Newtonian Economics introduced a new economic science called Integrated Business Planning™, or IBP. IBP is an empirical science that resolves problems in conventional economic science to provide analytical power comparable to Newtonian Physics, especially with respect to predictive modeling and explanatory analytics based on causal analysis. IBP is formally defined in terms of the Law of Universal Marginal Value and the Three Laws of IBP. The Law of Universal Marginal Value addresses problems in conventional economic analysis by defining Opportunity Value™ as the optimal, net economic impact of an action or decision. The Three Laws of IBP build on the concept of Opportunity Value to establish a formal basis for economic analysis and a principled design, engineering, and management framework for building and operating a new generation of high-value solutions.