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Introduction to Christian Philosophy: session 1a introduction
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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Christian Philosophy LTCi Course #703
  • 2. What is philosophy? Whatever we conclude philosophy is we shall be doing some serious thinking about it
  • 3. Le Penseur! …a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin. The work shows a nude male figure at about life-size sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand as though deep in thought, and is often used as an image to represent philosophy. There are about 28 full size castings, in which the figure is about 186 centimetres (73 in) high. Rodin first conceived the figure as part of another work in 1880, but the familiar castings did not appear until 1904
  • 4. “Philosophy is generally regarded as perhaps the most abstruse (difficult to understand) and abstract of all subjects far removed from the affairs of ordinary life… but nearly all of us have some philosophical views, whether we are aware of them or not…although most people are vague about what philosophy is, the term frequently appears in their conversation.”! Philosophy Made Simple
  • 5. The word philosophy is derived from the Greek terms meaning “love of wisdom”! A few examples of how it is used:! - an attitude towards certain activities, a philosophy of business! - an encouragement to be philosophical can mean to take a long range, detached view of things when encountering certain immediate problems
  • 6. - when facing disappointment we suggest people should be more philosophical (don’t be too concerned about the immediate events but put them in perspective)! - being philosophical is evaluating or interpreting what is important in life
  • 7. - when facing disappointment we suggest people should be more philosophical (don’t be too concerned about the immediate events but put them in perspective)! - being philosophical is evaluating or interpreting what is important in life
  • 8. Philosophy uses (many) questions in its search for answers. We enter the subject wanting answers to the big questions of life and then realise that those questions lead us into more questions and those into more and…! What’s the meaning of life, does God exist, how should I live…all result in more questions that need to be answered in order to answer the original questions
  • 9. Philosophy uses (many) questions in its search for answers. We enter the subject wanting answers to the big questions of life and then realise that those questions lead us into more questions and those into more and…! What’s the meaning of life, does God exist, how should I live…all result in more questions that need to be answered in order to answer the original questions
  • 10. This joke illustrates a problem with philosophy:! Raj comes home to find his wife and his best friend, Manu, naked together in bed. Just as Raj is about to open his mouth, Manu jumps out of the bed and says, “Before you say anything, old pal, what are you going to believe, me or your eyes?”! The question becomes: what information about the world can we believe and depend on, what can we trust? (In this case is sight the best way to gather information about the world?)
  • 11. Some classic philosophical questions How do we know our universe is real?! Do we have free will?! Does God exist?! Is there life after death?! Can we objectively know anything?! What is the best system of morality?
  • 12. Some classic philosophical questions What is good / what is evil?! Are you morally responsible for what you think?! What is time?! Can we know truth without evidence?
  • 13. Some classic philosophical questions What is love - can I know true love?! Is lying ever right?! What is intelligence?! When does life begin?! What is consciousness?! What makes you you?
  • 14. What is philosophy?
  • 15. What is philosophy?
  • 16. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 17. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 18. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 19. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 20. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 21. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 22. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 23. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 24. Metaphysics - the nature of the world / existence of Gods! Logic - ways to think / argue! Epistemology - what do we know / how do we know! Ethics - how do we tell right from wrong! Political philosophy - what is the best form of government! Aesthetics - what is beauty
  • 25. Philosophy as defined by philosophers “Philosophy is the successful love of thinking.” ! John Armstrong
  • 26. Philosophy as defined by philosophers Philosophy is thinking really hard about the most important questions and trying to bring analytic clarity both to the questions and the answers.” ! Marilyn Adams
  • 27. Critical thinking seems to be important to philosophers:! “I don’t think it’s any one thing, but I think generally it involves being critical and reflective about things that most people take for granted.”! Allen Buchanan
  • 28. And philosophers seem keen to make sense of things,! “I think it’s thinking fundamentally clearly and well about the nature of reality and our place in it, so as to understand better what goes on around us, and what our contribution is to that reality, and its effect on us.” ! Barry Smith
  • 29. And philosophers like to ask about presuppositions (things assumed before starting a discussion etc.),! “Philosophy is thinking as clearly as possible about the most fundamental concepts that reach through all the disciplines.” ! Anthony Kenny
  • 30. phi·los·o·phy http:// www.thefreedictionary.com/philosophy ! 1. Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline.! 2. Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.! 3. A system of thought based on or involving such inquiry: the philosophy of Hume.! 4. The critical analysis of fundamental assumptions or beliefs.
