202, Life of Christ, Section 10b Passion Crucifixion Resurrection
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202, Life of Christ, Section 10b Passion Crucifixion Resurrection

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Notes from Life Transforming College International Course No. 202: The Life of Christ

Notes from Life Transforming College International Course No. 202: The Life of Christ

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    202, Life of Christ, Section 10b Passion Crucifixion Resurrection 202, Life of Christ, Section 10b Passion Crucifixion Resurrection Presentation Transcript

    • Passion, crucifixion and resurrection Section 10b Saturday, 12 October 13
    • The final hours of Jesus Thursday After sundown Last supper Prayer in garden Betrayal and arrest Thursday-Friday Nighttime Custody Hearing before Annas Trial before Caiaphas Peter’s denial Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Friday Early morning Sanhedrin completes deliberation Jesus sent to Pilate for hearing Jesus sent to Herod Jesus returns to Pilate Late morning / noon Jesus nailed to the cross Mid-afternoon Jesus dies Near sundown Jesus buried Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Friday: the trials and crucifixion of Jesus Mk 14:53-15:1 Jesus has been arrested - he is brought before the Jewish leaders in 3 phases - informal hearing before Annas - more formal trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin (whilst it is still dark) - a brief approval of the night time verdict by the same court - possibly making the whole thing look more legal Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Friday: the trials and crucifixion of Jesus Mk 14:53-15:1 Jesus has been arrested - he is brought before the Jewish leaders in 3 phases - informal hearing before Annas - more formal trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin (whilst it is still dark) - a brief approval of the night time verdict by the same court - possibly making the whole thing look more legal Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Friday: the trials and crucifixion of Jesus Mk 14:53-15:1 Jesus has been arrested - he is brought before the Jewish leaders in 3 phases - informal hearing before Annas - more formal trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin (whilst it is still dark) - a brief approval of the night time verdict by the same court - possibly making the whole thing look more legal Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before Annas Jn 18:12-14, 19-23 Annas was the father in law of Caiaphas and his predecessor as high priest (6-15AD) - Jews would have believed this position was held for life and so Annas was still rightfully the HP - so taking Jesus to Annas was a sign of respect for him - Jesus is blunt in his answers, nothing new is revealed to Annas - Jesus is struck and points out the injustice of this - Blomberg suggests we see in John that Jesus is not on trial but the Jewish authorities are on trial before him 12 Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus.They bound him 13 and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year. 14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the Jewish leaders that it would be good if one man died for the people... 19 Meanwhile, the high priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. 20 ‘I have spoken openly to the world,’ Jesus replied.‘I always taught in synagogues or at the temple, where all the Jews come together. I said nothing in secret. Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before Annas Jn 18:12-14, 19-23 Annas was the father in law of Caiaphas and his predecessor as high priest (6-15AD) - Jews would have believed this position was held for life and so Annas was still rightfully the HP - so taking Jesus to Annas was a sign of respect for him - Jesus is blunt in his answers, nothing new is revealed to Annas - Jesus is struck and points out the injustice of this - Blomberg suggests we see in John that Jesus is not on trial but the Jewish authorities are on trial before him 21 Why question me? Ask those who heard me. Surely they know what I said.’ 22 When Jesus said this, one of the officials near by slapped him in the face.‘Is this the way you answer the high priest?’ he demanded. 23 ‘If I said something wrong,’ Jesus replied,‘testify as to what is wrong. But if I spoke the truth, why did you strike me?’24 Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before Annas Jn 18:12-14, 19-23 Annas was the father in law of Caiaphas and his predecessor as high priest (6-15AD) - Jews would have believed this position was held for life and so Annas was still rightfully the HP - so taking Jesus to Annas was a sign of respect for him - Jesus is blunt in his answers, nothing new is revealed to Annas - Jesus is struck and points out the injustice of this - Blomberg suggests we see in John that Jesus is not on trial but the Jewish authorities are on trial before him Saturday, 12 October 13
