Biocombustible: Biofuels are alcohols, ethers, esters and other chemicals produced from biomass. Biomass is the amount by weight of live or dead organic matter any trophic level or of any ecosystem. Classified according to their origin: - Biomass natural. - Biomass residual. - Energy crops.
-No increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. -This is a recyclable energy source. -Generates more agricultural economy. -Agricultural surpluses are reduced. -Improved land use with little agricultural value. -Improving competitiveness by not having to import traditional energy sources. Advantages of biofuel
BIOFUELS Biofuels are liquid fuels all of organic origin that come from the various transformations undergone by organic matter.
BIODIESEL It is a biofuel that is obtained from processing of vegetable oils or animal fats. Conventional oils Alternative Vegetable oils Other sources Sunflower Brassica carinata Genetically modified seed oil Colza Cynara curdunculus Animal fats
B20: mezcla de 20% de biodiesel y 80% de diesel normal.
B100: 100% biodiesel.
La tabla indica la reducción de emisiones de gases a la atmósfera respecto a los combustibles fósiles.
Tipes of emisión B 100 B 20 Hidrocarburos totales sin quemar -93 % -30 % Monóxido de carbono -30 % -22 % Partículas en suspensión -30 % -22 % Sulfatos -100 % -20 % Hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAH) -80 % -13 % Hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos nitrogenados (nPAH) -90 % -50 % Potencial de destrucción de la capa de ozono -50 % -10 % Óxidos de nitrógeno +13 % +2 %
Advantages of biodiesel -Environmental and reduction of various emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of sulfur. -Its biodegradability is of 98.3% in 21 days. -Non-toxic. -Techniques: greater lubricity (lengthens life and reduces engine noise) and increased solvent power (there is no soot or obstruct the ducts and the engine stays clean.)
Disadvantages of biodiesel -Biodiesel has a freezing point between 0 º and -5 º. -With the mixture BDP10, low freezing temperature and conforms to the Spanish rules of CFPP for the winter period.
Bioethanol It is an alcohol produced by fermentation of sugars contained in the organic material of plants. In this process, hydrated alcohol is obtained, containing approximately 5% water, which after being dried can be used as fuel.
Types of bioethanol -E5: 5% blend of bioethanol and 95% regular gasoline. -E10: 10% mix of bioethanol and 90% regular gasoline. -E85: a mixture of 85% bioethanol and 15% regular gasoline. -E95 and E100: mixtures up to 95% and 100% ethanol are used in some countries like Brazil. -E-DIESEL: mixture of ethanol and diesel. It provides good characteristics in -terms of combustion and pollution abatement. Already successfully marketed in the U.S. and Brazil, with the appearance in Spain and Europe soon. ETBE: Used as a gasoline additive. Is obtained by synthesis of bioethanol. It has the advantages of being less volatile and more miscible with gasoline. Serves to increase the octane number of gasoline by avoiding the addition of lead salts.
Advantages of bioethanol -It is a renewable fuel source. -Reduce dependence on foreign oil. -It is a cleaner source of fuel. -Increases octane fuel with a small cost. -Use in virtually all vehicles. -Easy to produce and store. -Biofuels emit 40-80% less greenhouse gases. -Bioethanol is environmentally superior to the other major fuels. -Reduces the formation of acid rain. -Improving air quality in urban areas. -It pollutes the water. -With its production can reduce waste
Disadvantages of bioethanol To use pure bioethanol fuel (E100) is required to carry out several modifications in the engine, and thus not significantly affect consumption.
Leading producers of ethanol País Bioetanol (en millones de litros) Brasil 15 EE.UU 13 China 3 India 1
Production of biofuels in the EU in 2004 (in Tm) Alemania España Francia Italia Total UE Biodiesel 1.035.000 13.000 348.000 320.000 1.933.400 Bioetanol - 194.000 - - 491.040 ETBE - 413.000 - -