Foothill College Energy System

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Foothill College Distributed Energy System and Energy Intelligence Ei-cm3

Foothill College Distributed Energy System and Energy Intelligence Ei-cm3

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  • 1. Foothill Energy System Foothill College Fall 2012
  • 2. Big Ideas• Modern utility systems• Foothill’s power grid• Renewable Energy (RE), Distributed generation (DG) and Intelligent Grid (IG)• New Electricity Model• Energy pulse of a building• Energy Intelligence Ei = cm3
  • 3. Important Energy Units• KW => Kilowatts (1,000 watts)• MW => Megawatts (1,000,000 watts)• kWh => Kilowatt-Hours• mWh => Megawatt-Hours• Therms => 100,000 BTU of heat capacity• BTU => British Thermal Units• Joule => one watt-second• KJ => Kilo Joules (~ 0.95 BTU)
  • 4. Modern Utility Systems1) The power plant, where primary energy from fuel is converted to electricity using a generator. 2) High-voltage transmission lines, which efficiently move electricity over large distances from power plants to endusers. These are necessary, because today most power plants are built in remote places far from wherepeople live, since a power plant is seldom a good thing to live beside. 3) A substation is the link between thetransmission system and the distribution system. It "steps down" the voltage to lower levels suitable fordistributing to end users. 4) Transformers reduce the voltage further to levels that can be used by appliancesand machines operated by end users. 5) Local distribution wires move this low-voltage power to end-uselocations, otherwise known as homes, schools and businesses.
  • 5. Foothill Power Grid• 1.5 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) – 100KW PE – 440 KW IH – 1 MW Lots 2-3• 250 KW cogeneration – 4 Capstone micro turbines in PE• Main PG&E utility meter• 75 buildings (8-10 building types)
  • 6. Foothill Energy SystemFoothill College is the ideal test bed for innovative energy technology for clean generation, smart distribution, and efficient end use
  • 7. Large Scale REDistributed Generation
  • 8. Renewable Energy (RE)• Zero emission power!• 1.5 MW (mega-watt) Solar PV• Generates ~ 2 million kWh per year – 25% of our 8M kWh projected load• Produces 80 to 120% of our peak load – Very strong daytime electricity demand• Offsets natural gas (power) on hot days – Saves ~ 1 lb of CO2 for every kWh produced
  • 9. Capstone MicroturbineBenefitsUltra-low emissions (CARB 2003 DG certified)Minimal annual maintenanceDirect2Grid interconnection UL1741, CA Rule 21,NYPSC DG , No fluid storage, leakage, changes,disposal Reduced compression maintenanceAs low as 0.2 psig inlet pressureUncontaminated exhaust heat for sensitive direct-drying applicationsPhase-to-phase balance (0-100%) on stand-aloneunitsSmall footprint, lightweight , Vibration-free, quietoperation . Easy indoor/outdoor/rooftop sittingZero hardware arraying (up to 1.2MW)Optional remote monitoring/dispatchOptional heat recovery moduleOptional 2-to-100-unit PowerServer networkingOptional external gas compressor that servesmultiple unitsAll Capstone MicroTurbines OperateContinuously or On-DemandStand alone or Grid ConnectIndividually or Multi-packRun on a variety of fuels Low or High Pressure Natural Gas Biogas (landfill, wastewater treatment centers, anaerobic) Flare gas , Diesel , Propane , Kerosene
  • 10. Capstone Microturbine Heat Recirculation Waste heat from the generation of electricity is recirculated through a heat exchanger and transferred to a thermal sink, typically district steam, heating a swimming pool, or hot water for a hotel or hospital.
  • 11. Distributed Generation (DG)• Generating power from the inside out• Local generation of electricity – Power generation “inside the meter”• Reduces demand from central plants• PV generation erases HVAC load• Cogeneration heats the swimming pool