    • 60 Then the high priest stood up before them and asked Jesus, ‘Are you not going to answer?What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?’ 61 But Jesus remained silent and gave no answer. Again the high priest asked him,‘Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?’ 62 ‘I am,’ said Jesus.‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’ 63 The high priest tore his clothes.‘Why do we need any more witnesses?’ he asked. 64 ‘You have heard the blasphemy.What do you think?’ They all condemned him as worthy of death. 65 Then some began to spit at him; they blindfolded him, struck him with their fists, and said,‘Prophesy!’And the guards took him and beat him. Before the Sanhedrin at night - the scene inside - Jesus’ confession Mk 14:53-65  They took Jesus to the high priest, and all the chief priests, the elders and the teachers of the law came together. 54 Peter followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest.There he sat with the guards and warmed himself at the fire. 55 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any.56 Many testified falsely against him, but their statements did not agree. 57 Then some stood up and gave this false testimony against him: 58 ‘We heard him say,“I will destroy this temple made with human hands and in three days will build another, not made with hands.”’ 59 Yet even then their testimony did not agree. Saturday, 12 October 13
    • 60 Then the high priest stood up before them and asked Jesus, ‘Are you not going to answer?What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you?’ 61 But Jesus remained silent and gave no answer. Again the high priest asked him,‘Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?’ 62 ‘I am,’ said Jesus.‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’ 63 The high priest tore his clothes.‘Why do we need any more witnesses?’ he asked. 64 ‘You have heard the blasphemy.What do you think?’ They all condemned him as worthy of death. 65 Then some began to spit at him; they blindfolded him, struck him with their fists, and said,‘Prophesy!’And the guards took him and beat him. Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Jesus now appears before Caiaphas - this is reported in all 3 synoptics and implied in Jn (18:24, 28a) - it is made clear that there was no legitimate charge against Jesus, in fact even the false witnesses could not agree Mk 14:56 - Caiaphas asks Jesus directly,“Are you the Messiah?” - such a question reveals that publicly Jesus had not previously said anything of that nature - Mark then reports Jesus saying “I am” - Matt and Luke have more evasive replies 26:64, 22:67 Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Jesus now appears before Caiaphas - this is reported in all 3 synoptics and implied in Jn (18:24, 28a) - it is made clear that there was no legitimate charge against Jesus, in fact even the false witnesses could not agree Mk 14:56 - Caiaphas asks Jesus directly,“Are you the Messiah?” - such a question reveals that publicly Jesus had not previously said anything of that nature - Mark then reports Jesus saying “I am” - Matt and Luke have more evasive replies 26:64, 22:67 - he then goes further and says they will see him seated at the RHS of the Mighty One in heaven - son of man here is not a human idea but from Daniel 7:13, one like a son of man... - this appears to be the point of blasphemy, Jesus has too closely associated himself with God! - sitting at the RHS is a quote of Ps 110:1 - the Sanhedrin passed the death sentence and those present started to condemn and attack him - they ask him to prophesy who struck him Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before the Sanhedrin at night - the scene outside - Peters’ denial Mk 14:66-72 - Jesus has just admitted his identity, though he will face death for that - Peter fears to admit his identity as a disciple to even the lowest of servants - thus Peter fulfills the earlier prophecy - the cock crows and he remembers the words of Christ - tears flow from Peter - Matt here speaks of Judas’ suicide and his sorrow over what he has done, though he appeals not to Christ for forgiveness but to his enemies Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before the Sanhedrin in the morning - Jesus is taken away Mk 15:1 Luke makes it look like the trial takes place after daybreak but Matt and Mk show the last act of a final consultation takes place before Jesus is taken off to Pilate - probably legal verdicts could not have been taken at night, so the proceedings are briefly repeated Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Before the Sanhedrin in the morning - Jesus is taken away Mk 15:1 Luke makes it look like the trial takes place after daybreak but Matt and Mk show the last act of a final consultation takes place before Jesus is taken off to Pilate - probably legal verdicts could not have been taken at night, so the proceedings are briefly repeated RT France, “when blasphemy has been proven using euphemisms in open court, the chief witness is asked to repeat the offending words verbatim in a closed session so the people as a whole do not hear them, and then ‘the judges stand up on their feet and rend their garments, and they may not mend them again’” Saturday, 12 October 13
