ENGR40 – Clean Energy Technology Course Overview
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ENGR40 – Clean Energy Technology Course Overview

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overview lecture for ENGR40 Introduction to Clean Energy Technology

overview lecture for ENGR40 Introduction to Clean Energy Technology

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ENGR40 – Clean Energy Technology Course Overview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ENGR40 – Clean Energy Course Introduction
  • 2. Overview
    • Course goals
    • How we got here
      • Fossil fuel dependence
    • Consequences of inaction
      • Economic, energy security, environment
    • Technology solutions
    • Systems and wedges
    • Takeaways => insights and skills
  • 3. Course Goals
    • Understand the nature of global energy technology, systems, economics => today
    • Understand the drivers for change
    • Evaluate / design clean energy solutions
    • Recognize power system technology
    • Perform basic energy audit/benchmarking
      • Take the first step to becoming an energy professional => training for an ESCO
  • 4. ENGR 40 Course Map
    • Course overview – goals, schedule
    • A world of energy
    • Central power systems
    • Distributed power systems (microgrids)
    • Solar PV fundamentals
    • Utility scale wind and solar PV (> 250 MW)
    • Energy storage
    • Transportation solutions
    • Buildings as systems
    • Smart energy solutions
    • Markets and policy
    • Megacities and integrated systems
  • 5. Foothill Campus Energy Foothill College is a microcosm for the new electricity model – distributed generation, local management (holarchy model) and EV integration
  • 6. How we got here…
    • From agrarian to the industrial age
      • wood => charcoal => coal => oil => gas
      • energy was abundant , cheap , easy to get to
    • Significant population rise 1750 to 2000
    • Significant rise in wealth and energy use
    • Dependence on fossil fuels (80% primary)
    • We are out growing hunter-gatherer model
  • 7. Income and Energy Use Energy consumption and income: A semiparametric panel data analysis
  • 8.  
  • 9. Projected World Energy Use http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption
  • 10. Energy in Terawatts (TW) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_Energy_consumption.png
  • 11. Consequences of Inaction
    • Peak (conventional) oil production
      • Price spikes, supply interruption, recession
    • GHG interactions
      • Radiative forcing and ocean acidification
    • Resource wars
      • Military intervention and geopolitics
    • Continued investment in old models
      • Hunter-gatherer dependence on fossil fuels
  • 12.  
  • 13. Rise in Carbon Emissions http://www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:Global_Carbon_Emission_by_Type_png )
  • 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change
  • 15. Vostok Ice Core Data
    • A perfect correlation between CO 2 , temperature, and sea level
    • For every one ppm CO 2 , sea level rises 1 meter, temp rises .05 C (global)
    • Process takes 100 years to add 1 ppm CO 2 , and reach thermal equilibrium
    This is not just a correlation, this is a complex and dynamic process , with multiple inputs. Touching one input affects all other inputs , and increases in temperature becomes a further feedback and multiplier of these inputs.
  • 16. Drivers for Clean Energy
    • Economic
      • Price stability / predictability
      • Balance of payments (trade)
    • Environmental
      • Water, air, soil (extraction and combustion)
      • GHG / carbon cycle interactions
    • Energy Security
      • Predictable and assured supply
  • 17. Technology Solutions
    • ‘ Renewable Energy’ (RE)
      • Solar PV and CSP, Wind, and Geothermal
    • Transportation solutions
      • EVs, advanced biofuels, high efficiency ICE
    • Building energy and electrical efficiency
    • Energy storage and conversion
    • Smart grid (DG/MG) infrastructure
    • Nuclear technology (III/IV)
  • 18. Quadrants of Technology
    • Renewables
      • Solar
      • Wind
      • Geothermal
    • Transportation
      • Efficiency (mpg)
      • EV technology
      • Charging network
    • Advanced biofuels
      • Cellulosic ethanol
      • Algal (biodiesel / JP4)
      • Yeast (petroleum)
    • Smart energy
      • Energy efficiency
      • Smart Grid (AMI)
      • Active management
  • 19. MIT Wedge Model
    • C arbon M itigation I nitiative (Princeton) stabilization (wedge) concept (game)
    • http://cmi.princeton.edu/wedges/
    • 15 technology solutions to achieve significant GHG reduction by 2050
    • Each wedge lowers GHGs by 1B tons
    • Independent solutions approach
      • Doesn’t require synergy / technology
  • 20. Stabilization Path to 2050
  • 21.  
  • 22. Systems Thinking
    • Electron Economy model
      • Integrated energy services
    • Electricity holarchy / application platform
    • Systemic energy principles
      • Clean generation, smart distribution, and efficient end use (GE ecomagination®)
    • Integrated energy design model
      • Buildings, industrial process, transportation
  • 23.  
  • 24. Systemic Energy
    • Clean generation
      • Renewable energy, emission free, low carbon (CCS), and distributed generation
    • Smart distribution
      • Smart grid, application platform model
    • Efficient end-use
      • High efficiency buildings and transportation solutions
  • 25. Smart Energy System Stack Clean generation Smart distribution Efficient end use Flow of Energy Flow of Information Electrical Generation Electrical Use SYS-STEMic Energy principles described in Foothill College NSF-ATE Energy Program proposal October 2010
  • 26. Concentrating Solar Power
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. NASA Sustainability Base
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. Advanced Biofuels
