Five Common but Questionable Principles of Multimedia Learning<br />Lourdes Arnal De Prats<br />Robert Rivas<br />
Principle 1 – Multimedia Instruction Produces More Learning than “Live” Instruction or Other Media<br />Method Confounding...
Principle 1 – Multimedia Instruction Produces More Learning than “Live” Instruction or Older Media<br />Sensory Mode & Lea...
Principle 2 – Multimedia Instruction is More Motivating than Traditional Instructional Media or Live Instructors<br />3 ou...
Principle 2 – Multimedia Instruction is More Motivating than Traditional Instructional Media or Live Instructors<br />Moti...
Activity<br />
Principle 3 – Multimedia Shares Instruction for Different Learning Styles<br />Students’ preferred learning method is ofte...
Principle 4 - Multimedia Instruction Can Provide Active Pedagogical Agents That Increase Motivation and Aid Learning<br />...
Principle 5 - Multimedia Instruction Provides Learner Control and Discovery Pedagogy to Enhance Learning <br />Forty years...
Principle 5 - Multimedia Instruction Provides Learner Control and Discovery Pedagogy to Enhance Learning  <br />Pure disco...
Conclusions<br />Multimedia is effective in reducing the time required to learn.  According to Corbett there was a reducti...
Education Today & Tomorrow<br />
Bad News…<br />Students may be more interested in the technology and their learning is negatively affected by their lack o...
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Ch 6 Presentation

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Ch 6 Presentation

  1. 1. Five Common but Questionable Principles of Multimedia Learning<br />Lourdes Arnal De Prats<br />Robert Rivas<br />
  2. 2. Principle 1 – Multimedia Instruction Produces More Learning than “Live” Instruction or Other Media<br />Method Confounding<br />Learning influenced by instructional methods embedded in instruction<br />Instructional Method = any way to shape information that compensates for or supplants the cognitive processes necessary for achievement or motivation<br />All instructional methods that are necessary for any kind of learning can be presented in a variety of media<br />Learning Benefits due to multimedia alone have not been found<br />
  3. 3. Principle 1 – Multimedia Instruction Produces More Learning than “Live” Instruction or Older Media<br />Sensory Mode & Learning<br />Learners are often overloaded by distractions in multimedia presentations (animations, video, colorful displays, sounds, music, etc.) – think cognitive load theory<br />Integration of visual and narrative descriptions is beneficial to learning, but is not a benefit exclusive to multimedia<br />
  4. 4. Principle 2 – Multimedia Instruction is More Motivating than Traditional Instructional Media or Live Instructors<br />3 outcomes of motivation – (1) active choice, (2) persistence, and (3) mental effort<br />Interest Satisfaction = when students choose multimedia courses over traditional courses for convenience purposes – a negative relationship exists between interest and satisfaction<br />Mental Effort = many instructional strategies & complex screen displays risk overloading working memory<br />Persistence = lack of instructor interaction may result in lack of student persistence<br />
  5. 5. Principle 2 – Multimedia Instruction is More Motivating than Traditional Instructional Media or Live Instructors<br />Motivation to choose multimedia vs. motivation to learn<br />Students expectations of flexibility and ease of learning in multimedia courses may cause reduced effort, and therefore reduced learning.<br />
  6. 6. Activity<br />
  7. 7. Principle 3 – Multimedia Shares Instruction for Different Learning Styles<br />Students’ preferred learning method is often insignificant – learning style inventories usually attribute students with different learning styles<br />Students regularly learn more in instruction that is not their preferred medium<br />Increased instructional support in areas with little prior knowledge reduces risk of cognitive overload<br />
  8. 8. Principle 4 - Multimedia Instruction Can Provide Active Pedagogical Agents That Increase Motivation and Aid Learning<br />Agent<br />Research results are mixed. In some studies the results indicate that motivation and learning is enhanced. Other studies provide confusing findings due to design errors.<br />Well controlled studies provided consistent results: “PPP Persona “agent v. arrows study indicated that cognitive and performance tests were not affected by either media. In conclusion, animated agents do not increase learning<br />Learners may form a social relationship with a computer without the help of an agent<br />
  9. 9. Principle 5 - Multimedia Instruction Provides Learner Control and Discovery Pedagogy to Enhance Learning <br />Forty years of research have not proven the efficacy, efficiency, and successful transfer of skills of unstructured and pure discovery learning<br /> Instructional support is not needed as much as learners gain mastery of basic knowledge.<br />
  10. 10. Principle 5 - Multimedia Instruction Provides Learner Control and Discovery Pedagogy to Enhance Learning <br />Pure discovery learning does not use instructional support; therefore, it imposes large amounts of extraneous cognitive load on novice and intermediate learners. The outcome is more mental effort and less post learning performance<br />Supported instruction for lower levels of ability students resulted in higher scores<br />Trashing or Floundering: Students lack of effective approach to interacting with the learning environment which interference with their ability to draw valid or helpful inferences from simulation outcomes.<br />
  11. 11. Conclusions<br />Multimedia is effective in reducing the time required to learn. According to Corbett there was a reduction of 40% learning time<br />Multimedia is more attractive option for instruction<br />Multimedia advocates emphasis that it is a tool to promote constructivist-based discovery and that it is self paced. Multimedia allows student to navigate between and within lessons.<br />Less time required of expert teachers<br />
  12. 12. Education Today & Tomorrow<br />
  13. 13. Bad News…<br />Students may be more interested in the technology and their learning is negatively affected by their lack of effort.<br />When students lack prior knowledge they do not seem to benefit from self discovery / unstructured instruction<br />Animated pedagogical agents do not seem to increase learning. On the contrary they can produce cognitive overload<br />

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