    • There appear to be some illegalities about the trial of Jesus (at least according to Mishnaic Law) - could not be tried for a capital offence on the eve of the Sabbath - on a feast day night - without a witness speaking on behalf of the accused However, - we do not know if these laws which apply from 2nd century onwards, applied in the time of Jesus Saturday, 12 October 13
    • There appear to be some illegalities about the trial of Jesus (at least according to Mishnaic Law) - could not be tried for a capital offence on the eve of the Sabbath - on a feast day night - without a witness speaking on behalf of the accused However, - we do not know if these laws which apply from 2nd century onwards, applied in the time of Jesus - if they were current they would not have been supported by the majority Sadducees - there is some allowance for trials during a feast if the person is accused of seducing to idolatry or false prophecy - the people concerned were more flexible in their approach to the law as they saw a higher cause at stake In conclusion, it does not appear the irregularities in this trial were normal for Jewish authorities at the time. Saturday, 12 October 13
    • An age old issue arising from these events is the need to ask whether the Gospels are anti-Semitic (against jews) in assigning blame for the execution of Jesus to Jewish hands? How is Matt 27:25 to be understood? - is it all Jews for all time - is it those who were directly involved at the time of Jesus’ trail and crucifixion Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - does it include those who got caught up in the frenzy of the events of that day - we should remember that some of these people were probably saved later through this same death Acts 2:37, 6:7... - and Pilate, representing Rome, must take a good deal of responsibility - and of course, what of us, wasn’t it for our sin he died? Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Jesus before the Roman authorities Mk 15:2-20a Jn 18:31 - under Roman law the Sanhedrin could not inflict capital punishment - so Jewish authorities have to convince the Roman authorities that crucifixion is right here - the obvious ploy is to talk of Messiah in terms of what Jews had expected, a ruler or deliverer - Rome could not ignore this Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Jesus before the Roman authorities Mk 15:2-20a - in no Gospel does Pilate appear convinced that Jesus is guilty of anything deserving death - Luke 23:6ff explains how Pilate sent him to Herod (in Jerusalem for the feast), hoping he would declare the verdict and get Pilate off the hook - Matt 27:19 adds the detail of Pilates wife dreaming of an “innocent man” Saturday, 12 October 13
    • John paints the picture in 7 scenes - 18:28-19:16 - Pilate, looking for a way out, offers the customary pardoning of a prisoner - Jesus or Barabbas (a notorious terrorist), his name might actually have been Jesus Barabbas as Barabbas (bar-abba) simply means ‘son of the father’ - so the true Son of the Father is given over and a murderer released - Pilate does not want to alienate the Jews for fear of how Rome might view it Saturday, 12 October 13
    • John paints the picture in 7 scenes - 18:28-19:16 - Pilate, looking for a way out, offers the customary pardoning of a prisoner - Jesus or Barabbas (a notorious terrorist), his name might actually have been Jesus Barabbas as Barabbas (bar-abba) simply means ‘son of the father’ - so the true Son of the Father is given over and a murderer released - Pilate does not want to alienate the Jews for fear of how Rome might view it - Jesus is flogged using the verberatio, an unspecified number of lashes with a metal tipped rope - sometimes this in itself was enough to kill the prisoner as it tore into the skin and muscles of the back - Jesus is mocked as they place a robe, crown and sceptre on him Mk 15:17ff - Jesus is then delivered off to be crucified Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Crucifixion Mk 15:20b-47 General observations: Crucifixion is believed to be one of the cruelest forms of death ever devised - full of shame and pain - usually reserved for the worst slaves and criminals - the cross bar was carried to the place of execution then arms tied to it and /or nails driven through the wrists - ankles were also fixed in that way Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Crucifixion Mk 15:20b-47 - a footrest was there in some, but only to make the pain and torture last longer - crosses were either X or t shaped - there is no definitive evidence to suggest which was used for Jesus though as time wore on the latter was favoured - death was by suffocation and could take a couple of days - birds etc. could attack the body and waste would flow freely from it Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Crucifixion Mk 15:20b-47 - Jesus died quickly - was this the result of the flogging? - the Gospels testify that Jesus chose the time to die, crying out in a loud voice and entrusting himself to God - by Jews crucifixion was considered the same as hanging on a tree, and therefore Jesus was thought cursed Dt 21:22, 1 Cor 1:23 Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Looking