  • 12. Distributed Generation + Intelligent Grid VisionMaking Clean Local Energy Accessible Now 12
  • 13. New Electricity Model• Building from the middle out• Large-scale RE ‘inside the meter’• Power generation close to load• Sometimes called a ‘microgrid’• Combines DG, RE, storage and IG – Active load control and balancing – Adv. Meter Data Management (MDM)
  • 14. Smart Energy System Stack Electrical Generation Clean generationFlow of Flow of Energy Smart distribution Information Efficient end use Electrical Use SYS-STEMic Energy principles described in Foothill College NSF-ATE Energy Program proposal October 2010
  • 15. Energy Systems Model fossil-fuel based & centralized 1 Modern Energy SystemsMacrogrid de-c Clean generation bon entr lo w -car alize EMS/DMS/GIS d 2 Large-scale 3 Distributed Renewables Resources inte grat tion io n integra 4 Smart EnergyMicrogrid Smart distribution Systems DR / 2G AM I G 2V/V /HEN 5 Advanced 6 Building Energy Transportation EfficiencyNanogrid Efficient end use
  • 16. Energy Pulse of a Campus • Baseload energy • Start-up (morning) energy • PV production starts • Midday (all systems on) • Afternoon HVAC & PV on • Evening HVAC on, PV off
  • 17. Itron Interval Data 3/1 - 4/15 From the largest power user to the largest power producer => We are a self study in distributed electrical generation
  • 18. Energy Intelligence => Ei=cm3• Ei=cm3• Energy Intelligence from computational: – Monitoring – Modeling – Management• Smart energy systems that integrate: – Clean generation, smart distribution, and efficient end-use (ecomagination principles)
  • 19. Monitor• Gather – Utility meter and bills – PV and cogen inverter output – Submetering of buildings• Organize – Data by month, day, and hour• Inspect – Missing or anomalous data
  • 20. Model• When, where, and how is energy used?• Benchmarking / comparative analysis – How do our buildings perform compared to other public buildings, similar size and use?• Time-of-Use (ToU) – Baseline (baseload) energy – Energy Pulse (Pattern of ToU) – Peak energy demand
  • 21. Manage• How can energy be used better? – Energy Management Systems (EMS) working? – Building Automation Controls (BAC) working?• Have buildings been commissioned? – Monitoring based commissioning (MBCx)• What efficiency projects could be done?• Can ToU be managed to generation? – Alter the aggregate campus energy pulse
  • 22. PSEC Energy AnalysisProgram Analysis Sustainable Design Dept. Blocks/Bldg. Space Planning Site Analysis/Planning Image Study Energy Cost Savings: 30.34 %
  • 23. Active Learning PSEC Winter 2013 planned occupancy
  • 24. Smart Home Metering
  • 25. Building Science and Performance Engineering Remediation Analysis, BPI Plug Loads Benchmarking Energy Efficiency Solar PV AMI/DR Cogen Onsite Generation Building EMS HAN/HEN Fuel cell BEMS/ITIs this an industry, a building strategy, a set of SI competencies, or an ES-CO professional?
  • 26. Summary• Foothill College’s energy system – PV, cogen, utility power feed• Distributed Generation (DG)• Intelligent Grid (IG)• New Electricity Model• Energy pulse of a building• Energy Intelligence => Ei=cm3
  • 27. Zimride Ridesharing• Facebook trust platform• Locate drivers/riders near you• Keep track of rides, trip (VMT) and GHG reduction• Ridesharing networks• Ridesharing culture
  • 28. Ridesharing Culture Social engineering for a world with fewer cars, less petroleum, and a genuine desire to collaborate
  • 29. Social Transportation Networks => ToolsFlows of vehicles that have Flows of people that have positions and paths schedules and destinations V (P,P) <= Social Transportation Tools => P (S,D)
  • 30. Ridesharing Corridors San FranciscoSkyline Daly CityFoothill Palo AltoDe Anza Cupertino San Jose