    • “ Feedstock production would generate most jobs in the advanced biofuel industry, with construction, engineering and procurement also creating employment. The group estimates a direct annual contribution to US economic growth of $5.5bn in 2012 and $37bn by 2022. The full economic impact could reach nearly $150bn by 2022, according to the report. Advanced biofuels, or second generation biofuels, are those that rely on non-food feedstock and offer vastly improved energy output and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Some advanced biofuels are those that use cellulosic technology while others include fats, animal manure and organic material feedstock found in urban waste. The US Defense Department is also aggressively investigating algae use for fuels, which would require less space to cultivate than grains or oilseeds.”
    http://www.rechargenews.com/regions/north_america/article172802.ece
  • 33. Ridesharing Culture Social technology for a world with fewer cars, less petroleum, and a genuine desire to collaborate
  • 34. Impediment to Change
    • Fossil fuel is institutionalized
      • Carbon economy and political lobby
    • Energy systems are based on ‘heat’
      • Legacy of steam engines prevails today
    • Electricity (EVs) and RE are ‘alternative’
      • Need to develop mainstream ‘electron’ mindset
    • Biofuels face significant scaling problem
    • GHG forcing models not fully understood
  • 35. Course Takeaways
    • We are really in crisis => economic, resource, environment. Hunter-gather model is broken .
    • Fossil fuel dependence is a choice , it is an ‘ addiction ’, and we can choose a new path .
    • We have the technology to make this transition => building blocks of a clean energy system .
    • It takes time to change and implement => we need to start immediately to reach key goals .
    • Failure to act could be disastrous => catastrophic
    • A clean energy future enables real prosperity
  • 36. Assignments / Projects
    • Weekly (short) writing assignments
    • Current events (sharing)
    • Take home exercises (calculations)
    • Midterm (concepts and vocabulary use)
    • Final project / writing assignment
      • Hands-on building / community project
      • Energy system analysis / design
  • 37. Listservs / Seminars
    • Cleantechnica
    • GreenTech Media
    • Energy Collective
    • Energy Seminar (Stanford)
    • PARC Seminar (cleantechnology)
  • 38. News and Events
    • Weekly news stories
    • Bring the story, some numbers, and how it fits into the energy ecosystem
    • Clean technology
    • Markets / policy
    • Energy economy
    Powered by Coal CNBC 60 Minutes http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4969902n
  • 39. ETUDES-NG
  • 40. Summary
    • Course provides an overview of modern energy systems, and the current ‘situation’
    • Introduces clean energy technology, (RE) Renewable Energy, and how each works
    • Systems thinking is essential in design and implementation to meet key goals
    • There are numerous/key challenges and careers that need your engineering skills!
    Let’s get started and make this happen!
  • 41. Contact Information
    • Robert D. Cormia
      • [email_address]
      • Office 4131 650.949.7456
    • Jamie F. Orr
      • [email_address]
      • Adjunct office / phone contact
    • http://fgamedia.org/faculty/rdcormia/ENGR40
    • Lab meets Tuesday from 3:00 to 5:50 p.m.
    • Lecture meets Tuesday from 6 p.m. to 9ish
  • 42. Energy Units to Know Well
    • Quads – 10 15 BTU => world energy is in Quads
    • BTU - 1 Btu (British thermal unit) = 1055.06 J = 107.6 kpm = 2.931 10 -4  kWh = 0.252 kcal = 778.16 ft.lbf = 1.05510 10  ergs = 252 cal = 0.293 watt-hours
    • Joule (1 watt-second) 1 joule = 0.00094781712 btu
    • Watt - one joule per second , the rate of energy in an electric circuit where the potential difference is one volt and current one ampere => watt is a unit of power (rate of energy)
    • kWh – 1,000 watts for one hour => unit of energy 3,600 Joules
    • mWh – 1,000,000 watts for one hour => unit of energy 3.6M J
    • Therms – 100,000 BTU => therm is a unit of heat/natural gas
    • Hours in a year => 8,760 (you will use this number a lot)
  • 43. Total World Energy ENGR40 Foothill College
  • 44. Energy in Terawatts (TW) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_Energy_consumption.png
  • 45. What can we know from this info-graphic?
    • Total energy in quads
      • Convert terawatt to watt-second to joules to BTU (write it out and use all your units!)
    • Total ‘mass’ of each fuel type
      • Coal ~10,000 BTU/pound
      • Petroleum is ~5.8M BTU/barrel
      • Gas is 100,000 BTU/ cubic foot
    • Total emissions from each fuel type
      • Work back to mass of carbon => CO 2
  • 46. Working in Terawatts
    • Convert TW to tWh => multiply by 8760
    • Convert tWh to kWh (divide watts/1000)
    • Convert kWh to BTU (multiply by 3412)
    • Terawatts is not that tricky (it is a RATE of energy use) and shows total energy trends
    • If we are 15TW today (2011) how many Quads is that? What about in 2035-2050?
    • Think about energy efficiency as a lever…
  • 47. Converting to GHGs
    • Convert BTU to pounds of carbon coal (10,000 BTU/pound) then correct for C:H (85:15) then multiply by 3.7 pounds CO 2 per pound carbon
    • Convert BTU petroleum to barrels (~5.8M BTU/barrel) then ~7 pounds (-CH 2 -) per gallon. Convert to moles (or correct for C/H ratio CH 2 )
    • Natural gas is 1020 BTU/cubic foot and 1.26 moles per cubic foot. Convert Quads => moles CH4 = moles CO 2 . convert to pounds/tons
    • Hint: one mole CO 2 is roughly 0.1 pounds CO 2
  • 48. Working with info-graphics
    • One picture can be worth 1,000 data points, especially if it is a trending graphic
    • Try to calculate numbers from data points, see if the data are ‘internally consistent’.
    • What other things can you learn from a graph? (We calculated quads and GHGs)
    • Can you project the future, or ‘federate’ with other data (global/capita GDP, and energy use). What will the future look like?