at Jesus - between midmorning and noon Jesus is delivered to be crucified - he is led through jerusalem on the via dolorosa (sorrowful way) - already weak and close to death Jesus is unable to carry the crossbeam all the way and Simon of Cyrene is forced to carry it the rest of the way - Golgotha was probably a busy road junction and thus acted as a warning to people who passed by - Blomberg says he was crucified between two insurrectionists (not thieves) Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - Jesus hung on the cross for 3 hours - as he was hanging there and interacting with people, 7 sayings from the cross have been pieced together - he is offered exotic perfumed wine Mk 15:23 - which would not have really affected the pain but was part of the mockery - they gamble for his clothes - arguably he would have been naked on the cross - Jn 19:20 refers to the titulus above the cross and which declared his crime in 3 languages Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - Jesus hung on the cross for 3 hours - as he was hanging there and interacting with people, 7 sayings from the cross have been pieced together - he is offered exotic perfumed wine Mk 15:23 - which would not have really affected the pain but was part of the mockery - they gamble for his clothes - arguably he would have been naked on the cross - Jn 19:20 refers to the titulus above the cross and which declared his crime in 3 languages Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - passers by taunt him as do the others being crucified, though one of them seems to have a change of heart as he sees how Jesus dies Lk 23:39-42 The 7 words reveal Jesus’ ongoing love and concern even as he faces death, they are: 1. Father forgive them... 2.Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise - (the descent of Jesus into Hell is not taught directly here) Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - passers by taunt him as do the others being crucified, though one of them seems to have a change of heart as he sees how Jesus dies Lk 23:39-42 The 7 words reveal Jesus’ ongoing love and concern even as he faces death, they are: 1. Father forgive them... 2.Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise - (the descent of Jesus into Hell is not taught directly here) 3.Woman here is your son...here is your mother 4. My God, my God why have you forsaken me - abandoned by the God he had fellowshipped with throughout his earthly life - he bore sin and took the wrath of God 5. I am thirsty Jn 19:28 6. It is finished Jn 19:30 7. Father into your hands I commit my spirit Lk 23:46 - in contrast to the abandonment felt earlier Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Events immediately after Jesus’ death From noon until 3pm there was darkness 15:33 - the veil of the temple was torn in two Mk 15:38 - the centurion standing guard, sees how Christ died and is convinced of his innocence - earthquake Matt 27:51 - tombs are opened and the dead raised to life Matt 27:52-53 - why, who, for how long, what happened next? Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Events immediately after Jesus’ death From noon until 3pm there was darkness 15:33 - the veil of the temple was torn in two Mk 15:38 - the centurion standing guard, sees how Christ died and is convinced of his innocence - earthquake Matt 27:51 - tombs are opened and the dead raised to life Matt 27:52-53 - why, who, for how long, what happened next? Jesus is buried - Joseph of Arimathea (Sanhedrin member) asks Pilate for the body - Jews would not have wanted a dead body defiling the land during the Sabbath which would begin at nightfall - Joseph is seen as a good man not approving of the councils decision and a disciple of Jesus Lk 23:50f, Matt 27:57 - Nicodemus also appears in Jn 19:39 though nothing is specified as to the reason Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - Jesus is buried in a newly made rock tomb - lots of spices are used - a group of women who have been present all day watch in readiness for the process to continue after the Sabbath Mk 15:40ff - only Matt talks of a special guard requested by the Jews Matt 27:62ff - in spite of this on a human level it appears that at this time all think Jesus has gone for good Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - Jesus is buried in a newly made rock tomb - lots of spices are used - a group of women who have been present all day watch in readiness for the process to continue after the Sabbath Mk 15:40ff - only Matt talks of a special guard requested by the Jews Matt 27:62ff - in spite of this on a human level it appears that at this time all think Jesus has gone for good Saturday, 12 October 13
    • - Jesus is buried in a newly made rock tomb - lots of spices are used - a group of women who have been present all day watch in readiness for the process to continue after the Sabbath Mk 15:40ff - only Matt talks of a special guard requested by the Jews Matt 27:62ff - in spite of this on a human level it appears that at this time all think Jesus has gone for good Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13
    • Saturday, 12 October 13