A World of Energy

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  • 1. A World of Energy ENGR40 Foothill College
  • 2. Overview
    • What is Energy?
    • Units and conversion
    • World energy use
      • Trends
      • Projections
    • Energy by type and use
      • EROI (conversion), and emissions
    • Designing an energy system for GHGs?
  • 3. What is Energy?
    • Capacity to do work
    • Intrinsic energy
      • Chemical
      • Electromagnetic, kinetic, thermal, etc
    • In  physics ,  energy  ( Ancient Greek : ἐνέργεια  energeia  "activity, operation" [1] ) is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a  physical system  has to do  work  on other physical systems. [2] [3]  Since work is defined as a  force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy
  • 4. Energy Units and Conversion
    • Ergs - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erg
    • Joules - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joules
    • Watt - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watt
    • BTU - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BTU
    • kWh - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KWh
  • 5. Terminology
    • Energy density (wh/m3)
    • Power density (w/m3)
    • Specific energy (energy/mass)
    • EROEI – Energy Return on Energy Invested (a key metric for energy)
    • Emission factor – carbon dioxide profile (this can be in ‘ CO 2 equivalents’ or LCA)
  • 6. Energy Density / Specific Energy
  • 7.  
  • 8. World Energy Use
    • Where are we now?
    • How did we get here?
    • Where are we headed?
    • What are our needs?
    • What is/there a plan?
  • 9. Projected World Energy Use http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption
  • 10. World Energy by Type and End Use
    • New Scientist has a  topic guide on Energy and Fuels . Their nice infographics shows  World Energy use  by fuel type (oil, coal, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydro) and usage (transport, electricity, industry and residential/other). http://energycrash.blogspot.com/2009_08_01_archive.html
  • 11. Estimated Daily Consumption of Energy per Capita at Different Historical Points  Adapted from: E. Cook, "The Flow of Energy in an Industrial Society"  Scientific American , 1971 p. 135 .
  • 12. Income and Energy Use Energy consumption and income: A semiparametric panel data analysis
  • 13.  
  • 14. US Energy Flows Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories
  • 15. World Energy Use – by Source
    • First there was wood …
    • Then there was charcoal
    • Next came (mineral) coal
    • Followed by petroleum , natural gas
    • Hydroelectric (from paddle wheels)
    • Wind (pumping) to turbines
    • Geothermal (steam => electric)
    • Solar (thermal, PV, and CSP)
    • Nuclear energy (power)
  • 16. First there was Fire Incontrovertible evidence of widespread control of fire dates to approximately 125,000 years ago and later. [
  • 17. Wood
    • The earth contains about 1 trillion tons of wood, which grows at a rate of 10 billion tons/y. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood
    • The Amount of Energy in Wood Fuel
      • http://mb-soft.com/juca/print/311.html
    • In a laboratory, it is possible to get about 8660 Btu/lb of dry wood fuel (~6000 wet)
    • Wood was (once) abundant, and affordable  
  • 18. Charcoal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal
    • Charcoal is the dark grey residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis , the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen (see pyrolysis, char, and biochar). The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resembles coal.
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Coal
    • Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal
  • 22. Chemical Structure of Coal - Struktura_chemiczna_węgla_kamiennego.svg
    • The structure of coal comprises a mixture of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) including lesser amounts of hydrogenated carbon, and both oxygen (ether) and sulfide linking. Stoichiometrically it is about 85% C and 15% H.
  • 23.  
  • 24. Petroleum
    • Petroleum (L. petroleum, from Greek: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
  • 25. Petroleum and Octane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
  • 26. Proven Oil Reserves http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
  • 27.  
  • 28. Total World reserves of ‘oil’
    • The majority of world oil supplies are ‘unconventional’ leading to development of ‘tar sands’ or ‘oil sands’, which are also called bitumen. Canada and Venezuela have the largest amount of unconventional petroleum, significantly exceeding all conventional petroleum reserves.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Natural Gas
    • Natural gas  is a  gas  consisting primarily of  methane , typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons ( primarily ethane ). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in  coal beds , as  methane clathrates , and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for  fertilizers .
    • Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in  marshes ,  bogs ,  landfills , and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas
  • 32. Methane
  • 33. Methane Hydrates (methane in ice) off Oregon coast http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate
    • Methane clathrate , also called  methane hydrate ,  hydromethane ,  methane ice , "fire ice" and  natural gas hydrate , is a solid  clathrate compound  (more specifically, a  clathrate hydrate ) in which a large amount of  methane  is trapped within a  crystal  structure of water, forming a solid similar to  ice .
  • 34. Methane Hydrates http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane_clathrate
  • 35.  
