.) Ensuring Fair and Even Contribution and Collaboration What strategy will you use to ensure that all team members are contributing and collaborating appropriately? Describe the communication strategy you will use if a team member is not contributing and collaborating effectively. How will the team manage conflicts between team members? Special Considerations What do you, as a team, agree will make this team experience different from past team experiences?
  95. 95. Info Lit Team Assignment – Video 1
  96. 96. Info Lit Team Assignment – Video 2
  97. 97. Inductive Learning Groups (also team learning) 6 of 6 Advanced Activities Read The Student, the Fish , and Agassiz How did the student learn to see? What can we learn about looking vs. seeing? How can student’s apply this to University studies?
  98. 98. Measure Understanding and Guided Practice Steps 5-6:
  99. 99. Initiate practice activities that are under direct instructor supervision • Use formative assessments – may be interwoven into the other steps • Use correctives for those who do not understand • Use extensions for those who need to be challenged Measure Understanding and Guided Practice
  100. 100. Review and clarify the key points of a lesson. Tie them together into a coherent whole Reinforce and organizes major points Measure Understanding and Guided Practice
  101. 101. • Students continue to practice the use of the skill or knowledge on their own • Essential for mastery • Should have some elements of decontextualization – enough different contexts so that the skill/concept may be applied to any relevant situation...not only the context in which it was originally learned – Homework – Individual or group work at home or in class Independent Practice - Step 7
  102. 102. Closure Step 8 Start/End Agenda Start/End of Class Begins Transition to Future Planning Reinforces Long Term Memory Increases Student Satisfaction Alerts Learner to Deliverables
  103. 103. Summary Lesson Planning Value Lesson Planning Process – Madelyn Hunter 8 Steps – Hook, Book, Look, Took – Interactive Learning
  104. 104. References O'Donnell, E., & Brown, S. (2011). The effect of memory structure and function on consumers’ perception and recall of marketing messages: A review of the memory research in marketing. Academy Of Marketing Studies Journal, 15(1), 71-85. Pohl, M. (2000). Learning to think, thinking to learn: Models and strategies to develop a classroom culture of thinking. New York, NY: Hawker Brownlow. Stallings, J. (1985). A study of implementation of Madeline Hunter's Model and its effects on students. The Journal Of Educational Research, 78(6), 325-337