  • 31. 5. The disciplines presented in university curriculums of science and the liberal arts, except medicine, law, and theology.! 6. The discipline comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology.! 7. A set of ideas or beliefs relating to a particular field or activity; an underlying theory: an original philosophy of advertising.! 8. A system of values by which one lives: has an unusual philosophy of life.
  • 32. What about Christians and philosophy? Everyone has a philosophy! Andrew Wommack says that, “A philosophy is simply the basic set of beliefs, ideas and values that you live by”! So every piece of information, every situation you face, is filtered through your own philosophy - you see things and make decisions based upon your philosophy, it conditions your approach to all of life's events
  • 33. Wommack suggests even how you see the glass on the right is a philosophical statement. Is your philosophy positive (it is half full) or negative (it is half empty)?! How do you face challenging circumstances - are they problems or opportunities?! A “wrong” philosophy will lead you to draw all sorts of wrong conclusions, and make poor decisions, about many aspects of life
  • 34. And philosophy is mentioned in the Bible,! Don’t let anyone capture you with empty philosophies and high-sounding nonsense that come from human thinking and from the spiritual powers[a] of this world, rather than from Christ.! This comes after v.6 has told us And now, just as you accepted Christ Jesus as your Lord, you must continue to follow him.
  • 35. And philosophy is mentioned in the Bible,! Don’t let anyone capture you with empty philosophies and high-sounding nonsense that come from human thinking and from the spiritual powers[a] of this world, rather than from Christ.! This comes after v.6 has told us And now, just as you accepted Christ Jesus as your Lord, you must continue to follow him.
  • 36. And philosophy is mentioned in the Bible,! Don’t let anyone capture you with empty philosophies and high-sounding nonsense that come from human thinking and from the spiritual powers[a] of this world, rather than from Christ.! This comes after v.6 has told us And now, just as you accepted Christ Jesus as your Lord, you must continue to follow him.
  • 37. We live in an age when there is greater exposure to the philosophies of the world than ever before: tv, mobile phones, internet, print media, publishing, ease of access by flight - all provide greater and easier opportunity for exposure to different philosophies. This creates pressure within us - in keeping your spirit, heart and mind steadfast in following God.
  • 38. And this means different Christian philosophies too how much of what you think and believe is because a missionary told you to think it?
  • 39. And this means different Christian philosophies too how much of what you think and believe is because a missionary told you to think it?
  • 40. And this means different Christian philosophies too how much of what you think and believe is because a missionary told you to think it?
  • 41. How did the devil attack Adam and Eve?! Through words he corrupted their thoughts - he robbed them of all God intended by making them think in the wrong way. he still does the same to believers today!! Most people can recognise one rogue thought - but when the whole message is in small or large measure corrupted then some of it might start to make sense.
  • 42. The traditions of men - doctrines, opinions, habits, rituals - can lead us away from God.! these come from secular and religious (within the church) sources - what the govt. says, what advertising tells you, what is said most often on tv…! Jesus addressed the issue - Mk 7:10ff!
  • 43. 10 For Moses said, “Honour your father and mother,”[a] and, “Anyone The traditions of men - doctrines, is who curses their father or mother opinions, to death.”[b] 11 can lead us to be put habits, rituals - But you say away from God.! that if anyone declares that what these come from secular and religious might have been used to help their (within the church) Corban (that is,the father or mother is sources - what govt. says, what advertising tells you, devoted to God) – 12 then you no what is let them do anything for their longer said most often on tv…! father or mother. 13 Thus Mk 7:10ff! Jesus addressed the issue -you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that.’
  • 44. The traditions of men - doctrines, opinions, habits, rituals - can lead us away from God.! these come from secular and religious (within the church) sources - what the govt. says, what advertising tells you, what is said most often on tv…! Jesus addressed the issue - Mk 7:10ff!
  • 45. 77% of evangelical Millennials disagree with the statement “Having sex outside of marriage is morally acceptable for an unmarried person,” with 61% disagreeing strongly. ! 44 percent of unmarried evangelicals ages 18-29 have had sex, including 25 percent who have had sex in the last three months, according to a new report by the National Association of Evangelicals.
  • 46. 55% who were unmarried but have been sexually active in the past three months still believed that sex outside marriage is not morally acceptable! 19 % felt strongly that their behavior was morally acceptable.! 87% agreed strongly that the church they attend teaches that sex outside of marriage is wrong
  • 47. Are there things you do, or accept in church life without even thinking about them?! How do you practice the sabbath? Do you take a day off each week?! What about divorce? Are we following the worlds lead! What about leisure time. What is a Christian view of leisure?! what is your philosophy of work - is it a gift of God, an opportunity or…! What is the foundation for your philosophies of life?