  • 36. Biomass Energy
    • Biofuel  is a type of fuel which is in some way derived from  biomass . The term covers  solid biomass ,  liquid fuels  and various  biogases . Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as  oil price spikes , the need for increased  energy security , concern over  greenhouse gas  emissions from  fossil fuels , and  government subsidies .
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass_energy
  • 37. Ethanol Fuel (Brazil)
  • 38. Algal Biofuels “ The global biofuels industry is entering a new decade of emerging opportunities and considerable challenges in reaching 2020 targets. The global economic recession is already shaking out many of the would-be players in a crowded algae space, and favoring new players with improved strategies . ” http://www.chem.info/Articles/2010/03/Alternative-Energy-Algae-Investment-Trends-Advanced-Biofuels-Insight/
  • 39. Hydroelectric Energy
    • “ Hydroelectricity  is the term referring to  electricity  generated by  hydropower ; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of  renewable energy . Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the  greenhouse gas   carbon dioxide  (CO 2 ) than  fossil fuel powered energy plants. Worldwide, an installed capacity of 777  GWe  supplied 2998 TWh of hydroelectricity in 2006. [1]  This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources. [2] “
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity
  • 40. Hydroelectric Energy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity
  • 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity Hydroelectric Energy
  • 42. Geothermal Energy Global capacity of geothermal electric power plants. Upper line is nameplate capacity, lower line is realized production. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_electricity
  • 43. Solar (PV and CSP) Solar areas defined by the dark disks could provide more than the world's total primary energy demand (assuming a conversion efficiency of 8%). That is, all energy currently consumed, including heat, electricity, fossil fuels, etc., would be produced in the form of electricity by solar cells. The colors in the map show the local solar irradiance averaged over three years from 1991 to 1993 (24 hours a day) taking into account the cloud coverage available from weather satellites. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46. Wind Energy
    • Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network.  At the end of 2010, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 197 gigawatts (GW). Energy production was 430 TWh, which is about 2.5% of worldwide electricity usage.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power (Economist and Global Wind Energy Council)
  • 47.  
  • 48. Nuclear Energy
    • Nuclear power  is the use of sustained  nuclear fission  to generate heat and do useful work.  Nuclear power plants  provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, [1]  with the  U.S. ,  France , and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity. [2]  In 2007, the  IAEA  reported there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, [3]  operating in 31 countries. [4]  Also, more than 150 naval vessels using  nuclear propulsion  have been built.
    • As of 2005, nuclear power provided 6.3% of the world's energy and 15% of the world's electricity, with the  U.S. ,  France , and  Japan  together accounting for 56.5% of nuclear generated electricity. [2]  
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power
  • 49. Susquehanna steam electric station (Wikipedia)
    • The  Susquehanna Steam Electric Station , a  nuclear power station , is in  Luzerne County, Pennsylvania , just south of  Shickshinny , in Salem Township, Pennsylvania , United States. It is operated by  PPL  and has two  General Electric   boiling water reactors  on a site. Susquehanna produces 63 million kilowatt hours per day. It has been in operation since 1983.
  • 50. GHGs as a Design Goal
    • What have we learned?
    • Income to energy use (~10,000 BTU / $)
    • ~80% of BTUs are derived from carbon
    • ~400 Quads of carbon energy today
    • Conversion of carbon => CO 2 emissions
      • What is the energy needed in next 25 years?
      • What are the anticipated emissions (2015-2035)
      • Can we stay under 450 ppm atmospheric CO 2 ?
  • 51. Global Population http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population
  • 52. World Real GDP / Capita http://www.google.com/publicdata/ and active explorer link UN Data, IMF, and US Census Data
  • 53. World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook - http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
  • 54. World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook - http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
  • 55. World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook - http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
  • 56. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumption
  • 57. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have risen sharply since the Industrial Revolution. Source: Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. 2005. Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
  • 58. CO 2 Emissions => ppm CO 2 How Much of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Accumulation Is Anthropogenic? Gary W. Harding - http://accurate.clemson.edu/becker/prtm320/commons/carbon3.html
  • 59. CO 2 Emissions => ppm CO 2 How Much of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Accumulation Is Anthropogenic? Gary W. Harding - http://accurate.clemson.edu/becker/prtm320/commons/carbon3.html
  • 60. References
    • Energy Portal: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Energy
    • Renewable Energy Portal - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Renewable_energy
    • Energy Information Association - http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
    • Historical Perspectives of Energy Consumption – http://www.wou.edu/
    • BP Statistical Analysis of World Energy - http://www.bp.com/
    • American Wind Energy Association - http://www.awea.org/
    • Solar Energy Industry Association - http://www.seia.org/
    • Advanced Biofuels Association - http://www.advancedbiofuelsassociation.com/
    • American Petroleum Institute - http://www.api.org/
    • Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center - http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/faq.html